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Mithridates II of Commagene

Mithridates II
Relief of Mithridates II and his sister Laodice at the Tumulus of Karakuş, Turkey
King of Commagene
Reign31 BC – 20 BC
(18 years)
PredecessorAntiochus I Theos
SuccessorMithridates III
Died20 BC
Rome, Roman Empire
IssueMithridates III of Commagene
Names
Mithridates II Antiochus Epiphanes Philorhomaeus Philhellen Monocrites
HouseOrontid dynasty
FatherKing Antiochus I Theos of Commagene
MotherIsias

Mithridates II Antiochus Epiphanes Philorhomaeus Philhellen Monocrites (Greek: Μιθριδάτης Ἀντίοχος ὀ Ἐπιφανής Φιλορωμαίος Φιλέλλην Μονοκρίτης, died 20 BC), also known as Mithridates II of Commagene, was a king of Commagene in the 1st century BC.

Of Iranian[1] and Greek descent, he was one of the sons of King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene. When his father died in c. 31 BC, he succeeded his father and reigned until his death.

Biography

According to Plutarch, Mithridates was an ally of the Roman triumvir Mark Antony. In 31 BC, Mithridates personally led his forces to Actium in Greece in support of Antony in the war against Caesar Octavian, the future Roman emperor Augustus.[2] After the defeat of Antony, however, Mithridates became a loyal ally to Augustus. Nevertheless, Augustus forced Mithridates to hand over a village in Commagene called Zeugma, which was a major crossing point of the Euphrates River, to the Roman province of Syria. To show his support for Augustus, Mithridates dropped the title Philhellen ("friend of the Greeks") from his Aulic titulature and adopted the title Philorhomaeus ("friend of the Romans") instead. Both titles were derived from the Commagenean royal cult that Mithridates' father had founded, and in which Mithridates played an important role. His other title Monocrites is an otherwise unattested title and was most likely a judicial function within the royal administration and a sign of his high social standing.

Mithridates had a brother, Antiochus II of Commagene, who was also a prince of the kingdom.[3] In 29 BC, Antiochus was summoned to Rome and executed by Roman emperor Augustus, because Antiochus had caused the assassination of an ambassador whom Mithridates had sent to Rome.[3]

References

  1. ^ Marciak 2017, p. 157; Garsoian 2005; Erskine, Llewellyn-Jones & Wallace 2017, p. 75; Babaie & Grigor 2015, p. 80; Sartre 2005, p. 23; Widengren 1986, pp. 135–136; Merz & Tieleman 2012, p. 68
  2. ^ Speidel, Michael Alexander (2005). "Early Roman Rule in Commagene" (PDF). citing Plutarch, Antony 61. Mavors-Institute for Ancient Military History. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  3. ^ a b Smith, William, ed. (1870). "Antiochus II". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. republished at AncientLibrary.com. p. 194. Retrieved 20 April 2015.

Sources

Preceded byAntiochus I King of Commagene 31–20 BC Succeeded byMithridates III
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Mithridates II of Commagene
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