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List of political parties in Lebanon

Lebanon has hundreds of registered political parties. Since 2005, and after the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, the political scene has become very polarised, with most major political parties and movements becoming part of one of two big rival alliances, the March 8 Alliance mainly led by Hezbollah, Free Patriotic Movement, Amal Movement, Tayyar Al Marada and the Tashnaq and on the opposing side, the March 14 Alliance. The name "14th March alliance", dates back to the Cedar Revolution which had as its goal an end to the Syrian military occupation. The groups are ideologically divided as one of them is pro-Lebanon "The 14 March Alliance", are in favour of, "free competitive markets, rule of law, structural reforms as well as individual freedoms. On the other hand "The 8 March Alliance" mainly controlled by Hezbollah and the Amal movement prefers more open relations with sanctioned eastern countries such as Iran for financial help and political rival crushing. They have tried to ask for financial help many times from Iran but the "14 March Alliance" has always opposed Iran's help as Iran always wanted to grip its claws to Lebanon with its militia/military proxy in Lebanon "Hezbollah".

Since the election of Michel Aoun as president in 2016 and the formation of a new Government headed by Prime Minister Saad Hariri, there were two sides, the March 14 alliance which surprisingly supported the election of Michel Aoun but only if mainly the Lebanese Forces having 7/20 of the governmental seats. Michel Aoun and Samir Geagea signed the "maarab agreement" and it was considered a historical peace between two rival and old political parties. Michel Aoun ended up not giving the required seats to the Lebanese forces but Samir Geagea did not seem to complain until after the "17 October revolution" in Lebanon which Samir Geagea tried his best in trying to impress but to no avail. Namely, sides that were against the election of Michel Aoun as president in the 2016 elections, consisted of traditional sectarian parties such as the Kataeb party, and the National Liberal Party. Since then, the political scene has been witnessing the emergence of new non-sectarian political groups such as Lihaqqi and Citizens in a State (MMFIDAWLA), in addition to many civil society groups who were loosely allied during the last parliamentary elections. Although they share a common goal to replace what they consider a failed political model, that was introduced following the end of the civil war leading to the 2020 economic crisis, they are not unified in order to assimilate and conquer the prevailing government. The then-elected government has failed its duties as a government and the Prime Minister, Saad Hariri, attempted to resign while he was in Saudi Arabia in 2017, but it was ruled unconstitutional. Later on, during the October protests he resigned as Prime Minister. Moreover, he was later designated in October,2020 once again as Prime Minister nevertheless his attempt at creating a government did not take place.

The consociational power-sharing model that tries to minimise conflict and promote equality are not written in the Constitution of 1926, nor has it appeared in the post-Civil War Taef Agreement.[1] Lebanon's unique experiment of a Sectarian Democracy trying to blend democratic principles and religious allocation of roles and functions together with 18 religious laws being applied to citizens’ personal status, in contradiction with the fundamental principles of democracy, the sovereignty of the people and equality of rights between the citizens has led to the sectarian division of the Lebanese people by law, to politically weak institutions, a divided nation and the chain of historical events such as the 1958 crisis and the 1975 civil war, Palestinian militant attacks against Israel from Lebanese territory, occupation of Lebanon by Syrian forces in 1976 and by Israeli forces in 1982 and the actual presence of weapons in the hands of Hezbollah outside the control of the Lebanese Government. Article 24 of the Constitution assigns half the seats in the national's legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, to Christians and the other half to Muslims.[2]

However, after the 2018 parliamentary elections, the political power in Lebanon shifted dramatically, with the Free Patriotic Movement leading in the number of seats in the Parliament and the Future Movement losing almost half of its seats. The Lebanese Forces almost doubled their seats in the Parliament.

Parties

Although most parties maintain that they are secular, the major political parties in Lebanon are loosely representative of a certain faith community. In 2005, the political scene became strongly polarized with most active political parties belonging to either the 8th and 14 March alliances. Since then, this division has become less and less significant as coalition governments became the norm. The following list places political parties within the two alliances.

Parties currently represented in parliament

Party Abbr. Leader or Chairman MPs Political position & ideology Alliance Primary demographic
Lebanese Forces
القوات اللبنانية
al-Quwwāt al-Lubnānīyah
LF Samir Geagea
19 / 128
Christian democracy
Liberal conservatism
Lebanese nationalism
Opposition Christian
Free Patriotic Movement
التيار الحرّ
at-Tayyār al-Waṭanī al-Horr
FPM Gebran Bassil
16 / 128
Civic nationalism
Christian democracy
Economic liberalism
March 8 Christian
Amal Movement
حركة أمل
Ḥarakat Amal
Amal
أمل
Nabih Berri
14 / 128
Conservatism
Populism
March 8 Shiite
Hezbollah
حزب الله
Ḥizbu 'llāh
HA Hassan Nasrallah
13 / 128
Islamism
Anti-Zionism
Anti-Western
March 8 Shiite
Progressive Socialist Party
الحزب التقدمي الإشتراكي
Ḥizb at-Taqadummi al-Ishtiraki
PSP Taymour Jumblatt
8 / 128
Social democracy
Progressivism
Third Way
None Druze
Future Movement
تيار المستقبل
Tayyār al-Mustaqbal
FM Saad Hariri
8 / 128
Classical liberalism
Economic liberalism
Lebanese nationalism
Opposition Sunni
Kataeb Party (Phalanges)
حزب الكتائب اللبنانية
Ḥizb al-Katā'ib al-Lubnānīya
Kataeb Samy Gemayel
5 / 128
Lebanese nationalism
Christian democracy
Social conservatism
Maronite politics
Opposition Maronite
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Հայ Յեղափոխական Դաշնակցութիւն
Hay Heghapokhagan Tashnagtsutiun
ARF
ՀՅԴ
Hagop Pakradounian
3 / 128
Democratic socialism
Armenian nationalism
United Armenia
March 8 Armenian
Marada Movement
تيار المردة
Tayyār al-Marada
MM Suleiman Frangieh
2 / 128
Christian democracy
Lebanese nationalism
Pro-Syrianism
March 8 Maronite
Independence Movement
حركة الاستقلال
Harakat al-Istiklal
IM Michel Moawad
2 / 128
Lebanese nationalism Opposition Maronite
Taqaddom Party
حزب التقدم
Ḥizb al-TaKadum
- Collective leadership
2 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular
Islamic Charitable Projects Association
جمعية المشاريع الخيرية الإسلامية
Jamʿīyah al-Mashārīʿ al-Khayrīyah al-ʾIslāmīyah
ICPA
الأحباش
al-Aḥbāsh
Shaykh Hussam Qaraqira
2 / 128
Religious pluralism
Islamic neo-traditionalism
Anti-Salafism
March 8 Sunni
Islamic Group
الجماعة الإسلامية
al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah
IG Azzam Al-Ayyoubi
1 / 128
Islamic democracy
Pan-Islamism
Opposition Sunni
Union Party
حزب الإتحاد
Ḥizb al-Ittiḥād
UP Abdul Rahim Mrad
1 / 128
Nasserism March 8 Sunni
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Lebanon
حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في لبنان
Ḥizb al-Ba‘th al-‘Arabī al-Ishtirākī fī Lubnān
Ba'ath Disputed
1 / 128
Socialism
Arab nationalism
March 8 Secular
National Liberal Party
حزب الوطنيين الأحرار
Ḥizb al-Waṭaniyyīn al-Aḥrār
NLP Camille Dory Chamoun
1 / 128
Economic liberalism
Lebanese nationalism
National liberalism
Opposition Maronite
Lebanese Communist Party
الحزب الشيوعي اللبناني
al-Ḥizb aš-Šuyūʿī al-Lubnānī
LCP Hanna Gharib
1 / 128
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Zionism
October 17 Secular
Lana – Social Democratic Party
لـنا - حزب ديمقراطي اجتماعي
Lana - hizb dimuqratiun ajtimaeiun
Lana Hassan Sinno
1 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular
Mada Party

حزب مادا hizb mada

Mada Karim Saadeh
1 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular
Khatt Ahmar

الخط الأحمر alkhatu al'ahmar

Waddah Sadek
1 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular
Popular Nasserist Organization
التنظيم الشعبي الناصري
at-Tanzim ash-Shaabi an-Nassiri
PNO Ossama Saad
1 / 128
Nasserism
Socialism
Arab nationalism
March 8 Sunni
National Dialogue Party
حزب الحوار الوطني
Ḥizb al-Hiwar al-Watani
NDP Fouad Makhzoumi
1 / 128
Economic liberalism
Secular liberalism
None Sunni
Dignity Movement
تيار الكرامة
Tayyār al-Karāma
DM Faisal Karami
1 / 128
Arab nationalism
Anti-Zionism
Pan-Arabism
March 8 Sunni
Watani Alliance

تحالف وطني
tahaluf watani

Watani Mark Geara
1 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular
ReLebanon

لبنان عن جديد
lubnan ean jadid

Ziad Abs
1 / 128
Reformism
Social democracy
October 17 Secular

Other parties

March 8 Alliance

Party Abbr. Leader or Chairman Political position & ideology Primary demographic
Arab Democratic Party
الحزب العربي الدمقراطي
al-Ḥizb al-Arabi ad-Dimoqraty
ADP Rifaat Eid Arab nationalism
Arab socialism
Baathism
Pan-Syrianism
Alawite
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
الحزب السوري القومي الإجتماعي
al-Ḥizb as-Sūrī al-Qawmī al-'Ijtimā'ī
SSNP Rabi Banat Syrian nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Secular
Independent Nasserite Movement - Al-Mourabitoun
حركة الناصريين المستقلين - المرابطون
Ḥarakat an-Nassiriyin al-Mustakilleen - al-Mourabitoon
INM Ibrahim Kulaylat Arab nationalism
Nasserism
Anti-imperialism
Pan-Arabism
Arab socialism
Mainly Sunni Muslim
Some Shiite and Druze
Lebanese Democratic Party
الحزب الديمقراطي اللبناني
al-Ḥizb ad-Dimoqrati al-Lubnāni
LDP Prince Talal Arslan Conservatism Officially Secular
Mainly Druze
Toilers League
رابطة الشغيلة
Rabitat ash-Shaghila
LT Zaher Khatib Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Socialism
Arab nationalism
(Left-wing nationalism)
Secular
Solidarity Party
حزب التضامن
Ḥizb at-Tadamon
Tadamon Emile Rahme Christian liberalism Christianity
People's Movement
حركة الشعب
Ḥarakat ash-Shaeb
SHAAB Ibrahim al-Halabi Nasserism
Socialism
Arab nationalism
Secular
Christian Democratic Union
الحزب المسيحي الدمقراطي
al-Hizb al-Massihi al-Dimoqrati
CDU Neemtallah Abi Nasr Christian democracy Christian
Nasserite Unionists Movement
الحركة التوحيدية الناصرية
al-Ḥaraka at-Tawhidiyya an-Nassiriyya
NUM - Nasserism Secular
Islamic Labor Front
جبهة العمل الإسلامي
Jebhat al-A'amal al-Islamy
ILF Fathi Yakan Islamism Sunni Muslim
Arab Unification Party
تيار النوحيد اللبناني
Tayyār at-Tawhid al-Lubnany
LUM Wiam Wahhab Arab nationalism Officially secular
Mainly Druze
Promise Party
حزب الوعد
Ḥizb al-Waad
NSDP Gina Hobeika Secularism Officially secular
Mainly Maronite Christian
Federation of Popular Leagues and Committees
تجمع اللجان والروابط الشعبية
Tajamo' al-Lijan wal Rawabit ash-Shaabiya
FPLC Maan Bashour Nasserism
Arab Nationalism
Officially secular
Mainly Sunni Muslim
Arab Socialist Union
الإتحاد الإشتراكي العربي
al-Ittiḥād al-Ishtiraki al-Arabi
SAU Omar Harb Arab socialism Secular
Democratic Nasserite Movement
حركة الناصريين الدمقراطيون
Ḥarakat al-Nassiriyin ad-Dimocratiyoon
DNM - Nasserism Sunni Muslim
Lebanese Arab Struggle Movement
حركة النضال العربي اللبناني
Ḥarakat an-Nidal al-Arabi al-Lubnani
LASM Faysal Dawood Arabism Officially secular
Mainly Druze
Islamic Unification Movement
حركة التوحيد الإسلامي
Ḥarakat at-Tawhid al-Islamy
IUM Said Shaaban Islamism Sunni Muslim

March 14 Alliance

Party Abbr. Leader or Chairman Political position & ideology Primary demographic
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
حزب الهنشاق (حزب الهنشاق الديمقراطي الإجتماعي)
Ḥizb al-Henchag
Սոցիալ Դեմոկրատ Հնչակեան Կուսակցութիւն
Sotsial Demokrat Hnchakyan Kusaktsutyun
SDHP
ՍԴՀԿ
- Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Armenian nationalism
Secularism
Armenian
Democratic Left Movement
حركة اليسار الديمقراطي
Ḥarakat al-Yassar ad-Dimoqrati
DL Elias Attallah Left-wing Secular
Democratic Renewal
حركة التجدد الدمقراطي
Ḥarakat at-Tajaddod ad-Dimoqrati
DRM Farouk Jabre Social liberalism
Secularism
Reformism
Nonsectarianism
Secular
Armenian Democratic Liberal Party - Ramgavar
حزب الرمغفار (الحزب الديمقراطي الليبرالي الأرمني)
Ḥizb ar-Ramgavar
Ռամկավար Ազատական Կուսակցութիւն
Ramgavar Azadagan Gusagtsutyun
ADL
ՌԱԿ
Hagop Kassardjian Armenian nationalism
National liberalism
Classical liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Armenian
Free Lebanese Armenian Movement
حركة اللبنانيين الأرمن الأحرار
Ḥarakat al-Lubnaniyin al-Arman al-Ahrar
FLAM - Secular liberalism Armenian
Free Shia Movement
التيار الشيعي الحرّ
at-Tayyār ash-Shi'iy al-Hurr
TSH Mohammad Al Hajj Hassan Islamism Shiite Muslim
Lebanese Peace Party
حزب السلام اللبناني
Ḥizb as-Salam al-Lubnany
LPP Roger Edde Centrism
Decentralization
Big tent[3]
Secular
Syriac Union Party
ܓܒܐ ܕܚܘܝܕܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ܒܠܒܢܢ
حزب الاتحاد السرياني
Ḥizb al-Ittiḥād as-Siryani
SUP Ibrahim Mrad Assyrian nationalism Mainly Syriac
Shuraya Party
ܫܘܖܝܐ
حزب شوريا
Ḥizb ash-Shuraya
Shuraya Assyrianism Assyrian
Change Movement[4]

حركة التغـيير

CM Elie Mahfoud[4] Democracy Christian

Non-aligned

Party Abbr. Leader or Chairman Political position & ideology Primary demographic
Citizens in a State
مواطنون ومواطنات في دولة
Mouwatinoun wa Mouwatinat fi Dawla
MMFD Charbel Nahas Civic nationalism
Progressivism
Secularism
Secular
Mada Network
شبكة مدى
Shabaket Mada
Mada Horizontal Leadership Secularism
Democracy
Social justice
Secular
Popular Bloc
التكتّل الشعبي
at-Takattol ash-Shaa'bi
- Myriam Skaff Christian democracy Greek Catholic
Azm Movement
تيار العزم
Tayyār al-Azm
Azm Najib Mikati Centrism
Secularism
Secular
Mainly Sunni
Sabaa Party
حزب سبعة
Hizb Sabea
Sabaa Hassan Baz Chamas Liberalism Secular
Lebanese Social Democratic Party
حزب الدمقراطي الإشتراكي
Ḥizb ad-Dimoqraty al-Ishtiraki
DSPL Kamel Asaad Socialism
Secularism
Lebanese nationalism
Islamic socialism
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Red Shi'ism
Secular
Mainly Shiite Muslim
National Bloc
حزب الكتلة الوطنية
Ḥizb al-Kitla al-Wataniya
NB Michel Helou Centrism
Lebanese nationalism
Secular
Historically Maronite
Green Party of Lebanon
حزب الخضر اللبناني
Ḥizb al-Khodor al-Lubnanī
GPL Philip Skaf Green politics Secular
Hizb ut-Tahrir
حزب التحرير
Ḥizb at-Taḥrīr
HT Ata Abu Rashta Officially Islamism Officially Islamic
Mainly Sunni
Phoenician Party
حزب فينيقيا
Hizb alFiniki
Antonios Abidaoud Phoenician Nationalism Secular
Socialist Arab Lebanon Vanguard Party
حزب طليعة لبنان العربي الاشتراكي
Ḥizb at-Taliyeh Lubnan al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki
HT Abd al-Majid Rafei Ba'athism Secular
Movement of Lebanese Nationalism
حركة القومية اللبنانية
Ḥarakat al-Qawmiyya al-Lubnaniyya
MLN Etienne Saqr Right-wing nationalism Secular
Traditionally Christian
Aramean Democratic Organization
ܛܘܟܣܐ ܐܪܡܝܐ ܕܝܡܘܩܪܛܝܐ
Ṭukoso Oromoyo Dimoqraṭoyo
التنظيم الآرامي الديمقراطي
at-Tanzim al-Arami ad-Dimoqraty
ArDO Gabi Gallo Arameanism
National conservatism
Christian democracy
Religious nationalism
Pro-Europeanism
Aramean
Lihaqqi
لِ حقي
Lihaqqi
Collective Leadership Left-libertarianism
Grassroots democracy
Economic democracy
Radical democracy
Secular
Lebanese Democratic Movement
تيار لبنان الديمقراطي
Tayyār Lubnan ad-Dimoqraty
- Jack Tamer Social democracy Secular
Lebanese Option Party
تيار الإنتماء اللبناني
Tayyār al-Intimaa' al-Lubnani
LOG Ahmad al-Asaad Liberalism Secular
Mainly Shiite Muslim
Liberty Front
جبهة الحرية
Jabhat al-Horriya
- Fouad Abou Nader Center-right Secular
Traditionally Christian
Najjadeh Party
حزب النجادة
Ḥizb an-Nejjadeh
Mustapha Hakim Arab nationalism Sunni Muslim
New Lebanese Movement
حركة اللبنانيين الجدد
Ḥarakat al-Lubnaniyin al-Jodod
Danny Abdel Khalek Secularism Secular
Arab Socialist Party
الحزب العربي الإشتراكي
al-Ḥizb al-Arabi al-Ishtiraki
- - Socialism Secular
Lebanese Ecology Party
حزب البيئة اللبناني
Ḥizb al-Bi'a al-Lubnany
- Habib Maalouf Ecology Secular
Popular Democratic Party
الحزب الشعبي الديمقراطي
al-Ḥizb ash-Shaabi ad-Dimoqraty
- Nazih Hamza Marxism-Leninism Secular
Take Back Parliament - Lebanon

إسترجعوا البرلمان

TBP Various Secularism Secular
Lebanese Arab Movement
حركة لبنان العربي
Ḥarakat Lubnan al-Arabi
- - Nasserism Sunni Muslim
Organization of Communist Action
منظمة العمل الشيوعي
Munaẓẓamah al-‘Amal ash-Shuyū‘ī
- Ibrahim Muhsen Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Socialism
Maoism
Secular
Kurdish Democratic Party
الحزب الديمقراطي الكردي في لبنان
al-Ḥizb ad-Dimuqrati al-Kurdi fi Lubnan
- Riyad Mihhu Kurdish nationalism Kurdish
Razkari Party
حزب رزكاري
Ḥizb Rizkārī
- Mahmoud Khodr Fattah Ahmad Kurdish nationalism Kurdish

Defunct parties

Party Abbr. Leader or Chairman Notes Ideology Primary demographic
Al-Tanzim Party
حركة المقاومة اللبنانية - التنظيم
Ḥarakat al-Moqawama al-Lubnaniya (Tanzim)
Tanzim - Political wing of the Al-Tanzim militia. Ultranationalism
Christian right
Maronite
Constitutional Bloc
الكتلة الدستورية
al-Kutla ad-Dustuuriyya
- Khalil El-Khoury Created by Bechara El Khoury to oppose Émile Eddé's National Bloc Secular liberalism
Liberal nationalism
Nonsectarianism
Pro-National Pact
Secular
The Great Lebanese Labor Party
الحزب العمالي اللبناني الكبير
al-Ḥizb al-'Ommali al-Lubnany al-Kabir
- - This party existed during the French Mandate of Lebanon Communism Secular
Deprived Movement
حركة المحرومين
Ḥarakat al-Mahrumin
- Musa al-Sadr Ancestor of Amal - Shia
Arab Nationalist Movement
حركة القوميين العرب
Ḥarakat al-Qawmiyyin al-'Arab
- - Split, most merged into the Arab Socialist Action Party – Lebanon Pan-Arabism
Arab socialism
Anti-Zionism
Secularism
National liberation
-
Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party
الحزب الشيوعي السوري اللبناني
al-Ḥizb ash-Shuyū'ī as-Sūrī al-Lubnānī
- Khalid Bakdash - Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Secular
Arab Socialist Action Party – Lebanon
حزب العمل الاشتراكي العربي - لبنان
Ḥizb al-'Amal al-Ishtiraki al-'Arabi - Lubnan
ASAP-L Hussein Hamdan - Marxism
Arab nationalism
Secular
National Youth Party
حزب الشباب الوطني
Ḥizb ash-Shabab al-Watani
- Ahmad Karami - - Secular
Party of Socialist Revolution
حزب الثورة الإشتراكية
Ḥizb at-Thawra al-Ishtirakiyya
- - - Maoism Secular
Communist Action Organization in Lebanon
منظمة العمل الشيوعي في لبنان
Munaẓẓamah al-‘Amal al-Shuyū‘ī fī Lubnān
CAOL; OCAL Mohsen Ibrahim Communism
Marxism-Leninism
Secular
Lebanese Republican Party
الحزب الجمهوري اللباني
Al Hezb Al Joumhouri Al Loubnani
LRP; PRL Imad Geara Republicanism
Secularism Nationalism
Secular

See also

References

  1. ^ In 1943, The National Covenant (Al-Methak Al- Watani) conditioned the seats according to the sects. The President, was to be a Christian Maronite, The Premiership to a Muslim Sunni and the Speakership to a Muslim Shiaa.
  2. ^ "Lebanon's Constitution of 1926 with Amendments through 2004" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-05-11. Retrieved 2019-02-07.
  3. ^ Nash, Matt (2017-09-13). "The anti-establishment - Executive Magazine". Executive. Archived from the original on 2020-08-13. Retrieved 2019-10-30.
  4. ^ a b "Change Movement head Elie Mahfoud to MTV: The President was required to take a firmer stance following the Minister of Culture's words and his threat that the Lebanese would witness something they had never seen before". MTV Lebanon. Archived from the original on 2021-10-29. Retrieved 2021-10-15.
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List of political parties in Lebanon
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