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Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia
Duchess of Bisceglie
Princess of Salerno
Countess of Cotignola
Possible Lucrezia portrait painted from life (attributed to Dosso Dossi, c. 1519, National Gallery of Victoria[1])
Duchess consort of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio
Tenure25 January 1505 – 24 June 1519
Lady consort of Pesaro and Gradara
Tenure12 June 1493 – 20 December 1497
Born18 April 1480
Subiaco, Papal States
Died24 June 1519(1519-06-24) (aged 39)
Ferrara, Duchy of Ferrara
(m. 1493; ann. 1497)
(m. 1498; died 1500)
(m. 1501)
Rodrigo of Aragon
Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Ippolito d'Este
Eleonora d'Este
Francesco d'Este, Marquis of Massalombarda
FatherPope Alexander VI
MotherVannozza dei Cattanei

Lucrezia Borgia (Italian pronunciation: [luˈkrɛttsja ˈbɔrdʒa]; Valencian: Lucrècia Borja [luˈkrɛsia ˈbɔɾdʒa]; 18 April 1480 – 24 June 1519) was an Italian noblewoman of the House of Borgia who was the illegitimate daughter of Pope Alexander VI and Vannozza dei Cattanei. She reigned as the governor of Spoleto, a position usually held by cardinals, in her own right.

Her family arranged several marriages for her that advanced their own political position including Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro and Gradara, Count of Cotignola; Alfonso of Aragon, Duke of Bisceglie and Prince of Salerno; and Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. Alfonso of Aragon was an illegitimate son of the King of Naples and tradition has it that Lucrezia's brother Cesare Borgia may have had him murdered after his political value waned.

Rumors about her and her family cast Lucrezia as a femme fatale, a role in which she has been portrayed in many artworks, novels and films.

Early life

Lucrezia Borgia was born on 18 April 1480 at Subiaco, near Rome.[2] Her mother was Vannozza dei Cattanei, one of the mistresses of Lucrezia's father, Cardinal Rodrigo de Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI).[3]

During her early life, Lucrezia Borgia's education was entrusted to Adriana Orsini de Milan, a close confidant of her father. Her education would primarily take place in the Palazzo Pizzo de Merlo, a building adjacent to her father's residence. Unlike most educated women of her time, for whom convents were the primary source for knowledge, her education came from within the sphere of intellectuals in the court and close relatives, and it included a solid grounding in the Humanities, which the Catholic Church was reviving at the time. She was a thoroughly accomplished princess, fluent in Spanish, Catalan, Italian, and French, which prepared her for advantageous marriage to any European monarch or prince, and literate in both Latin and Greek. She would also become proficient in the lute, poetry, and oration. The biggest testament to her intelligence is her ability in administration, as later on in life she took care of Vatican City correspondence and governance of Ferrara.[citation needed]


First marriage: Giovanni Sforza (Lord of Pesaro and Gradara)

Possible portrait of Lucrezia as St Catherine of Alexandria in a fresco by Pinturicchio, in the Sala dei Santi in the Borgia Apartments in the Vatican, c. 1494.
Coin showing Giovanni Sforza

On 26 February 1491, a matrimonial arrangement was drawn up between Lucrezia and the Lord of Val D'Ayora, in the kingdom of Valencia, Don Cherubino Joan de Centelles. The arrangement was annulled less than two months later in favour of a new contract engaging Lucrezia to Don Gaspare Aversa, count of Procida.[4] When Rodrigo became Pope Alexander VI, he sought to be allied with powerful princely families and founding dynasties of Italy. He therefore called off Lucrezia's previous engagements and arranged for her to marry Giovanni Sforza, a member of the House of Sforza who was Lord of Pesaro and titled Count of Catignola.[5] Giovanni was an illegitimate son of Costanzo I Sforza and a Sforza of the second rank. He married Lucrezia on 12 June 1493 in Rome.[3]

Before long, the Borgia family no longer needed the Sforzas, and the presence of Giovanni Sforza in the papal court was superfluous. The Pope needed new, more advantageous political alliances, so he might have covertly ordered the execution of Giovanni: the generally accepted version is that Lucrezia was informed of this by her brother Cesare, and she warned her husband, who fled Rome.[6]

Alexander asked Giovanni's uncle, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, to persuade Giovanni to agree to an annulment of the marriage. Giovanni refused and accused Lucrezia of paternal incest.[7] The pope asserted that his daughter's marriage had not been consummated and was thus invalid. Giovanni was offered her dowry in return for his cooperation.[8] The Sforza family threatened to withdraw their protection should he refuse. Giovanni finally signed confessions of impotence and documents of annulment before witnesses.

Alleged affair with Perotto

There has been speculation that during the prolonged process of the annulment, Lucrezia consummated a relationship with someone, perhaps Alexander's chamberlain Pedro Calderon, also named Perotto.[9] In any case, families hostile to the Borgias would later accuse her of being pregnant at the time her marriage was annulled for non-consummation. She is known to have retired to the convent of San Sisto in June 1497 to await the outcome of the annulment proceedings, which were finalized in December of the same year. The bodies of Pedro Calderon[9] and a maid, Pantasilea, were found in the Tiber in February 1498. In March 1498, the Ferrarese ambassador claimed that Lucrezia had given birth, but this was denied by other sources. A child was born, however, in the Borgia household the year before Lucrezia's marriage to Alfonso of Aragon. He was named Giovanni but is known to historians as the "Infans Romanus".

In 1501, two papal bulls were issued concerning the child, Giovanni Borgia. In the first, he was recognized as Cesare's child from an affair before his marriage. The second, contradictory, bull recognized him as the son of Pope Alexander VI. Lucrezia's name is not mentioned in either, and rumours that she was his mother have never been proven. The second bull was kept secret for many years, and Giovanni was assumed to be Cesare's son. This is supported by the fact that in 1502 he became Duke of Camerino, one of Cesare's recent conquests, hence the natural inheritance of the Duke of Romagna's oldest son. Giovanni went to stay with Lucrezia in Ferrara after Alexander's death, where he was accepted as her half-brother.[10]

Second marriage: Alfonso d'Aragon (Duke of Bisceglie and Prince of Salerno)

Duke Alfonso of Aragon by Pinturicchio

Following her annulment from Sforza, Lucrezia was married to the Neapolitan Alfonso of Aragon, the half-brother of Sancha of Aragon who was the wife of Lucrezia's brother Gioffre Borgia. The marriage was a short one.[3]

They were married in 1498, making Lucrezia the Duchess consort of Bisceglie and Princess consort of Salerno. Lucrezia – not her husband – was appointed governor of Spoleto in 1499; Alfonso fled Rome shortly afterwards but returned at Lucrezia's request, only to be murdered in 1500.[11]

It was widely rumoured[12] that Lucrezia's brother Cesare was responsible for Alfonso's death, as he had recently allied himself (through marriage) with France against Naples. Lucrezia and Alfonso had one child, Rodrigo of Aragon, who was born in 1499 and predeceased his mother in August 1512 at the age of 12.[3]

Third marriage: Alfonso d'Este (Duke of Ferrara)

Alfonso d'Este
Possible portrait by Bartolomeo Veneziano (c. 1510)[13]

After the death of Lucrezia's second husband, her father, Pope Alexander VI, arranged a third marriage. She then married Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, in early 1502 in Ferrara. She had eight children during this marriage and was considered a respectable and accomplished Renaissance duchess, effectively rising above her previous reputation and surviving the fall of the Borgias following her father's death.[14]

Neither partner was faithful: beginning in 1503, Lucrezia enjoyed a long relationship with her brother-in-law, Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua.[15][16] Francesco's wife was the cultured intellectual Isabella d'Este, the sister of Alfonso, to whom Lucrezia had made overtures of friendship to no avail. The affair between Francesco and Lucrezia was passionate, more sexual than sentimental as can be attested in the fevered love letters the pair wrote one another.[17] It has been claimed that the affair ended when Francesco contracted syphilis and had to end sexual relations with Lucrezia.[18] This last assertion is troublesome as Francesco had contracted syphilis before 1500 as it was known that he passed the disease onto his eldest son Federico Gonzaga who was born in 1500. Francesco did not meet Lucrezia until 1502.[19]

Lucrezia also had a love affair with the poet Pietro Bembo during her third marriage. Their love letters were deemed "the prettiest love letters in the world" by the Romantic poet Lord Byron when he saw them in the Ambrosian Library of Milan on 15 October 1816.[20][21] On the same occasion Byron claimed to have stolen a lock of Lucrezia's hair – "the prettiest and fairest imaginable"[21] – that was also held there on display.[22][23][24]

Lucrezia met the famed French soldier, the Chevalier Bayard while the latter was co-commanding the French allied garrison of Ferrara in 1510. According to his biographer, the Chevalier became a great admirer of Lucrezia's, considering her a "pearl on this Earth".[25]

After a long history of complicated pregnancies and miscarriages, on 14 June 1519 Lucrezia gave birth to her tenth child, named Isabella Maria in honor of Alfonso's sister Isabella d'Este. The child was sickly and – fearing she would die unbaptised – Alfonso ordered her to be baptized straightaway with Eleonora Pico della Mirandola and Count Alexandro Serafino as godparents.

Lucrezia had become very weak during the pregnancy and fell seriously ill after the birth. After seeming to recover for two days, she worsened again and died on 24 June the same year. She was buried in the convent of Corpus Domini.[26]


Portrait of a Woman by Bartolomeo Veneto, traditionally presumed to be Lucrezia Borgia.
Signature of Lucrezia Borgia in a letter to her sister-in-law Isabella Gonzaga, March 1519
Tomb of Alfonso I d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia, Ferrara

She is described as having heavy blonde hair that fell past her knees, a beautiful complexion, hazel eyes that changed colour, a full, high bosom, and a natural grace that made her appear to "walk on air".[27] These physical attributes were highly appreciated in Italy during that period. Another description said, "her mouth is rather large, the teeth brilliantly white, her neck is slender and fair, and the bust is admirably proportioned."[28]

One painting, Portrait of a Youth by Dosso Dossi at the National Gallery of Victoria, was identified as a portrait of Lucrezia in November 2008.[29][30][31][32][33] This painting may be the only surviving formal portrait of Lucrezia Borgia; however, doubts have been cast on that attribution.[34] Several other paintings, such as Veneto's fanciful portrait, have also been said to depict her, but none have been accepted by scholars at present.

According to Mandell Creighton in his History of the Papacy, "Lucrezia… was personally popular through her beauty and her affability. Her long golden hair, her sweet childish face, her pleasant expression and her graceful ways, seem to have struck all who saw her."[35]

Black legend

Several rumours have persisted throughout the years, primarily speculating as to the nature of the extravagant parties thrown by the Borgia family. One example is the Banquet of Chestnuts. Many of these allegations concern accusations of Lucrezia's involvement in incest, poisoning, and murder. For example it was rumoured that Lucrezia was in possession of a hollow ring that she used to poison drinks. However, no historical basis for these accusations exists beyond the attacks of her enemies.[36][37]

An early 20th-century painting by Frank Cadogan Cowper that hangs in the Tate Britain art gallery in London portrays Lucrezia taking the place of her father, Pope Alexander VI, at an official Vatican meeting. This apparently documents an event, although the moment depicted (a Franciscan friar kissing Lucrezia's feet) was invented by the artist.[38]


Lucrezia was mother to seven or eight known children:

  1. A miscarriage / stillborn daughter (16 February 1499);[39]
  2. Rodrigo of Aragon (1 November 1499 – August 1512), son by Alfonso of Aragon;[40]
  3. A stillborn daughter (1502), first child by d'Este;
  4. Alessandro d'Este (1505–1505);
  5. Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara (5 April 1508 – 3 October 1559);
  6. Ippolito II d'Este (25 August 1509 – 1 December 1572). Archbishop of Milan and later Cardinal;
  7. Alessandro d'Este (1514–1516);
  8. Leonora d'Este (3 July 1515 – 15 July 1575), a nun and composer;
  9. Francesco d'Este, Marquess of Massalombarda (1 November 1516 – 2 February 1578);
  10. Isabella Maria d'Este (born and died on 14 June 1519).[41] Complications at birth caused the death of Lucrezia ten days later.

Giovanni Borgia, "infans Romanus" ("Child of Rome", c. 1498–1548) had his paternity acknowledged by Alexander and Cesare in two Papal bulls, but it was rumoured that he was the child of Lucrezia and Perotto. The child (identified in later life as Lucrezia's half-brother) was most likely the result of a liaison between Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI, Lucrezia's father) and an unknown mistress and was not Lucrezia's child.[42]

Maria Bellonci and maybe other biographers claim that Lucrezia gave birth to three children who did not survive infancy, one by Alfonso of Aragon and two by Alfonso d'Este. She is also thought to have had at least four miscarriages.[43]

In popular culture

Literature and opera

  • F. M. Klinger's 1791 novel Fausts Leben, Thaten und Höllenfahrt features an episode in which the Borgias figure, including an affair between Faust and Lucrezia.
  • French author Victor Hugo wrote in 1833 the stage play Lucrèce Borgia.
  • Victor Hugo's play was transformed into a libretto by Felice Romani for Donizetti's opera, Lucrezia Borgia (1834), first performed at La Scala, Milan, 26 December 1833.[44]
  • The Dutch writer Louis Couperus published a story called "Lucrezia" in 1920 that takes place between the death of her second husband and the marriage of her third.[45]
  • The 1947 historical novel Prince of Foxes by Samuel Shellabarger describes the adventures of the fictional Andrea Orsini, a captain in the service of Cesare Borgia, during his conquest of the Romagna; it was made into a film of the same name in 1949, starring Orson Welles and Tyrone Power.[46]
  • Jean Plaidy's two 1958 novels Madonna of the Seven Hills and Light on Lucrezia follow the story of Lucrezia and her entanglement with her father and brothers.[47]
  • Lucrezia, Cesare and Alexander play key roles in Cecelia Holland's 1979 historical novel City of God: A Novel of the Borgias.[48]
  • In Roberta Gellis's 2003 novel Lucrezia Borgia and the Mother of Poisons (ISBN 9780765306616), Alfonso d'Este of Ferrara accuses Lucrezia of murder, and she must solve the crime and expose the true murderer.

In fiction

  • In the Marvel Comics comic book Avengers West Coast No. 98 (September 1993), the demon Satannish resurrected Borgia as the supervillain Cyana. As a nod to her reputation for poisoning her lovers in life, Cyana could fatally poison people with sharpened nails or a kiss.[49]
  • The Family by Mario Puzo; published October 2001 ISBN 0-06-103242-5
  • The Borgia Bride by Jeanne Kalogridis; published 31 January 2005
  • Kathleen McGowan refers to Lucrece, as one of the many unjustly vilified women, in her book The Expected One. She refers in particular to Frank Cadogan Cowper's painting "Lucretia Borgia Reigns in the Vatican in the Absence of Pope Alexander VI" on display at the Tate Gallery in London.[50]
  • Blood and Beauty by Sarah Dunant; ISBN 1-443-40644-9; ISBN 978-1-44340-644-4; Harper Collins Publishers Ltd | 8 July 2013 |
  • The Pope's Daughter by Dario Fo, translated from Italian by Antony Shugaar; ISBN 978-1-60945-274-2. Translation copyright (c) 2015 by Europa Editions
  • The Vatican Princess by C.W. Gortner; published 9 February 2016
  • In the Name of the Family by Sarah Dunant; ISBN 978-1-84408-746-4; Virago Press 2017
  • 남편을 내 편으로 만드는 방법 (How to get my husband on my side) by Spice&Kitty (novel and manhwa), 2021 (ongoing), she is portrayed as a character named Rudbeckia(Ruby) De Borgia, who is possessed by a transmigrator, and attempts to prevent the assassination attempt on the king's niece, Ellen De Omerta and her brother, Enzo De Borgia, by marrying into the De Omerta family in her brother's stead, to Iske/ Izek De Omerta. She is also portrayed to have an overly obsessive brother named Cesare.
  • In the fictional fantasy universe Warhammer Fantasy, the character Lucrezzia Belladonna is a reference to Lucrezi Borgia. Lucrezzia is known for having poisoned several of her former lovers.

Film and television


English rock band The Sisters of Mercy reference Lucrezia as “Lucretia” in their 1988 single Lucretia My Reflection, released as the third and final single from their second studio album, Floodland.

See also


  1. ^ "NGV Solves Mystery of Renaissance Portrait" (26 November 2008), NGV. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  2. ^ Sarah Bradford: Lucrezia Borgia, Penguin Group, 2004, p. 16
  3. ^ a b c d "Lucrezia Borgia, Predator or Pawn?". 17 January 2017. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  4. ^ Bellonci, Maria (2000). Lucrezia Borgia. London: Phoenix Press. p. 18. ISBN 1-84212-616-4.
  5. ^ Bellonci, Maria (2000). Lucrezia Borgia. London: Phoenix Press. p. 23. ISBN 1-84212-616-4.
  6. ^ Bellonci, Maria (2003). Lucrezia Borgia. Milan: Mondadori. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-88-04-45101-3.
  7. ^ Bellonci, Maria (2003). Lucrezia Borgia. Milan: Mondadori. pp. 139–141. ISBN 978-88-04-45101-3.
  8. ^ {Some sources state that Giovanni returned the dowry. See, Durant, Will. "The Renaissance" Simon and Schuster (1953), page 429, ISBN 0-671-61600-5. See also Bradford, Sarah, "Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy" Penguin Books (2005), Part 1, Ch. 3}
  9. ^ a b Thurmel, Joseph (1923). Le Journal de Jean Burchard, Évêque et Cérémoniaire au Vatican. Paris: Les Éditions Reider. p. 328.
  10. ^ Lucas, Emma (2014). Lucrezia Borgia. New World City.
  11. ^ James A. Patrick, Renaissance and Reformation, Volume 1, Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 124
  12. ^ Bradford, Sarah (2005). Lucrezia Borgia. La storia vera. Milan: Mondadori. pp. 85–88. ISBN 88-04-55627-7.
  13. ^ Bellonci, Maria (2003). Lucrezia Borgia. Milan: Mondadori. p. 613. ISBN 978-88-04-45101-3.
  14. ^ Roberto Gervaso, I Borgia, Milano, Rizzoli, 1977, p. 362, pp. 375–380.
  15. ^ Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy, Sarah Bradford, Viking, 2004
  16. ^ David Jays (24 October 2004). "Observer review: Lucrezia Borgia by Sarah Bradford". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  17. ^ Marek, pp.166–67
  18. ^ Marek (1976) p. 169
  19. ^ P., Cockram, Sarah D. (2013). Isabella d'Este and Francesco Gonzaga : power sharing at the Italian Renaissance Court. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781409448310. OCLC 855504802.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Viragos on the march, The Spectator, 25 June 2005, by Ian Thomson, a review of Viragos on the march by Gaia Servadio. I. B. Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-421-2.
  21. ^ a b Pietro Bembo: A Renaissance Courtier Who Had His Cake and Ate It Too, Ed Quattrocchi, Caxtonian: Journal of the Caxton Club of Chicago, Volume XIII, No. 10, October 2005.
  22. ^ The Byron Chronology: 1816–1819 – Separation and Exile on the Continent.
  23. ^ Byron by John Nichol.
  24. ^ Letter to Augusta Leigh, Milan, 15 October 1816. Lord Byron's Letters and Journals, Chapter 5: Separation and Exile Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Shellabarger, Samuel (1971). The Chevalier Bayard. eNet Press. p. 165.
  26. ^ "Ferrara 2002 Anno di Lucrezia Borgia". Comune di Ferrara. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009.
  27. ^ George R. Marek The Bed and the Throne: the Life of Isabella d'Este, Harper & Row, 1976, ISBN 978-0-06-012810-4 p. 142
  28. ^ The Times Arts section p. 14, 31 January 2011
  29. ^ NGV's Renaissance mystery woman revealed, The Age, 25 November 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  30. ^ "Only known painting of Lucrezia Borgia discovered in Australian gallery". The Times. 25 November 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  31. ^ Infamous Renaissance woman subject of mystery portrait – Australian Broadcasting Corporation 26 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  32. ^ Gallery unveils portrait of infamy, The Sydney Morning Herald, 26 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  33. ^ Portrait of Renaissance femme fatale Lucrezia Borgia found at NGV, The Age, 26 November 2008. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
  34. ^ Art detective says the brother did it, The Age, 27 November 2008
  35. ^ Creighton, Mandell (1882–1894). A history of the papacy during the period of the reformation. London: Longmans, Green. p. 20.
  36. ^ "Lucretia Borgia". The Guardian. 5 February 2002.
  37. ^ Ltd, Not Panicking (28 July 2005). "h2g2 – A Brief History of Poisoning – Edited Entry".
  38. ^ "Lucretia Borgia Reigns in the Vatican in the Absence of Pope Alexander VI by Frank Cadogan Cowper". Tate Britain. Retrieved 10 July 2023.
  39. ^ Johannes Burchard Pope Alexander VI and his court; extracts from the Latin diary of Johannes Burchardus, New York, F. L. Brown, 1921 p. 105
  40. ^ Johannes Burchard Pope Alexander VI and his court; extracts from the Latin diary of Johannes Burchardus, New York, F. L. Brown, 1921 p. 110
  41. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand (14 August 2012). Lucrezia Borgia. dearbooks. in Europäischer Literaturverlag GmbH. p. 292. ISBN 9783954554195.
  42. ^ Sarah Bradford: Lucrezia Borgia, Penguin Group, 2004, p. 68 and 114
  43. ^ Bradford, Sarah (2005). Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy. Penguin Books.
  44. ^ Ashbrook, William and Sarah Hibberd (2001), in Holden, Amanda (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam, p. 234. ISBN 0-14-029312-4.
  45. ^ Stapert-Eggen, Marijke (1992). Repertorium Louis Couperus (in Dutch). Amsterdam: Overzicht. p. 133.
  46. ^ Prince of Foxes at the TCM Movie Database
  47. ^ "A Novel of the Borgias". Penguin Random House. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  48. ^ Maclaine, David. "City of God by Cecelia Holland". Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  49. ^ "Cyana (Lucrezia Borgia, Lethal Legion)".
  50. ^ McGowan, Kathleen, The Expected One(2007), p. 190, (ISBN 9780765306616)
  51. ^ Don Juan at the AFI Catalog of Feature Films
  52. ^ Keser, Robert (2 July 2001). "Behind the Brocade: Abel Gance's Lucrezia Borgia". Bright Lights Film Journal. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  53. ^ Lucrèce Borgia at the TCM Movie Database
  54. ^ Crowther, Bosley (7 April 1949). "THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; Paulette Goddard, Macdonald Carey Play Borgias in 'Bride of Vengeance,' at Paramount". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  55. ^ Denton, C. S. (29 July 2016). Ruthless Rulers: The Real Lives of Europe's Most Infamous Tyrants. Arcturus Publishing. p. 473. ISBN 9781784285241.
  56. ^ Immoral Tales at AllMovie
  57. ^ "Lucrezia giovane". IMDb. 23 August 1974.
  58. ^ Musel, Robert (7 October 1981). "'The Borgias' – new BBC TV series a study in harsh reality". United Press International. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  59. ^ Thrower, Stephen (1999). Beyond terror: the films of Lucio Fulci. FAB Press. p. 291. ISBN 9780952926054.
  60. ^ "John Leonard's TV notes". New York. 14 November 1994.
  61. ^ "Pilot". IMDb. 7 July 2009.
  62. ^ "Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia ewwww (minor spoilers)". GameSpot. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  63. ^ Wagner, Curt (28 April 2013). "Francois Arnaud talks sibling love in 'The Borgias'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  64. ^ "An Interview With Isolda Dychauk". The Borgia Bull. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  65. ^ Edmund_Blackadder (28 March 2016). "Blackadder Series 4 Episode 1 - Captain Cook Full Script". Blackadder Quotes. Retrieved 25 September 2023.

Further reading

Lucrezia Borgia House of BorgiaBorn: 18 April 1480 Died: 24 June 1519 Royal titles VacantTitle last held byMaddalena Gonzaga Lady consort of Pesaro and Gradara 12 June 1492 – 20 December 1497 VacantTitle next held byGinevra Tiepolo VacantTitle last held byEleanor of Naples Duchess consort of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio 25 January 1505 – 24 June 1519 VacantTitle next held byRenée of France
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