For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for List of spaceflight records.

List of spaceflight records

The first space rendezvous was accomplished by Gemini 6A and Gemini 7 in 1965.

Records and firsts in spaceflight are broadly divided into crewed and uncrewed categories. Records involving animal spaceflight have also been noted in earlier experimental flights, typically to establish the feasibility of sending humans to outer space.

The notion of "firsts" in spaceflight follows a long tradition of firsts in aviation, but is also closely tied to the Space Race. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet Union and the United States competed to be the first countries to accomplish various feats. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial orbital satellite. In 1961, Soviet Vostok 1 cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to enter space and orbit the Earth, and in 1969 American Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first person to set foot on the Moon. No human has traveled beyond low Earth orbit since 1972, when the Apollo program ended.

During the 1970s, the Soviet Union directed its energies to human habitation of space stations of increasingly long durations. In the 1980s, the United States began launching its Space Shuttles, which carried larger crews and thus could increase the number of people in space at a given time. Following their first mission of détente on the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, the Soviet Union and the United States again collaborated with each other on the Shuttle-Mir initiative, efforts which led to the International Space Station (ISS), which has been continuously inhabited by humans for over 20 years.

Other firsts in spaceflight involve demographics, private enterprise, and distance. Dozens of countries have sent at least one traveler to space. In 1963, Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space, aboard Vostok 6. In the early 21st century, private companies joined government agencies in crewed spaceflight: in 2004, the sub-orbital spaceplane SpaceShipOne became the first privately funded crewed craft to enter space; in 2020, SpaceX's Dragon 2 became the first privately developed crewed vehicle to reach orbit when it ferried a crew to the ISS. As of 2024, the uncrewed probe Voyager 1 is the most distant artificial object from the Earth, part of a small class of vehicles that are leaving the Solar System.

First independent suborbital and orbital human spaceflight by country

Country Mission Crew Spacecraft Launch vehicle Date Type
Soviet Union USSR[1] Vostok 1[1] Yuri Gagarin[1] Vostok 3KA[1] Vostok-K[1] 12 April 1961[1] Orbital[1]
United States USA[2] Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)[2] Alan Shepard[2] Mercury Spacecraft No.7[2] Mercury-Redstone[2] 5 May 1961[2] Sub-orbital[2]
United States USA[3] Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)[3] John Glenn[3] Mercury Spacecraft No.13[3] Atlas LV-3B 20 February 1962[3] Orbital[3]
Soviet Union USSR Soyuz 18A Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 7K-T Soyuz 11A511 5 April 1975 Sub-orbital
Russia Russia Soyuz TM-14 Aleksandr Viktorenko, Aleksandr Kaleri, Klaus-Dietrich Flade Soyuz-TM Soyuz-U2 17 March 1992 Orbital
China China[4] Shenzhou 5[4] Yang Liwei[4] Shenzhou spacecraft[4] Long March 2F[4] 15 October 2003[4] Orbital[4]
Russia Russia Soyuz MS-10 Aleksey Ovchinin, Nick Hague Soyuz-MS Soyuz-FG 11 October 2018 Sub-orbital

Human spaceflight firsts

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Note: Some space records are disputed as a result of ambiguities surrounding the border of space. Most records follow the FAI definition of the space border which the FAI sets at an altitude of 100 km (62.14 mi). By contrast, the NASA-, USAF- and FAA-defined border of space is at 50 mi (80.47 km).

First Person(s) Mission Country Date
  • Person to reach space
  • Person in orbit
Yuri Gagarin Vostok 1[5] Soviet Union USSR 12 April 1961
  • Person to make suborbital flight
  • Person to land in water (splashdown)
  • Person to manually pilot spacecraft.[6]
  • Person to land in a spacecraft after spaceflight (thus the first "completed" human spaceflight by then FAI definitions)[7][8]
Alan Shepard Freedom 7 United States USA 5 May 1961
  • Person in space for over 24 hours[9]
  • Multiple orbits during a spaceflight
Gherman Titov Vostok 2 Soviet Union USSR 6 August 1961 –
7 August 1961
  • Group flight[10]
  • Adjacent orbits
  • Spacecraft-to-spacecraft communications
Soviet Union USSR 12 August 1962 –
15 August 1962
  • Woman in space
  • Civilian in space and in orbit (at the time of selection)
Valentina Tereshkova Vostok 6[11] Soviet Union USSR 16 June 1963 –
19 June 1963
  • Spaceflight (suborbital) by winged spacecraft
  • Civilian in space (at the time of flight)
Joe Walker X-15 Flight 90 United States USA 19 July 1963
Person to enter space twice (suborbital flights above 100 kilometres (62 mi)) Joe Walker X-15 Flights 90 and 91 United States USA 22 August 1963
  • Three-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
  • Human spaceflight without pressurized spacesuits
Voskhod 1[5] Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1964 –
13 October 1964
Spacewalk Alexei Leonov Voskhod 2[5] Soviet Union USSR 18 March 1965
Orbital maneuvers (change orbit) Gus Grissom, John W. Young Gemini 3[5] United States USA 23 March 1965
Person to fly two orbital spaceflights Gordon Cooper United States USA
  • 15 May 1963 –
    16 May 1963
  • 21 August 1965 –
    29 August 1965
Persons to spend one week in space Gemini 5 United States USA 21 August 1965 –
29 August 1965
  • Space rendezvous (orbital maneuver and station-keeping)
  • Four people in space at the same time
United States USA 15 December 1965 –
16 December 1965
Civilian in orbit (at the time of flight) Neil Armstrong Gemini 8 United States USA 16 March 1966 –
17 March 1966
Space docking
Gemini 8 and Agena[5] United States USA 16 March 1966
Multiple (dual) rendezvous (with Agena 10, then Agena 8)[12] Gemini 10 United States USA
  • 19 July 1966
  • 20 July 1966
Persons to exceed 1,000 km above Earth Gemini 11 United States USA 12 September 1966 –

15 September 1966

Spaceflight death (during landing) Vladimir Komarov Soyuz 1 Soviet Union USSR 23 April 1967 –
24 April 1967
  • Person to complete three spaceflights
  • Person to fly three different types of spacecraft
Walter Schirra United States USA 22 October 1968
  • Persons to leave low Earth orbit (LEO)
  • Persons to enter the gravitational influence of another celestial body
  • Persons to enter lunar orbit
Apollo 8 United States USA 24 December 1968 –
25 December 1968
  • Space docking of two crewed spacecraft
  • Dual spacewalk
  • Сrew transfer (Khrunov, Yeliseyev)[13]
Soviet Union USSR 16 January 1969
Solo flight around the Moon John Young Apollo 10 United States USA 22 May 1969
  • Moon landing
  • Planetary surface extra-vehicular activity (EVA)
Apollo 11 United States USA 20 July 1969
Five people in space at the same time Soviet Union USSR 12 October 1969 –
13 October 1969
  • Triple spaceflight
  • Seven people in space at the same time
Soviet Union USSR 13 October 1969 –
16 October 1969
Person to complete four spaceflights James A. Lovell United States USA 17 April 1970
  • Person to fly two lunar flights
  • Person to complete two flights beyond low Earth orbit
James A. Lovell United States USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
United States USA 11 April 1970 –
17 April 1970
  • People to spend two weeks in space
  • Night launch
Soyuz 9 Soviet Union USSR 1 June 1970 –
19 June 1970
People to EVA out of sight of their spacecraft Apollo 14 United States USA 6 February 1971
  • Docking with space station (soft dock)
  • Night landing
Soviet Union USSR 22 April 1971 –
24 April 1971
  • Crewed space station
  • In-space fatalities

Soviet Union USSR 7 June 1971 –
29 June 1971
People to travel in a wheeled vehicle on a planetary body other than Earth
Scott on the Rover – GPN-2000-001306
Apollo 15 United States USA 31 July 1971–
2 August 1971
Deep space EVA (trans-Earth trajectory) Al Worden Apollo 15 United States USA 5 August 1971
Person to be in lunar orbit twice (during separate lunar expeditions) John W. Young United States USA 16 April 1972 –
27 April 1972
People in orbit for four weeks Skylab 2 United States USA 25 May 1973 –
22 June 1973
People in orbit for eight weeks Skylab 3 United States USA 28 July 1973 –
25 September 1973
People in orbit for 12 weeks Skylab 4 United States USA 16 November 1973 –
8 February 1974
  • Spaceflight aborted during liftoff (at 145 kilometers (90 mi) altitude)
  • Re-entry with 20g acceleration (emergency)
Vasily Lazarev, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 18a Soviet Union USSR 5 April 1975
International docking Thomas P. Stafford, Vance D. Brand, Donald K. SlaytonUSA

Alexei Leonov, Valeri KubasovUSSR

Apollo CSM, Soyuz 19 United StatesUSA

Soviet UnionUSSR

17 July 1975
Crew to visit occupied space station Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Oleg Makarov Soyuz 27 visits Salyut 6 EO-1 crew Soviet Union USSR 10 January 1978 –
16 January 1978
People in orbit 19 weeks
(4 months)
Vladimir Kovalyonok, Aleksandr Ivanchenkov Salyut 6 EO-2, Soyuz 29-Soyuz 31 Soviet Union USSR 15 June 1978 –
2 November 1978
People in orbit 26 weeks
(6 months)
Leonid Popov, Valery Ryumin Salyut 6 EO-4, Soyuz 35-Soyuz 37 Soviet Union USSR 9 April 1980 –
11 October 1980
  • Spaceflight (orbital) by winged spacecraft
  • First, and only, crew launched on a rocket's maiden flight
STS-1 United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to fly four different types of spacecraft John W. Young
  • Gemini
  • Apollo
  • Lunar Module
  • Space Shuttle
United States USA 12 April 1981
Person to complete five spaceflights John W. Young United States USA 14 April 1981
Re-use of previously flown spacecraft (orbital) STS-2 United States USA 12 November 1981
Four-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-5 United States USA 11 November 1982 –
16 November 1982
Five-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-7 United States USA 18 June 1983 –
24 June 1983
Six-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft STS-9
  • United States USA
  • Germany West Germany
28 November 1983 –
8 December 1983
Person to complete six spaceflights John W. Young United States USA 8 December 1983
Untethered spacewalk
Bruce McCandless II STS-41-B[14] United States USA 7 February 1984
Eight people in space at the same time (no docking) Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10, STS-41-B
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
8 February 1984 –
11 February 1984
11 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-41-C, Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
  • India India
6 April 1984 –
11 April 1984
People to complete four spacewalks during the same mission Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 26 April –
18 May 1984
Spacewalk by a woman Svetlana Savitskaya Soyuz T-12 Soviet Union USSR 25 July 1984
Welding in space Vladimir Dzhanibekov, Svetlana Savitskaya Salyut 7, Soyuz T-12 Soviet Union USSR 25 July 1984
People in orbit 33 weeks (7 months) Leonid Kizim, Vladimir Solovyov, Oleg Atkov Salyut 7 EO-3, Soyuz T-10-Soyuz T-11 Soviet Union USSR 8 February 1984 –
2 October 1984
Seven-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS-41-G
  • United States USA
  • Canada Canada
5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Two women in space at the same time Kathryn D. Sullivan, Sally K. Ride STS-41-G United States USA 5 October 1984 –
13 October 1984
Partial crew exchange at a space station Alexander Volkov, Vladimir Vasyutin replace Vladimir Dzhanibekov Soyuz T-14, Salyut 7 Soviet Union USSR 17 September 1985 –
26 September 1985
Eight-person spaceflight in a single spacecraft
STS-61-A
  • United States USA
  • West Germany West Germany
  • Netherlands Netherlands
30 October 1985 –
6 November 1985
Deaths during launch STS-51-L United States USA 28 January 1986
  • Space station-to-space station flight
  • Space station-to-space station return flight
  • Expedition on two space stations
Soyuz T-15 from Mir to Salyut 7 back to Mir[15] Soviet Union USSR 15 March 1986 –
16 July 1986
Complete crew exchange at a space station Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov replace Yuri Romanenko, Alexander Alexandrov Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-2, Soyuz TM-3, at Mir Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
29 December 1987
People in orbit 52 weeks (one year) Vladimir Titov, Musa Manarov Mir EO-3, Soyuz TM-4-Soyuz TM-6 Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1987 –
21 December 1988
12 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-35, Mir EO-7, Soyuz TM-10Soyuz TM-11
  • Soviet Union USSR
  • United States USA
  • Japan Japan
2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Civilian to use a commercial space flight, and journalist to report on space from outer space Toyohiro AkiyamaJapan Soyuz TM-10, Soyuz TM-11 Japan Japan 2 December 1990 –
10 December 1990
Three women in space at the same time Millie Hughes-Fulford, Tamara E. Jernigan, M. Rhea Seddon STS-40 United States USA 5 June 1991 –
14 June 1991
Three-person spacewalk
STS-49 United States USA 13 May 1992
13 people in space at the same time (no docking) STS-67, Mir, Soyuz TM-20, Soyuz TM-21
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
14 March 1995 –
18 March 1995
Ten people in a single spacecraft (docking)
STS-71, Mir, Soyuz TM-21
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
29 June 1995 –
4 July 1995
Space tourist Dennis Tito Soyuz TM-32/31, ISS EP-1
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
April 28, 2001 –
May 6, 2001
Person to complete seven trips to space Jerry L. Ross United States USA 19 April 2002
Privately funded human space flight (suborbital)
Mike Melvill SpaceShipOne flight 15P United States USA 21 June 2004
13 people in a single spacecraft (docking)[16]
ISS, Soyuz TMA-14, Soyuz TMA-15, STS-127
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
  • Canada Canada
  • Belgium Belgium
  • Japan Japan
17 July 2009
Four women in space at the same time (docking)
  • United States USA
  • Japan Japan
5 April 2010 –
20 April 2010
Six spacecraft docked to a space station
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
9 July 2018
  • All-woman spacewalk
  • Spacewalk by two women

  • United States USA
18 October 2019
  • Astronauts launched into orbit on commercial spacecraft
  • Astronauts flying to a space station on commercial spacecraft
[17][18]
  • United States USA
30 May 2020 –
31 May 2020
16 people in space (50 miles) at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • China China
  • Russia Russia
  • France France
  • India India
  • Japan Japan
  • United Kingdom UK
11 July 2021
14 people in space (100 km) at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • China China
  • Russia Russia
  • France France
  • Japan Japan
  • Netherlands Netherlands
20 July 2021
  • Orbital spaceflight with an all private crew
  • Fully commercial orbital spaceflight

Inspiration4 United States USA 16 September 2021 –
18 September 2021

Inspiration4 United States USA 16 September 2021 –
18 September 2021

Inspiration4 United States USA 16 September 2021 –
18 September 2021
14 people in orbit at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • China China
  • Russia Russia
  • France France
  • Japan Japan
16 September 2021 –
17 September 2021
19 people in space (100 km) at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • China China
  • Russia Russia
  • Germany Germany
  • Japan Japan
11 December 2021
  • Flight to a space station with an all private crew
  • Fully commercial flight to a space station

Axiom Mission 1 To ISS
  • United States USA
  • Spain Spain
  • Canada Canada
  • Israel Israel
8 April 2022 –
18 April 2022
  • Simultaneous continuous inhabitation of two crewed space stations

5 June 2022 –
5 women in space at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
  • Italy Italy
  • China China
5 October 2022 -
14 October 2022
20 people in space (50 miles) at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
  • China China
  • Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
  • United Arab Emirates UAE
25 May 2023
17 people in orbit at the same time (no docking)
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
  • China China
  • Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
  • United Arab Emirates UAE
30 May 2023 -
31 May 2023
Seven spacecraft docked to a space station[19]
  • United States USA
  • Russia Russia
25 March 2024
  1. ^ crew replenished by direct or indirect handovers
  2. ^ crew replenished by direct handovers

Most spaceflights

Most launches from Earth

Note: The six SpaceShipTwo flights surpass the U.S. definition of spaceflight (50 mi (80.47 km)), but fall short of the Kármán line (100 km (62.14 mi)), the definition used for FAI space recordkeeping.

Most orbital launches from Earth

Most orbital launches overall

  • 7 launches
    • John W. Young (USA[20]) launched from Earth 6 times (two Gemini, two Apollo Command Module, two Space Shuttle) and from the Moon once (Apollo Lunar Module Ascent Stage) (1965–1983)
    • Jerry L. Ross (USA[16]), Space Shuttle (1985–2002)
    • Franklin Chang Díaz (Costa Rica/USA*[16]), Space Shuttle (1986–2002)

Largest number of different spacecraft at launch (from Earth only)

  • 3 spacecraft
    • Walter Schirra (USA) – launched aboard a Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo (1962–1968)
    • John W. Young (USA) – launched aboard a Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle (1965–1983)
    • Soichi Noguchi (Japan) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2005–2020)
    • Shane Kimbrough (USA) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2008–2021)
    • Akihiko Hoshide (Japan) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2008–2021)
    • Thomas Marshburn (USA) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2007–2021)
    • Koichi Wakata (Japan) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (1996–2022)
    • Peggy Whitson (USA) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2002–2023)
    • Michael López-Alegría (USA) – launched aboard a Space Shuttle, Soyuz, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (1995–2024)
    • Michael Barratt (USA) – launched aboard a Soyuz, Space Shuttle, and SpaceX Crew Dragon (2009–2024)

Largest number of different launch vehicles (overall)

  • 4 launch vehicles
    • John W. Young (USA) – launched from Earth aboard a Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle, and launched from the Moon aboard the Apollo Lunar Module Ascent Stage

Largest number of different launch sites

Note: SpaceShipTwo flights are suborbital. SpaceShipTwo flights surpass the U.S. definition of spaceflight (50 mi (80.47 km)), but fall short of the Kármán line (100 km (62.14 mi)), the FAI definition used for most space recordkeeping.

Duration records

Total human spaceflight time by country

Total Human Spaceflight statistics by nation [21] [22]
Nation Total persons Total person flights Total in orbit (@ update)* Total person days*+ % of Total person days
TOTAL 615 1363 10 68521.34 -
1
 Russia
 Soviet Union
136 295 3 32271.01
0.470962941509491
 United States 364 892 4 25952.82
0.378755357505231
 ESA 42 71 - 3958.99
0.0577774825556818
 China 20 32 3 3064.11
0.0447175514474844
 Japan 14 26 - 2101.91
0.0306753299834427
 Italy 8 15 - 1158.81
0.0169117134495438
 Germany 12 17 - 1032.82
0.0150730322911568
 France 10 19 - 828.66
0.0120935162820545
 Canada 11 19 - 726.86
0.010607726019773
 Netherlands 2 3 - 210.69
0.00307481276660023
 Denmark 1 2 - 208.94
0.0030492631414112
 Belgium 2 3 - 207.65
0.00303051391229589
 United Arab Emirates 2 2 - 193.82
0.00282863032095699
 United Kingdom 2 2 - 193.81
0.00282843776130661
 Sweden 2 3 - 48.39
0.000706156776793227
 Switzerland 1 4 - 42.50
0.000620275172726665
 Israel 2 2 - 33.01
0.000481693032768421
 Saudi Arabia 3 3 - 25.52
0.000372450902696027
 Turkey 1 1 - 21.65
0.000316000520981282
 Spain 1 2 - 18.78
0.000274103594947395
 Ukraine 1 1 - 15.69
0.000228983828449362
 Belarus 1 1 - 13.78
0.000201082948582092
 Bulgaria 2 2 - 11.80
0.000172188866307633
 South Korea 1 1 - 10.88
0.00015884144212122
 Malaysia 1 1 - 10.88
0.00015884144212122
 South Africa 1 1 - 9.89
0.000144369064187889
 Brazil 1 1 - 9.89
0.000144287986440363
 Kazakhstan 1 1 - 9.84
0.000143649499178598
 Afghanistan 1 1 - 8.85
0.000129177121245267
 Syria 1 1 - 7.96
0.000116184412204279
 Czechoslovakia 1 1 - 7.93
0.000115697945719125
 Austria 1 1 - 7.93
0.000115657406845362
 Poland 1 1 - 7.92
0.000115556059660955
 Slovakia 1 1 - 7.91
0.000115495251350311
 India 1 1 - 7.90
0.00011533309585526
 Hungary 1 1 - 7.86
0.000114775686341021
 Cuba 1 1 - 7.86
0.000114755416904139
 Vietnam 1 1 - 7.86
0.000114745282185698
 Mongolia 1 1 - 7.86
0.000114745282185698
 Romania 1 1 - 7.86
0.000114735147467258
 Mexico 1 1 - 6.88
0.000100374251436774
Astronauts currently in space:
United States Michael Reed Barratt
China Xinlin Jiang
China Hongbo Tang
United States Jeanette Jo Epps
Russia Oleg Dmitriyevich Kononenko
China Shengjie Tang
United States Tracy Caldwell Dyson
United States Matthew Stuart Dominick
Russia Aleksandr Sergeyevich Grebyonkin
Russia Nikolai Aleksandrovich Chub
Crew Vehicles currently in space:
Shenzhou-17
Soyuz MS-25
SpaceX Crew-8
Table data accurate as of 2024-04-12 04:05 UTC
* includes those in orbit at time table was updated
+TOTAL person days in orbit will not match the sum of the totals for individual nations as some individuals are dual citizens (based solely on those identified as such by spacefacts.de - see table references).

Most time in space

The record for most time in space is held by Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko, who has spent 946.432 days in space over five missions and is currently in space onboard Soyuz MS-24/25's one year long-duration mission on ISS. If this mission lasts 300–365 days, Kononenko will have spent a total of 1,036-1,101 days in space. Oleg Kononenko broke the record of Gennady Padalka on February 4, 2024 at 07:30:08 UTC.[23] He will later also become the first person to stay 900 and 1,000 days in space.[24][25] Gennady Padalka is currently second, having spent 878 days in space. He himself had broken the all-time duration record on 28 June 2015 when he surpassed the previous record holder, cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who spent 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes (about 2.2 years) during six spaceflights on Soyuz, the Space Shuttle, Mir, and the International Space Station.[26][27][28]

As of 12 April 2024,[29] the 50 space travelers with the most total time in space are:

Color key:

  •   Currently in space
  •   Active
  •   Retired
  •   Deceased
Rank Person Days Flights Status Nationality
1 Oleg Kononenko 946.432 5 Active  Russia
2 Gennady Padalka 878.480 5 Retired  Russia
3 Yuri Malenchenko 827.389 6 Retired  Russia
4 Sergei Krikalev 803.371 6 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
5 Aleksandr Kaleri 769.276 5 Retired  Russia
6 Sergei Avdeyev 747.593 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
7 Anton Shkaplerov 709.336 4 Retired  Russia
8 Valeri Polyakov 678.690 2 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
9 Peggy Whitson 675.158 4 Active  United States
10 Fyodor Yurchikhin 672.860 5 Retired  Russia
11 Anatoly Solovyev 651.117 5 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
12 Sergey Prokopyev 567.633 2 Active  Russia
13 Oleg Artemyev 560.614 3 Active  Russia
14 Viktor Afanasyev 555.772 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
15 Yury Usachov 552.773 4 Retired  Russia
16 Sergey Volkov 547.931 3 Retired  Russia
17 Pavel Vinogradov 546.939 3 Retired  Russia
18 Aleksandr Skvortsov 545.964 3 Retired  Russia
19 Oleg Novitsky 545.068 4 Active  Russia
20 Musa Manarov 541.021 2 Retired  Soviet Union ( Azerbaijan)
21 Oleg Skripochka 536.159 3 Retired  Russia
22 Jeffrey Williams 534.116 4 Retired  United States
23 Mikhail Tyurin 532.118 3 Retired  Russia
24 Oleg Kotov 526.211 3 Retired  Russia
25 Mark T. Vande Hei 523.374 2 Active  United States
26 Scott Kelly 520.440 4 Retired[30]  United States
27 Mikhail Kornienko 516.417 2 Retired  Russia
28 Koichi Wakata 504.773 5 Active  Japan
29 Aleksandr Viktorenko 489.066 4 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
30 Anatoli Ivanishin 476.195 3 Retired  Russia
31 Nikolai Budarin 444.060 3 Retired  Russia
32 Yuri Romanenko 430.765 3 Retired  Soviet Union
33 Thomas Pesquet 396.482 2 Active  France
34 Aleksandr Volkov 391.495 3 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
35 Yury Onufriyenko 389.282 2 Retired  Russia
36 Shane Kimbrough 388.728 3 Retired  United States
37 Vladimir Titov 387.036 4 Retired  Soviet Union /  Russia
38 Vasily Tsibliyev 381.662 2 Retired  Russia
39 Valery Korzun 381.653 2 Retired  Russia
40 Michael Fincke 381.633 3 Active  United States
41 Christopher Cassidy 377.742 3 Retired  United States
42 Aleksey Ovchinin 374.813 2 Active  Russia
43 Leonid Kizim 374.749 3 Deceased  Soviet Union
44 Michael Foale 373.763 6 Retired  United States /  United Kingdom[31]
45 Aleksandr Serebrov 372.954 4 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
46 Valery Ryumin 371.725 4 Deceased  Soviet Union /  Russia
47 Dmitry Petelin 370.890 1 Active  Russia
Francisco Rubio 370.890 1 Active  United States
49 Samantha Cristoforetti 370.239 2 Active  Italy
50 Donald Pettit 369.696 3 Active  United States

Ten longest human spaceflights

# Time in space Crew Country Launch date (Launch craft) Landing date (Landing craft) Space station or mission type
1 437.7 days[32][33] Valeri Polyakov[32]  Russia 1994-01-08 (Soyuz TM-18) 1995-03-22 (Soyuz TM-20) Mir[32]
2 379.6 days[33] Sergey Avdeev[33]  Russia 1998-08-13 (Soyuz TM-28) 1999-08-28 (Soyuz TM-29) Mir[33]
3 370.9 days Sergey Prokopyev  Russia 2022-09-21 (Soyuz MS-22) 2023-09-27 (Soyuz MS-23) International Space Station
Dmitry Petelin  Russia
Francisco Rubio  United States
4 365.9 days[33] Vladimir Titov[33]  Soviet Union 1987-12-21 (Soyuz TM-4) 1988-12-21 (Soyuz TM-6) Mir[33]
Musa Manarov[33]  Soviet Union
5 355.2 days[34] Pyotr Dubrov  Russia 2021-04-09 (Soyuz MS-18) 2022-03-30 (Soyuz MS-19) International Space Station
Mark T. Vande Hei  United States
6 340.4 days Mikhail Kornienko  Russia 2015-03-27 (Soyuz TMA-16M) 2016-03-01 (Soyuz TMA-18M) International Space Station,
ISS year-long mission
Scott Kelly  United States
7 328.6 days[35][36] Christina Koch[36]  United States 2019-03-15 (Soyuz MS-12) 2020-02-06 (Soyuz MS-13) International Space Station
8 326.5 days[37] Yuri Romanenko[37]  Soviet Union 1987-02-05 (Soyuz TM-2) 1987-12-29 (Soyuz TM-3) Mir[37]
9 311.8 days[38] Sergei Krikalev[38]  Soviet Union/ Russia 1991-05-18 (Soyuz TM-12) 1992-03-25 (Soyuz TM-13) Mir[38]
10 289.2 days[39] Peggy Whitson[39]  United States 2016-11-17 (Soyuz MS-03) 2017-09-03 (Soyuz MS-04) International Space Station[39]

Longest single flight by a woman

NASA astronaut Christina Koch holds the record for the longest single spaceflight by a woman (328 days), returning on February 6, 2020.[36] During Expedition 61, she surpassed NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson's 289 days from 2016-17. In third place is American astronaut Anne McClain with 204 days.[40]

Longest continuous occupation of space

An international partnership consisting of Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and the member states of the European Space Agency have jointly maintained a continuous human presence in space since 31 October 2000 when Soyuz TM-31 was launched. Two days later, it docked with the International Space Station.[16][41] Since then space has been continuously occupied for 23 years, 164 days.[16]

Longest continuous occupation of a spacecraft

The International Space Station has been continuously occupied by a Russian and US crew member since 2 November 2000 (23 years, 162 days).[16][41] It broke the record of 9 years and 358 days of the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir on 23 October 2010.[41]

Longest solo flight

Valery Bykovsky flew solo for 4 days, 23 hours in Vostok 5 from 14 to 19 June 1963.[42] The flight set a space endurance record which was broken in 1965 by the (non-solo) Gemini 5 flight. The Apollo program included long solo spaceflight, and during the Apollo 16 mission, Ken Mattingly orbited solo around the Moon for more than 3 days and 9 hours.

Longest time on the lunar surface

Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt of the Apollo 17 mission stayed for 74 hours 59 minutes and 40 seconds (over 3 days) on the lunar surface after they landed on 11 December 1972.[43] They performed three EVAs (extra-vehicular activity) totaling 22 hours 3 minutes, 57 seconds. As Apollo commanders were the first to leave the LM and the last to get back in, Cernan's EVA time was slightly longer.[43]

Longest time in lunar orbit

Ronald Evans of Apollo 17 mission stayed in lunar orbit for 6 days and 4 hours (148 hours)[44] along with five mice. For the solo portion of a flight around the Moon, Ken Mattingly on Apollo 16 spent 1 hour 38 minutes longer than Evans' solo duration.

Speed and altitude records

Farthest humans from Earth

The Apollo 13 crew (Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swigert), while passing over the far side of the Moon at an altitude of 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface, were 400,171 km (248,655 mi) from Earth.[45] This record-breaking distance was reached at 00:21 UTC on 15 April 1970.[45]

Highest altitude for crewed non-lunar mission

Gemini 11 crew Charles Conrad, Jr. and Richard F. Gordon, Jr. fired their Agena Target Vehicle rocket engine on 14 September 1966, at 40 hours 30 minutes after liftoff and achieved a record apogee altitude of 739.2 nautical miles (1,369.0 km).[46]

Fastest

The Apollo 10 crew (Thomas Stafford, John W. Young and Eugene Cernan) achieved the highest speed relative to Earth ever attained by humans: 39,897 kilometers per hour (11,082 meters per second or 24,791 miles per hour, about 32 times the speed of sound and 0.0037% of the speed of light).[16] The record was set 26 May 1969.[16]

The record for uncrewed spacecraft is held by the Parker Solar Probe at 176 km/s, about 1/1700 (or 0.06%) the speed of light, relative to the Sun. This speed was first reached in September 2023.

Age records

Wally Funk flew in July, 2021
William Shatner flew in October, 2021

Earliest-born to reach space

Suborbital flight

Orbital spaceflight

Youngest

Suborbital flight

Orbital spaceflight

Oldest

Suborbital flight

Orbital spaceflight

Spacewalk records

Most spacewalks (number and duration)

Both of these are the record for the largest total number of spacewalks by a male and a female, and the most cumulative time spent on spacewalks by a male and a female.

Most spacewalks during a single mission

Longest single spacewalk

  • 8 hrs 56 min, by James Voss and Susan Helms, 11 March 2001 on an ISS assembly mission during Shuttle mission STS-102. The space walkers were delayed early in their excursion when a device to help hold an astronaut's feet to the shuttle's robot arm became untethered,[54] and Voss had to retrieve a spare from storage on the exterior of the station's Unity module. After about six hours of work, the pair reentered Space Shuttle Discovery’s airlock.

Greatest distance from a spacecraft during a spacewalk

  • All-time (and while on a planetary body[55]): 7.6 kilometers[56]: 1144  (4.7 miles, 25,029 feet[57]), Apollo 17, Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt, EVA-2, December 12, 1972. During their second of three moonwalks, Cernan and Schmitt rode the Lunar Roving Vehicle to geological station 2, Nansen Crater, at the foot of the South Massif. As all spacewalks not occurring on a planetary body (the Moon) have involved short maximum distances from the spacecraft (see below), this remains the furthest distance that humans have traveled away from the safety of a pressurizable spacecraft, during an EVA of any type.
  • Orbital flight: about 100 meters (or 330 feet), Bruce McCandless, STS-41-B, February 7, 1984. With the exception of six Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) sorties in 1984 and a test of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) in 1994, all other orbital spacewalks have involved a safety tether, anchoring the spacefarer to the spacecraft at a short distance. Among the former untethered spacewalks, Bruce McCandless' first test of the MMU established an orbital EVA distance record from a spacecraft which remained unbroken by later untethered EVAs.[58]

Animal records

First animals in space

The first animals to enter space were fruit flies launched by the United States in 1947 aboard a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 68 miles (109 km).[59] They were also the first animals to safely return from space.[59] Albert II, a rhesus monkey, became the first mammal in space aboard a U.S. V-2 rocket on June 14, 1949, and died on reentry due to a parachute failure. The first dogs in space were launched 22 July 1951 aboard a Soviet R-1V. "Tsygin" and "Dezik" reached a height of 100 km (62 mi) and safely parachuted back to Earth. This flight preceded the first American canine space mission by two weeks.[60]: 21 

First animal in orbit

Laika was a Soviet female canine launched on 3 November 1957 on Sputnik 2. The technology to de-orbit had not yet been developed, so there was no expectation for survival. She died several hours into flight. Belka and Strelka became the first canines to safely return to Earth from orbit on 19 August 1960.

First Hominidae in space

On 31 January 1961, through NASA's Mercury-Redstone 2 mission the chimpanzee Ham became the first great ape or Hominidae in space.[61]

Longest canine single flight

Soviet space dogs Veterok (Ветерок, "Light Wind") and Ugolyok (Уголёк, "Ember") were launched on 22 February 1966 on board Cosmos 110 and spent 22 days in orbit before landing on 16 March.

First animals beyond low Earth orbit

An assortment of animals including a pair of Russian tortoises, as well as wine flies and mealworms flew around the Moon with a number of other biological specimens including seeds and bacteria on a circumlunar mission aboard the Soviet Zond 5 spacecraft on 18 September 1968.[59] It had been launched by a Proton-K rocket on 14 September.[59]

Zond 5 came within 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) of the Moon and then successfully returned to Earth, the first spacecraft in history to return safely to Earth from the Moon.[59]

Notable uncrewed or non-human spaceflights

In reference to: Spacecraft Event Origin Date
Earth MW 18014 (A-4(V-2)) First rocket to reach space (suborbital flight). Nazi Germany Germany 20 June 1944
Earth V-2 No. 20 First living organisms (fruit flies) in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. United States USA 20 February 1947
Earth V-2 No. 47 First mammal in space, Albert II, a rhesus monkey (suborbital flight). Died in capsule parachute failure. United States USA 14 June 1949
Earth R-1V[62] First dogs in space (suborbital flight). Successfully recovered. Soviet Union USSR 22 July 1951
Earth Sputnik 1 First satellite in orbit.[5] Soviet Union USSR 4 October 1957
Earth Sputnik 2 First animal in orbit, Laika, a dog. Soviet Union USSR 3 November 1957
Earth Vanguard 1 Oldest satellite still in orbit, in addition to its upper launch stage. Expected to stay in orbit 240 years. Ceased transmission in May 1964. United States USA 17 March 1958
Earth Pioneer 1 Failed to reach the Moon as intended, but reached a record–setting distance of 113,800 kilometres (70,700 mi) from Earth. United States USA 11 October 1958
Earth Luna 1 First spacecraft to achieve Earth's escape velocity. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 1 First flyby. Distance of 5,995 kilometres (3,725 mi). Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Sun Luna 1 First spacecraft in heliocentric orbit. Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959
Moon Luna 2 First impact on another celestial body.[5] Soviet Union USSR 14 September 1959
Moon Luna 3 First image of lunar far-side.[5] Soviet Union USSR 7 October 1959
Earth Discoverer 13 First satellite recovered from orbit.[5] United States USA 11 August 1960
Earth Korabl-Sputnik 2 First living beings recovered from orbit.[63] Soviet Union USSR 19 August 1960
Earth Mercury-Redstone 2 First great ape or Hominidae in space, Ham, a chimpanzee.[61] United States USA 31 January 1961
Venus Venera 1 First flyby. Distance of 100,000 kilometres (62,000 mi) (lost communication contact before).[5] Soviet Union USSR 19 May 1961
Moon Ranger 4 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon.[64] United States USA 26 April 1962
Earth Alouette 1 First satellite designed and constructed by a country other than the USA or USSR (the British satellite Ariel 1, launched five months earlier, was designed and constructed by the USA).[65] Canada Canada 29 September 1962
Venus Mariner 2 First planetary flyby with communication contact. Distance of 34,762 kilometres (21,600 mi). United States USA 14 December 1962
Earth Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 Oldest spacecraft still in use (59 years as of 2024). United States USA 6 May 1965
Mars Mariner 4 First flyby and first planetary imaging. Distance of 9,846 kilometres (6,118 mi). United States USA 14 July 1965
Earth Astérix First satellite launched independently by a nation other than the USA or USSR (other nations had previously flown satellites launched on American rockets). France France 26 November 1965
Moon Luna 9 First soft landing and first pictures from the lunar surface.[5] Soviet Union USSR 3 February 1966
Earth Kosmos 110 First seeds to germinate in space. Soviet Union USSR 22 February 1966
Venus Venera 3 First impact.[5] Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1966
Moon Luna 10 First orbiter.[5] Soviet Union USSR 3 April 1966
Docking Cosmos 186, Cosmos 188 First automated docking of uncrewed spacecraft. Soviet Union USSR 30 October 1967
Moon Surveyor 6 First planned, controlled, powered flight from the surface of another body. United States USA 17 November 1967
Moon Zond 5
  • First to circle the Moon and return to land on Earth.
  • First animals to circle the Moon.
Soviet Union USSR 15 September 1968
Moon Luna 16 First automated sample return. Soviet Union USSR 24 September 1970
Moon Luna 17 First robotic roving vehicle, Lunokhod 1. Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970
Venus Venera 7 First soft landing on another planet. Soviet Union USSR 15 December 1970
Earth Salyut 1 First space station. Soviet Union USSR 19 April 1971
Mars Mariner 9 First orbiter. United States USA 14 November 1971
Mars Mars 2 First impact. Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971
Mars Mars 3 First soft landing. Maintained telemetry signal for 20 seconds before transmissions ceased. Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971
Sun Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to achieve the Sun's escape velocity. United States USA 3 March 1972
Jupiter Pioneer 10 First flyby. Distance of 132,000 kilometres (82,000 mi). United States USA 4 December 1973
Mercury Mariner 10 First flyby. Distance of 703 kilometres (437 mi). United States USA 29 March 1974
Venus Venera 9
  • First orbiter.
  • First surface-level imaging of another planet.
Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1975
Mars Viking 1 First surface-level imaging of Mars. United States USA 20 July 1976
Saturn Pioneer 11 First flyby. Distance of 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi). United States USA 1 September 1979
Venus Venera 13 First sound recording made on another planet. Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1982
Orbital Space Station Soyuz T-5, Salyut 7 First species of plant to flower in space.[66] Arabidopsis thaliana Valentin Lebedev. Soviet Union USSR 1 July 1982
Trans-Neptunian region Pioneer 10 First to travel past the orbit of Neptune, the furthest major planet from the Sun. United States USA 13 June 1983
Venus Vega 1 First helium balloon atmospheric probe. First flight (as opposed to atmospheric entry) in another planet's atmosphere. Soviet Union USSR 11 June 1985
Comet Giacobini-Zinner International Cometary Explorer (ICE) First flyby through a comet tail (no pictures). Distance of 7,800 kilometres (4,800 mi). United States USA 11 September 1985
Uranus Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 81,500 kilometres (50,600 mi). United States USA 24 January 1986
Comet Halley Vega 1 First comet flyby (with pictures returned). Distance of 8,890 kilometres (5,520 mi). Soviet Union USSR 6 March 1986
Earth Mir Core Module, Kvant-1 First modular space station. Soviet Union USSR 9 April 1987
Orbital Spaceplane Buran First fully automated orbital flight of a spaceplane (with airstrip landing). Soviet Union USSR 15 November 1988
Phobos Phobos 2 First flyby. Distance of 860 kilometres (530 mi). Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1989
Neptune Voyager 2 First flyby. Distance of 40,000 kilometres (25,000 mi). United States USA 25 August 1989
Moon Hiten First lunar probe launched by a country other than the USA or USSR. Japan Japan 18 March 1990
951 Gaspra Galileo First asteroid flyby. Distance of 1,600 kilometres (990 mi). United States USA 29 October 1991
Jupiter Galileo probe First impact. United States USA 7 December 1995
Jupiter Galileo First orbiter. United States USA 8 December 1995
Mars Mars Pathfinder First automated roving vehicle, Sojourner. United States USA 4 July 1997
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid orbiter. United States USA 14 February 2000
433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker First asteroid soft landing. United States USA 12 February 2001
Saturn Cassini orbiter First orbiter.
1 July 2004
Solar wind Genesis First sample return from farther than the Moon. United States USA 8 September 2004
Titan Huygens probe First soft landing.
  • ESA
  • United States USA
14 January 2005
Comet Tempel 1 Deep Impact First comet impact. United States USA 4 July 2005
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa
  • First asteroid ascent.
  • First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.[clarification needed]
Japan Japan 19 November 2005
81P/Wild Stardust First sample return from comet. United States USA 15 January 2006
Earth Voyager 1
  • Farthest distance from Earth (14,841,000,000 miles (2.3884×1010 km; 159.66 AU)).
  • Farthest distance from the Sun (14,912,000,000 miles (2.3999×1010 km; 160.42 AU)).
United States USA As of July 2023[67]
Longest time in operation Voyager 2 Longest continually operating space probe (since August 1977). United States USA As of 2015
Moon Moon Impact Probe First hard landing on Lunar south pole and discovery of water on Moon.[68] India India 14 November 2008
Earth to Venus trajectory IKAROS First interplanetary solar sail. Japan Japan Set sail on 10 June 2010
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa First sample return from an asteroid. Japan Japan 13 June 2010
Mercury MESSENGER First orbiter. United States USA 17 March 2011
Earth–Sun L2 Lagrange point Chang'e 2 First object to reach the L2 Lagrangian point directly from lunar orbit.[69] China China 25 August 2011
International Space Station SpaceX Dragon 1 First commercial spacecraft to berth with the International Space Station. United States USA 25 May 2012
Interstellar medium Voyager 1 First spacecraft to cross the heliopause, thereby exiting the heliosphere and entering interstellar space. United States USA 25 August 2012
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2
  • First object to reach an asteroid directly from a Sun-Earth Langrangian point.
  • First probe to explore both the Moon and an asteroid.[70]
China China 13 December 2012
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Rosetta First comet orbiter.[71] ESA 6 August 2014
Mars MOM First Asian nation to achieve Mars orbit and first in the world to do so in first attempt.[72] India India 24 September 2014
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Philae First comet soft landing.[73] ESA 12 November 2014
Ceres Dawn First dwarf planet orbiter.[74] United States USA 6 March 2015
Mars Opportunity Longest distance traveled on surface of another world (26.219 miles (42.195 km), marathon-length).[75] United States USA 23 March 2015
Mercury MESSENGER First impact.[76] United States USA 30 April 2015
Pluto New Horizons
United States USA 14 July 2015
All 9 planets in the pre-IAU redefinition version of the Solar System All United States spacecraft including New Horizons With the New Horizons flyby of Pluto, the United States is the first nation to have its space probes explore all nine planets in the pre-2006 IAU redefinition version of the Solar System. United States USA 14 July 2015
Earth Falcon 9 (B1021) First re-flight of an orbital class rocket stage.[77] United States USA 30 March 2017
Earth Shortest period between orbital launches (launched 72[78][79][80][81][82] seconds apart).
  • United States USA
  • Japan Japan
23 December 2017
1.66 au heliocentric orbit Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster on Falcon Heavy Test Flight First successful Deep Space mission launched successfully on a rocket's maiden flight United States USA 6 February 2018
Moon Chang'e 4 First soft landing at the far side of the Moon. China China 3 January 2019
101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx Smallest body to be orbited by spacecraft (492 m (1,600 ft) diameter) and closest ever orbit (680 m (2,230 ft) altitude).[83][84] United States USA 12 June 2019
Moon Chang'e 5 First robotic rendezvous and docking by two spacecraft (lunar orbiter attached with reentry-capsule and lunar ascent vehicle) in lunar orbit or any orbit other than Earth's.[85] China China 5 December 2020
Moon Chang'e 5 First robotic transfer of payload (lunar samples from lunar ascent vehicle to reentry capsule) between two docked spacecraft in lunar orbit or any orbit other than Earth's.[86] China China 5 December 2020
Mars Ingenuity First controlled, powered flight by a rotary wing aircraft on another planet.[87] United States USA 19 April 2021
Moon Chandrayaan-3 First soft landing at Lunar south polar region. India India 23 August 2023
Sun Parker Solar Probe Highest velocity of a spacecraft relative to the Sun: 176 km/s (635,000 km/h; 395,000 mph).

Closest approach to the Sun: distance of 0.049 AU (7,260,000 kilometres; 4,510,000 mi).[88] Spacecraft will continue to lower its perihelion with one more Venus gravity assist before its closest approach in 2024, which is expected to bring the probe within 9.86 solar radii (6,900,000 km; 4,300,000 mi) of the Sun's surface at a velocity of 191.7 km/s (690,000 km/h; 430,000 mph),[89] by which point it will have become the fastest object in the Solar System apart from comets (overtaking asteroid 2005 HC4).

  • United States USA
27 September 2023
Earth Falcon 9 (B1058) Most flights, and landings, of a single orbital rocket stage: 19. United States USA 23 December 2023
Moon IM-1 Odysseus First successful commercial and first cryogenic propelled lunar landing. United States USA 22 February 2024

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gebhardt, Chris (12 April 2011). "Anniversaries: 50 years of human spaceflight – 30 years for Shuttle". NASASpaceFlight (not affiliated with NASA). Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Mercury-Redstone 3 (Freedom 7)". NASA. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Mercury-Atlas 6 (Friendship 7)". NASA. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Making History: China's First Human Spaceflight". Space.com. 28 September 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "MAJOR SPACE "FIRSTS'-AN AMERICAN ASSESSMENT" (PDF). Flight. 91 (3028): 459. 1967-03-23. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  6. ^ "Astronautix.com: Mercury MR-3". Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  7. ^ Sparrow, Giles (2019). Spaceflight : the complete story, from Sputnik to Curiosity (Second [American] ed.). New York: Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 82. ISBN 978-1465479655.
  8. ^ "FAI Sporting Code Section 8 – Astronautics, 2009 Edition (Class K, Class P)" (PDF). Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  9. ^ Neal, Valerie; Lewis, Cathleen S.; Winter, Frank H. (1995). Spaceflight: a Smithsonian Guide. Macmillan. p. 234. ISBN 9780028600406.
  10. ^ Neal et al, p. 234.
  11. ^ Rooney, Anne (2014). Space Record Breakers. Carlton. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9781783120727.
  12. ^ Neal et al., p. 235
  13. ^ Neal et al, p. 86.
  14. ^ Rooney, pp. 42–43.
  15. ^ Pearlman, Robert (17 June 2010). "Cosmonaut Leonid Kizim, Who Visited 2 Space Stations in 1 Mission, Dies". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wall, Mike (11 March 2015). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  17. ^ Sheetz, Michael (2020-05-30). "SpaceX launches two NASA astronauts to space for the first time in historic US mission". CNBC. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
  18. ^ Potter, Sean (2020-05-30). "NASA Astronauts Launch from America in Test of SpaceX Crew Dragon". NASA. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
  19. ^ "International Space Station Visiting Vehicles - NASA". Retrieved 2024-03-27.
  20. ^ "Astronaut Biography". NASA. 11 February 2015.
  21. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de. The alphabetical list of astronauts provides the "Total Persons" "Total Person Flights" as well as the "Total person days", excepting the time of astronauts currently in orbit
  22. ^ "Manned spaceflights". spacefacts.de. The flight list allows is searched to determine which flight is in orbit, and when it reached orbit. This allows determination of "Total in orbit (@ update) and update the "Total person days" accordingly.
  23. ^ "Госкорпорация «Роскосмос»". Telegram. Retrieved 2023-12-16.
  24. ^ "ISS Expedition Reports". www.spacefacts.de. Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  25. ^ "One American, Two Russians Blast Off in Russian Spacecraft to International Space Station". Voice of America. 2023-09-15. Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  26. ^ NASA (2005). "Krikalev Sets Time-in-Space Record". NASA. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
  27. ^ Thompson, Curtiss (29 June 2015). "Russian Cosmonaut Sets Record For Most Time Spent In Space". Penny4NASA. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  28. ^ Russian astronaut record-breaker Padalka returns to Earth, BBC News, 12 September 2015
  29. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts (sorted by "Time in Space")". spacefacts.de. The current missions are listed but not included in day count.
  30. ^ Northon, Karen (2016-03-11). "Astronaut Scott Kelly to Retire from NASA in April". NASA. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  31. ^ Michael Foale holds dual U.S./British citizenship.
  32. ^ a b c Schwirtz, Michael (2009-03-30). "Staying Put on Earth, Taking a Step to Mars". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-15.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h Pearlman, Robert (26 March 2015). "One Year in Space: A History of Ultra-Long Missions Off Planet Earth". Space.com. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  34. ^ Zak, Anatoly (2 January 2022). "Russian space program in 2021". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  35. ^ Garcia, Mark (6 February 2020). "Christina Koch Completes 328-Day Mission in Space". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  36. ^ a b c "Astronaut Christina Koch sets new record for longest single space flight by a woman". CBS News. 27 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  37. ^ a b c Carroll, Michael (2015). Living Among Giants: Exploring and Settling the Outer Solar System. Springer. p. 195. ISBN 978-3319106731.
  38. ^ a b c Leary, Warren (4 Feb 1994). "Man in the News: Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev; Symbol of New Cooperation". New York Times. Cape Canaveral. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  39. ^ a b c "Soyuz MS-04 lands as Peggy Whitson ends record-breaking mission". NASASpaceflight. 2 Sep 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  40. ^ Harwood, William (25 June 2019). "3 station fliers complete "once-in-a-lifetime ride" home after 204-day stay in orbit". cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  41. ^ a b c "10 Years and Counting". NASA. 28 October 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2023. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  42. ^ "Astronautic World Records: Spacecraft with one astronaut – General category". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. This only counts the duration of solo flight within a mission, so a longer mission with solo flight, such as Apollo 17 at 12d+13h duration is surpassed because the solo undocked duration was only 3d+7h.)
  43. ^ a b "Mission Report: Apollo 17 – The Most Productive Lunar Expedition" (PDF). NASA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 September 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  44. ^ "Ronal Evans Biographical Data". NASA. April 1990. Retrieved 21 June 2015. longest time in lunar orbit, 147 hours, 48 minutes
  45. ^ a b "Apollo 13 The Seventh Mission: The Third Lunar Landing Attempt 11 April–17 April 1970". NASA. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  46. ^ Dumoulin, Jim (August 25, 2000), NASA Project Gemini-XI, archived from the original on September 18, 2018, retrieved April 12, 2010
  47. ^ Harwood, William (13 October 2021). "Blue Origin sends William Shatner to the final frontier". Spaceflight Now. CBS News. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  48. ^ Sawyer, Kathy (8 October 1998). "John Glenn: The Second Time Around". The Washington Post.
  49. ^ "Ax-2 Mission Successfully Launches, Four Private Astronauts Headed to Space Station" (Press release). Axiom Space. 21 May 2023.
  50. ^ "GCTC, Biographies of Cosmonauts: Solovyev, Anatoly Yakovlevich". Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre. Archived from the original on 2007-09-20. Retrieved 2017-10-31.
  51. ^ "Spacewalking astronauts pull off urgent station repairs". Los Angeles Daily News. May 23, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2023.
  52. ^ "ISS astronauts complete 200th station EVA for maintenance tasks". NASASpaceflight.com. 12 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  53. ^ Spacefacts (2017). "Astronauts and Cosmonauts with EVA Experience (sorted by "EVA Time")". Spacefacts. Retrieved May 13, 2017.
  54. ^ "Spaceflight Now | STS-102 Mission Report | Grueling marathon spacewalk sets new record". spaceflightnow.com. Retrieved 2022-10-31.
  55. ^ Swift, Earl (2021). Across the Airless Wilds. Custom House. pp. 280–281. ISBN 9780062986535.
  56. ^ "Apollo 17 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription" (PDF). NASA.
  57. ^ "Extravehicular Activity". NASA.
  58. ^ Chaikin, Andrew (October 2014). "Untethered". Air and Space Magazine.
  59. ^ a b c d e Tate, Karl (17 April 2013). "Cosmic Menagerie: A History of Animals in Space (Infographic)" (infographic). Space.com. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  60. ^ Brian Harvey; Olga Zakutnyaya (2011). Russian Space Probes: Scientific Discoveries and Future Missions. Chichester, UK: Springer Praxis Books. OCLC 1316077842.
  61. ^ a b "My steps for Bataan". United States Marine Corps Flagship. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  62. ^ "R-1V". Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  63. ^ Asif A. Siddiqi. "Challenge to Apollo" (PDF). NASA.; see page. 253
  64. ^ Williamson, Mark (1998). "Protecting the space environment: Are we doing enough?". Space Policy. 14 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(97)00038-6.
  65. ^ "Alouette I and II". Canadian Space Agency. Government of Canada. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  66. ^ "Guinness World Record: First species of plant to flower in space".
  67. ^ "Where are the Voyagers?". Retrieved 2023-07-03. Because Earth moves around the sun faster than Voyager 1 is traveling from Earth, the distance between Earth and the spacecraft actually decreases at certain times of the year.
  68. ^ "Chandrayaan-1 Moon Impact Probe: Impact Location Refined" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  69. ^ "Ching'e 2 to reaches liberation point 2". 2011-08-27. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011.
  70. ^ "China's space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis" Archived 2012-12-15 at the Wayback Machine. Chinadaily.com.cn.16 December 2012.
  71. ^ esa. "Rosetta arrives at comet destination".
  72. ^ Burke, Jason (24 September 2014). "India's Mars satellite successfully enters orbit, bringing country into space elite". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 September 2014. India has become the first nation to send a satellite into orbit around Mars on its first attempt, and the first Asian nation to do so.
  73. ^ "Philae probe makes historic comet landing". BBC News. 12 November 2014.
  74. ^ Barnett, Amanda (6 March 2015). "NASA's Dawn spacecraft begins orbiting Ceres". CNN.
  75. ^ McKirdy, Euan (25 March 2015). "Opportunity rover celebrates marathon milestone". CNN.
  76. ^ Corum, Jonathan (30 April 2015). "Messenger's Collision Course With Mercury". The New York Times.
  77. ^ "Used SpaceX Rocket Launches Satellite, Then Lands in Historic 1st Reflight". Space.com. 30 March 2017.
  78. ^ "TMRO:Space – Looking forward to 2018 – Orbit 11.01". YouTube. Archived from the original on 2021-12-22.
  79. ^ "Falcon 9 Closes Record Year with 4th Iridium Launch, 1st Stage Disposal Gathers Flight Data – Falcon 9 – Iridium 4". 2017-12-23. Retrieved 2023-06-22.
  80. ^ "Japanese H-IIA Rocket Fires Into Orbit with Climate Change Satellite & Super-Low Altitude Testbed – H-IIA – GCOM-C1 | Spaceflight101". 2017-12-23. Retrieved 2023-06-22.
  81. ^ "SpaceX launch dazzles, delivering 10 more satellites for Iridium – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 2023-06-22.
  82. ^ "JAXA | Successful Launch, H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 37 Encapsulating SHIKISAI and TSUBAME". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2023-06-22.
  83. ^ "NASA'S OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Arrives at Asteroid Bennu". NASA. 2018-12-03. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  84. ^ "NASA's OSIRIS-REx Mission Breaks Another Orbit Record". NASA. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  85. ^ "2nd LD-Writethru-Xinhua Headlines: China completes first spacecraft rendezvous, docking in lunar orbit, | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2020-12-05.
  86. ^ Jones, Andrew (7 December 2020). "China's Chang'e 5 aces lunar orbit docking needed to bring moon samples home". Space News. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  87. ^ Palca, Joe (19 April 2021). "Success! NASA's Ingenuity Makes First Powered Flight On Mars". National Public Radio. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  88. ^ Buckley, Michael (28 September 2023). "Parker Solar Probe Sets Distance, Speed Marks on 17th Swing by the Sun - Space Coast Daily". Space Coast Daily. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  89. ^ "Parker Solar Probe Presskit" (PDF). nasa.gov. Retrieved 14 December 2018.