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List of inscriptions in biblical archaeology

The following is a list of inscribed artifacts, items made or given shape by humans, that are significant to biblical archaeology.

Selected artifacts significant to biblical chronology

This table lists inscriptions which are of particular significance to the study of biblical chronology. References are from ANET[1] and COS[2] and link to editio princeps (EP), if known.


Name Image Current location Discovered Date Writing Significance Refs
Autobiography of Weni Cairo Museum 1880, Abydos c.2280 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaigns in Sinai and the Levant. ANET 227–228
Sebek-khu Stele Manchester Museum 1901, Abydos c.1860 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the earliest known Egyptian military campaign in Retjenu, including Sekmem (s-k-m-m, thought to be Shechem). ANET 230
Merneptah Stele Cairo Museum 1896, Thebes c. 1209 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs The text is largely an account of a military campaign against the ancient Libyans, but the last three of the 28 lines deal with a separate campaign in Canaan, including the first documented instance of the name Israel in the historical record, and the only documented record in Ancient Egypt. COS 2.6 / ANET 376–378 / EP[3]
Bubastite Portal Original location 1828, Karnak c. 925 BC Egyptian hieroglyphs Records the conquests and military campaigns in c.925 BC of Shoshenq I, of the Twenty-second Dynasty, identified with the biblical Shishaq. Towns identified include Rafah (rph), Megiddo (mkdi) and Ajalon (iywrn) ANET 242–243

Other significant Egyptian artifacts

  • Execration texts – earliest references to many Biblical locations
  • Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446 – A document that lists the names of 45 individuals, including a Canaanite woman named "Šp-ra." Scholars assume that this is a hieroglyphic transliteration of the Hebrew name "Shiphrah," which also appears in Exodus 1:15–21. However, while the name may be related, the document dates to c. 1833–1743 BCE (centuries before the biblical Shiphra would have lived).[4][5]
  • Ipuwer Papyrus – poem describing Egypt as afflicted by natural disasters and in a state of chaos. The document is dated to around 1250 BC[6] but the content is thought to be earlier, dated back to the Middle Kingdom, though no earlier than the late Twelfth Dynasty.[7] Once thought to describe the biblical Exodus, it is now considered the world's earliest known treatise on political ethics, suggesting that a good king is one who controls unjust officials, thus carrying out the will of the gods.[8]
  • Berlin pedestal relief – considered by many modern scholars to contain the earliest historic reference to ancient Israel.[9][10] Experts remain divided on this hypothesis.[11]


Name Image Current location Discovered Date Writing Significance Refs
Statue of Idrimi British Museum 1939, Alalakh c.1500 BC Akkadian cuneiform Records the earliest certain cuneiform reference to Canaan ANET 557
Kurkh Monoliths British Museum 1861, Üçtepe, Bismil c.850 BC Assyrian cuneiform The Shalmaneser III monolith contains a description of the Battle of Qarqar at the end. This description contains the name "A-ha-ab-bu Sir-ila-a-a" which is generally accepted to be a reference to Ahab king of Israel,[12][13] although it is the only known reference to the term "Israel" in Assyrian and Babylonian records, a fact brought up by some scholars who dispute the proposed translation. COS 2.113A / ANET 277-278
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III British Museum 1846, Nimrud c.825 BC Assyrian cuneiform Contains what is thought to be the earliest known picture of a biblical figure: possibly Jehu son Omri (mIa-ú-a mar mHu-um-ri-i), or Jehu's ambassador, kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III. COS 2.113F / ANET 278–281
Saba'a Stele Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1905, Saba'a c.800 BC Assyrian cuneiform Records Adad-nirari III's Assyrian campaign to Pa-la-áš-tu (Philistia) COS 2.114E / ANET 282 / EP[14]
Nimrud Slab Unknown 1854, Nimrud c.800 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Adad-nirari III's early Assyrian conquests in Palastu (Phillistia), Tyre, Sidon, Edom and Humri (the latter understood as the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria)). COS 2.114G[15]
Nimrud Tablet K.3751 British Museum c.1850, Nimrud c.733 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Tiglath-Pileser III's (745 to 727 BC) campaigns to the region, including the first known archeological reference to Judah (Yaudaya or KUR.ia-ú-da-a-a). COS 2.117 / ANET 282–284
Sargon II's Prism A British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.710 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Sargon II's (722 to 705 BC) campaigns to Palastu, Judah, Edom and Moab. COS 2.118i / ANET 287
Lachish relief British Museum 1845, Nineveh c.700 BC Assyrian cuneiform Portion of the Sennacherib relief, which depicts captives from Judah being led into captivity after the Siege of Lachish in 701 BC COS 2.119C / EP[16]
Azekah Inscription British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.700 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes an Assyrian campaign by Sennacherib against Hezekiah, King of Judah, including the conquest of Azekah. COS 2.119D
Sennacherib's Annals British Museum, Oriental Institute of Chicago, and the Israel Museum 1830, likely Nineveh, unprovenanced c.690 BC Assyrian cuneiform Describes the Assyrian king Sennacherib's siege of Jerusalem in 701 BC during the reign of king Hezekiah. COS 2.119B / ANET 287–288
Esarhaddon's Treaty with Ba'al of Tyre British Museum c.1850, Library of Ashurbanipal c.675 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes a treaty between Esarhaddon (reigned 681 to 669 BC) and Ba'al of Tyre with respect to pi-lis-te COS 2.120 / ANET 533
Cylinders of Nabonidus British Museum and Pergamon Museum 1854, Ur c.550 BC Akkadian cuneiform Describes Belshazzar (Balthazar) as Nabonidus' eldest son COS 2.123A
Nebuchadnezzar Chronicle British Museum 1896 (acquired), unprovenanced c.550 – 400 BC [17] Akkadian cuneiform Describes Nebuchadnezzar's first siege of Jerusalem in 597 BC, the Siege of Jerusalem (597 BC) COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307
Cylinder of Cyrus British Museum 1879, Babylon c.530 BC Akkadian cuneiform King Cyrus's treatment of religion, which is significant to the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah. COS 2.124 / ANET 315–316
Nabonidus Chronicle British Museum 1879 (acquired), Sippar, unprovenanced 4th –1st century BC[18] Akkadian cuneiform Describes the conquest of Babylon by the Persian king Cyrus the Great COS 1.137 / ANET 301–307 / EP[19]

Other significant Cuneiform artifacts

Canaanite and Aramaic

Name Image Current location Discovered Date Writing Significance Refs
Mesha Stele Louvre 1868, Dhiban, Jordan c.850 BC Moabite language Describes the victories of Moabite king Mesha over the House of Omri (kingdom of Israel). It bears the earliest certain extra-biblical reference to the Israelite god Yahweh, and—if French scholar André Lemaire's reconstruction of a portion of line 31 is correct—the earliest mention of the "House of David" (i.e., the kingdom of Judah). One of the only two known artifacts containing the "Moabite" dialect of Canaanite languages (the second is the El-Kerak Inscription) COS 2.23 / ANET 320–321
Tel Dan Stele Israel Museum 1993, Tel Dan c.800 BC Old Aramaic Significant as an extra-biblical corroboration of Israel's past, particularly in lines 8 and 9, which mention a "king of Israel" and a "house of David". The latter is generally understood by scholars to refer to the ruling dynasty of Judah. Although the meaning of this phrase has been disputed by a small minority of scholars,[33] today it is generally accepted as a reference to the Davidic dynasty.[34][35][36][37]
Siloam inscription Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1880, Siloam tunnel c.701 BC Paleo-Hebrew Records the construction of Siloam tunnel COS 2.28 / ANET 321
LMLK seals Various 1870 onwards c.700 BC Phoenician alphabet (also known as Paleo-Hebrew) c.2,000 stamp impressions, translated as "belonging to the King" COS 2.77 / EP[38]
Ekron inscription Israel Museum 1996, Ekron c.650 BC Phoenician alphabet The first known inscription from the area ascribed to Philistines COS 2.42
Trumpeting Place inscription Israel Museum 1968, Jerusalem c.1st century AD Hebrew[39] Believed to be a directional sign for the priests who blew a trumpet, consistent with an account in Josephus

Other significant Canaanite and Aramaic artifacts

Gezer calendar in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.
  • Bullae (c. 715–687 BC or 716–687 BC)[47] (clay roundels impressed with a personal seal identifying the owner of an object, the author of a document, etc.) are, like ostraka, relatively common, both in digs and on the antiquities market. The identification of individuals named in bullae with equivalent names from the Bible is difficult, but identifications have been made with king Hezekiah[48] and his servants (avadim in Hebrew, [עבדים - slaves])
  • Seals
    • Seal of Jaazaniah - Features skillfully ground onyx into appearance of eye with black pupil. Cock image proof of chickens in Palestine before Hellenistic times.[52]
    • King Ahaz's Seal (732 to 716 BC) – Ahaz was a king of Judah but "did not do what was right in the sight of the Lord his God, as his ancestor David had done" (2 Kings 16:2; 2 Chronicles 28:1). He worshiped idols and followed pagan practices. "He even made his son pass through fire, according to the abominable practices of the nations" (2 Kings 16:3). Ahaz was the son and successor of Jotham.
  • Khirbet Beit Lei graffiti contains oldest known Hebrew writing of the word "Jerusalem", dated to 7th century BC "I am YHWH thy Lord. I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem" "Absolve us oh merciful God. Absolve us oh YHWH"[53]
  • Yavne-Yam ostracon is an inscribed pottery fragment dated to 7th century BC and written in ancient Hebrew language. It contains early attestation of the word Shabbat.[54][55]
Ketef Hinnom Priestly Blessing

Greek and Latin

Name Image Current location Discovered Date Writing Significance Refs
Eunēlos inscription Ras Macalister's excavations of Gezer Greek Early tetragrammaton attestation. Possible syncretic character. Refers to a feast of Yahweh Inasios. [61]
Temple Warning inscription Istanbul Archaeology Museums 1871, Jerusalem c.23 BC – 70 AD Greek Believed to be an inscription from Herod's Temple, warning foreigners ("allogenē") to refrain from entering the Temple enclosure
Arch of Titus Original location n.a., Rome c.82 AD Latin Relief showing spoils from the Sack of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 AD. Depicted are the menorah and trumpets, as well as what might be the Table of Showbread.

Other significant Greek and Latin artifacts

  • Pilate Stone (c. 36 AD) – carved inscription attributed to Pontius Pilate, a prefect of the Roman-controlled province of Judaea from 26 to 36 AD.
  • Delphi Inscription (c. 52 AD) – The reference to proconsul Gallio in the inscription provides an important marker for developing a chronology of the life of Apostle Paul by relating it to the trial of Paul in Achaea mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (18:12–17).
  • Erastus Inscription (Roman period) – an inscription found in 1929 near a paved area northeast of the theater of Corinth, dated to the mid-first century and reads "Erastus in return for his aedileship paved it at his own expense."[62] Some New Testament scholars have identified this aedile Erastus with the Erastus mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans but this is disputed by others.[63][64]
  • Judaea Capta coinage (after 70 AD) – a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Second Temple by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt.
  • Nazareth Inscription bears an edict of Caesar prohibiting grave robbing.

Controversial (forgery, claimed forgery, or identification disputed)

Significant museums

Concordance of external lists

Inscription COS ANET
Ref. Title Ref. Title
Pyramid Texts 1.4 Pyramid Texts Spell 600 3 The Creation by Atum
1.9 Papyrus Bremer-Rind 6-7 The Repulsing of the Dragon and the Creation
Shabaka Stone 1.15 The "Memphite Theology" 4-6 The Theology of Memphis
1.17 Coffin Texts Spell 1130 7-8 All Men Created Equal in Opportunity
Book of the Dead 1.18 Book of the Dead 175 9-10 The Primeval Establishment of Order
Coffin Texts 1.19 Coffin Text 157 10 The Mythological Origin of Certain Unclean Animals
1.21 The Repulsing of the Dragon 11-12 The Repulsing of the Dragon
1.22 The Legend of Isis and the Name of Re 12-14 The God and His Unknown Name of Power
Astarte and the Insatiable Sea 1.23 The Legend of Astarte and the Tribute of the Sea 17-18 Astarte and the Tribute of the Sea
Book of the Heavenly Cow 1.24 The Destruction of Mankind 10 Deliverance of Mankind from Destruction
Great Hymn to the Aten 1.25 The Great Cairo Hymn of Praise to Amun-Re 365-367 A Hymn to Amon-Re
1.27 Two Hymns to the Sun-god 367-368 A Universalist Hymn to the Sun
1.28 The Great Hymn to the Aten 369-371 The Hymn to the Aton
Harper's Songs 1.30 The Song from the Tomb of King Intef 467 A Song of the Harper
1.31 The Song from the Tomb of Neferhotep 33-34 The Good Fortune of the Dead
Execration texts 1.32 Execration Texts 328-329 The Execration of Asiatic Princes
1.33 Dream Oracles 495 The Interpretation of Dreams
1.34 Daily Ritual of the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak 325-326 The Daily Ritual in the Temple
Teaching for King Merykara 1.35 Merikare 414-418 The Instruction for King Meri-ka-re
Instructions of Amenemhat 1.36 Amenemhet 418-419 The Instruction of King Amen-em-het
Story of Sinuhe 1.38 Sinuhe 18-22 The Story of Si-nuhe
Tale of Two Brothers 1.40 The Two Brothers 23-25 The Story of Two Brothers
Story of Wenamun 1.41 The Report of Wenamun 25-29 The Journey of Wen-Amon to Phoenicia
Ipuwer Papyrus 1.42 The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage: the Admonitions of Ipuwer 441-444 The Admonitions of Ipu-wer
The Eloquent Peasant 1.43 The Eloquent Peasant 407-410 The Protests of the Eloquent Peasant
Instruction of Any 1.46 Instruction of Any 420-421 The Instruction of Ani
Instruction of Amenemope 1.47 Instruction of Amenemope 421-424 The Instruction of Amen-em-Opet
The Satire of the Trades 1.48 Dua-khety or the Satire on the Trades 432-434 The Satire on the Trades
Famine Stela 1.53 The Famine Stela 31-32 The Tradition of Seven Lean Years in Egypt
Bentresh stela 1.54 The Legend of the Possessed Princess ("Butresh Stela”) 29-31 The Legend of the Possessed Princess
1.55 Elkunirsa and Asertu 519 El, Ashertu and the Storm-god
Illuyanka 1.56 The Storm-god and the Serpent (Iluyanka) 125-126 The Myth of Iluyankas
Telipinu 1.57 The Wrath of Telipinu 126-128 The Telepinus Myth
Muršili II 1.60 Plague Prayers of Mursili II 394-396 Plague Prayers of Mursilis
1.63 Uhhamuwa's Ritual Against Plague 347 Ritual Against Pestilence
Hittite military oath 1.66 The First Soldiers' Oath 353-354 The Soldiers' Oath
Šuppiluliuma I 1.74 Deeds of Suppiluliuma 319 Suppiluliumas and the Egyptian Queen
1.83 Instructions to Priests and Temple Officials 207-210 Instructions for Temple Officials
1.84 Instructions to Commanders of Border Garrisons 210-211 From the Instructions for the Commander of the Border Guards
Baal Cycle 1.86 The Ba`lu Myth 129-142 Poems about Baal and Anath
Legend of Keret 1.102 The Kirta Epic 142-149 The Legend of King Keret
Tale of Aqhat 1.103 The 'Aqhatu Legend 149-155 The Tale of Aqhat
1.108 The Descent of Ishtar to the Underworld 106-109 Descent of Ishtar to the Nether World
1.109 Nergal and Ereshkigal 507-512 Nergal and Ereshkigal
1.110 Nergal and Ereshkigal (Amarna Version) 103-104 Nergal and Ereshkigal
Enūma Eliš 1.111 Epic of Creation 60-72, 501-503 The Creation Epic
Dynasty of Dunnum 1.112 The Theogony of Dunnu 517-518 A Babylonian Theogony
1.115 Prayer to Gods of the Night 390-391 Prayer to the Gods of the Night
Great Prayer to Šamaš 1.117 The Shamash Hymn 387-389 Hymn to the Sun-god
1.129 The Adapa Story 101-103 Adapa
Atra-Hasis 1.130 Atra-Hasis 104-106, 512-514 Atrahasis
1.131 Etana 114-118, 517 Etana
Epic of Gilgamesh 1.132 Gilgamesh 72-99, 503-507 The Epic of Gilgamesh
1.133 The Birth Legend of Sargon of Akkad 119 The Legend of Sargon
1.134 Babylonian King Lists 271, 272, 566-567 The Babylonian King List B, The Babylonian King List A, A Seleucid King List
1.135 Assyrian King Lists 564-566 The Assyrian King List
Babylonian Chronicles 1.137 Babylonian Chronicle 301-307 The Neo-Babylonian Empire and its Successors
1.143 An Assurbanipal Hymn for Shamash 386-387 Prayer of Ashurbanipal to the Sun-God
Adad-guppi 1.147 The Adad-Guppi Autobiography 560-562 The Mother of Nabonidus
Ludlul bēl nēmeqi 1.153 The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer 596-600; 434 Ludlul Bēl Nēmeqi
Babylonian Theodicy 1.154 The Babylonian Theodicy 601-604 The Babylonian Theodicy
Dialogue of Pessimism 1.155 Dialogue of Pessimism or the Obliging Slave 600-601 The Dialogue of Pessimism
1.171 Gilgamesh and Akka 45-47 Gilgamesh and Agga
Dialogue between a Man and His God 1.179 "Man and his God" 589-591 Man and His God
2.1 The Tomb Biography of Ahmose of Nekheb 233-234 The Expulsion of the Hyksos
2.2A The Annals of Thutmose III 234 B-238 The Annals in Karnak
2.2B The Gebel Barkal Stela of Thutmose III 238C, 240D-C The Barkal Stela
2.2C The Armant Stela of Thutmose III 234 A The Armant Stela
2.3 The Memphis and Karnak Stelae of Amenhotep II 245-247 The Memphis and Karnak Stelae
Karnak 2.4A [Sethos I] Karnak, Campaign from Sile to Pa-Canaan, Year 1 254C, 254A, 254D Campaigns of Seti I in Asia
2.4C [Sethos I] Karnak, Campaign to Yenoam and Lebanon (Year 1 or Later) 254C Campaigns of Seti I in Asia
Beisan steles 2.4B [Sethos I] First Beth-Shan Stela, Year 1 253-254 A Campaign of Seti I in Northern Palestine
2.4D [Sethos I] Second Beth-Shan Stela, Year Lost 255 Beth-Shan Stelae of Seti I and Ramses II
Kadesh inscriptions 2.5A [Ramesses II] The Battle of Qadesh — The Poem, or Literary Record 255-256 The Asiatic Campaigning of Ramses II
Merneptah Stele 2.6 The (Israel) Stela of Merneptah 376-378 Hymn of Victory of Mer-ne-ptah (The "Israel Stela”)
2.10 Coffin Text 159 33 The Fields of Paradise
2.12 Book of the Dead 125 34-36 The Protestation of Guiltlessness
Mesha Stele 2.23 The Inscription of King Mesha 320-321 The Moabite Stone
Siloam inscription 2.28 The Siloam Tunnel Inscription 321 The Siloam Inscription
Yehimilk inscription 2.29 The Inscription of King Yahimilk 653-654 Yehimilk of Byblos
Kilamuwa Stela 2.30 The Kulamuwa Inscription 654-655 Kilamuwa of Y'dy-Sam'al
Yehawmilk Stele 2.32 The Inscription of King Yehawmilk 656 Yehawmilk of Byblos
Stele of Zakkur 2.35 The Inscription of Zakkur, King of Hamath 655-656 Zakir of Hamat and Lu`ath
Ahiram sarcophagus 2.55 The Sarcophagus Inscription of ‘Ahirom, King of Byblos 661 Ahiram of Byblos
Tabnit sarcophagus 2.56 The Sarcophagus Inscription of Tabnit, King of Sidon 662 Tabnit of Sidon
Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II 2.57 The Sarcophagus Inscription of 'Eshmun`azor, King of Sidon 662 Eshmun`azar of Sidon
Sefire steles 2.82 The Inscription of Bar Ga'yah and Mati`el from Sefire 659-661 The Treaty between KTK and Arpad
Gezer calendar 2.85 The Gezer Calendar 320 The Gezer Calendar
Arslan Tash amulets 2.86 An Amulet from Arslan Tash 658 The Amulet from Arslan Tash
Kurkh Monoliths 2.113A [Shalmaneser III] Kurkh Monolith 277-278 [Shalmaneser III] Annalistic Reports (i 29-ii 13)
2.113B [Shalmaneser III] Annals: Assur Clay Tablets Cf. 278-279 [Shalmaneser III] Annalistic Reports
2.113C [Shalmaneser III] Annals" Calah Bulls 279-280 [Shalmaneser III] Annalistic Reports (Bull Inscription)
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III 2.113F [Shalmaneser III] Black Obelisk 278-281 [Shalmaneser III] Annalistic Reports (Black Obelisk)
2.113G [Shalmaneser III] Assur Basalt Statue 280 [Shalmaneser III] Various Inscriptions (a)
2.113H [Shalmaneser III] Black Stone Cylinder 281 [Shalmaneser III] Various Inscriptions (c)
Saba'a Stele 2.114E [Adad-nirari III] Saba'a Stela 282 [Adad-Nirari III] (b) Saba'a Stela
2.117A [Tiglath-Pileser III] The Calah Annals 282-283 [Tiglath-Pileser III] Annalistic Records (103-133)
2.117C [Tiglath-Pileser III] Summary Inscription 4 283-284 [Tiglath-Pileser III] Annalistic Records (1-34)
Annals of Sargon II 2.118A [Sargon II] The Annals 285 [Sargon II] From Annalistic Reports (23-57)
Sargon Stele 2.118E [Sargon II] The Great “Summary" Inscription 284-285 [Sargon II] Inscriptions of a General Nature (1)
Annals of Sargon II 2.118F [Sargon II] The Small “Summary" Inscription 285 [Sargon II] From Annalistic Reports (11-15)
Sargon II's Prisms 2.118i [Sargon II] The Nimrud Inscription 287 [Sargon II] From Broken Prisms (3)
Sennacherib's Annals 2.119B Sennacherib's Siege of Jerusalem 287-288 [Sennacherib] (a) The Siege of Jerusalem
Cyrus Cylinder 2.124 Cyrus Cylinder 315-316 Cyrus
Laws of Eshnunna 2.130 The Laws of Eshnunna 161-163 The Laws of Eshnunna
Code of Hammurabi 2.131 The Laws of Hammurabi 163-180 The Code of Hammurabi
2.132 The Middle Assyrian Laws 180-188 The Middle Assyrian Laws
2.133 The Neo-Babylonian Laws 197-198 The Neo-Babylonian Laws
Code of Ur-Nammu 2.153 The Laws of Ur-Nammu 523-525 The Laws of Ur-Nammu
Lipit-Ishtar 2.154 The Laws of Lipit-Ishtar 159-161 Lipit-Ishtar Lawcode
Gudea cylinders 2.155 The Cylinders of Gudea 268-269 Gudea, ENSI of Lagash
3.2 The Craft of the Scribe 475-479 A Satirical Letter
Papyrus Anastasi I 3.3 Praise of Pi-Ramessu (Papyrus Anastasi I) 471 In Praise of the City Ramses
3.4 A Report of Escaped Laborers (Papyrus Anastasi V) 259 The Pursuit of Runaway Slaves
3.5 A Report of Bedouin (Papyrus Anastasi VI) 259 The Report of a Frontier Official
Judicial Papyrus of Turin 3.8 The Turin Judicial Papyrus (The Harem Conspiracy against Ramesses III) 214-216 Results of a Trial for Conspiracy
3.10 A Lawsuit over a Syrian Slave 216-217 From the Record of a Lawsuit
Yavne-Yam ostracon 3.41 The Mesad Hashavyahu (Yavneh Yam) Ostracon 568 A Letter from the Time of Josiah
Lachish letters 3.42A Lachish Ostraca [2] 322 Lachish Ostracon II
3.42B Lachish Ostraca [3] 322 Lachish Ostracon III
3.42C Lachish Ostraca [4] 322 Lachish Ostracon IV
3.42D Lachish Ostraca [5] 322 Lachish Ostracon V
3.42E Lachish Ostraca [6] 322 Lachish Ostracon VI
3.42F Lachish Ostraca [9] 322 Lachish Ostracon IX
Arad ostraca 3.43A Arad Ostraca [1] 569B Three Ostraca from Arad (A)
3.43H Arad Ostraca [17] 569C Three Ostraca from Arad (B)
3.43i Arad Ostraca [18] 569A Three Ostraca from Arad (C)
Elephantine papyri and ostraca 3.46 [The Jedaniah Archive from Elephantine] The Passover Letter 491 "The Passover Papyrus"
3.51 [The Jedaniah Archive from Elephantine] Request for Letter of Recommendation (First Draft) 491-492 Petition for Authorization to Rebuild the Temple of Yaho
3.52 [The Jedaniah Archive from Elephantine] Recommendation for Reconstruction of Temple 492 Advice of the Governors of Juda and Samaria to the Jews of Elephantine
3.53 [The Jedaniah Archive from Elephantine] Offer of Payment for Reconstruction of Temple (Draft) 492 Petition by Elephantine Jews, Perhaps to Arsames
3.65 [The Mibtahiah Archive] Withdrawal from Goods 491 Settlement of Claim by Oath
3.87C Offer to Sew a Garment 491 Letter from One Jew to Another of Superior Station
3.87E Greetings from a Pagan to a Jew 491 Greeting from a Pagan to a Jew
Amarna letters 3.92A Letter of Abdi-heba of Jerusalem (EA 286) 487-488 [The Amarna Letters] EA, No. 286
3.92B Letter of Abdi-heba of Jerusalem (EA 289) 489 [The Amarna Letters] EA, No. 289
3.92C Letter of the Ruler of Gazru (EA 292) 489-490 [The Amarna Letters] EA, No. 292
3.92G Letter of Lab'ayu of Shechem (EA 254) 486 [The Amarna Letters] EA, No. 254
3.129 Inheritance of a Brother and Sister 545-546 (§ 14) Litigation Concerning Inheritance
Dispute between a man and his Ba 3.146 The Dispute Between a Man and His Ba 405-407 A Dispute Over Suicide
Anzû 3.147 The Akkadian Anzu Story 514-517 The Myth of Zu

Other external lists

  • RANE: Readings from the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study. Baker Academic. September 2002. ISBN 978-0801022920.
  • Mercer, S.A.B. (1913). Extra-Biblical Sources for Hebrew and Jewish History. Longmans & Company. ISBN 978-0-7905-1132-0.

See also


  1. ^ ANET: Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. Third Edition with Supplement. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1969
  2. ^ COS: The Context of Scripture. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger. Leiden: Brill, 1997–2002
  3. ^ Petrie, WM Flinders; Spiegelberg, Wilhelm [in German] (1897), Six temples at Thebes, 1896, London: Quaritch, archived from the original on 3 April 2016, retrieved 29 May 2016
  4. ^ van Heel, Koenraad Donker (2014). Mrs. Tsenhor. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-977-416-634-1.
  5. ^ "Brooklyn Museum". Brooklyn Museum.
  6. ^ Quirke 2014, p. 167.
  7. ^ Willems 2010, p. 83.
  8. ^ Gabriel 2002, p. 23.
  9. ^ Veen, Pieter van der; Zwickel, Wolfgang (23 January 2017). "The Earliest Reference to Israel and Its Possible Archaeological and Historical Background". Vetus Testamentum. 67 (1): 129–140. doi:10.1163/15685330-12341266.
  10. ^ Theis, Christoffer (2003). "Israel in Canaan. (Long) Before Pharaoh Merenptah? A fresh look at Berlin statue pedestal relief 21687". Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. 2 (4). doi:10.2458/azu_jaei_v02i4_van_der_veen.
  11. ^ Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, Second By K. L. Noll, P:138
  12. ^ The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship edited by Frederick E. Greenspahn, NYU Press, 2008 p. 11
  13. ^ Ancient Canaan and Israel: New Perspectives By Jonathan Michael Golden, ABC-CLIO, 2004, p. 275
  14. ^ Unger, Eckhard; Istanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri (1 January 1916). "Reliefstele Adadniraris 3 aus Saba'a und Semiramis". Konstantinopel Druck von Ahmed Ihsan. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Internet Archive.
  15. ^ The Philistines in Transition: A History from Ca. 1000–730 B.C.E. By Carl S. Ehrlich P:171
  16. ^ "Discoveries among the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon;". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Babylonian Chronicle Tablet (The British Museum, #21946)". Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  18. ^ Clyde E. Fant, Mitchell G. Reddish, Lost Treasures of the Bible: Understanding the Bible Through Archaeological Artifacts in World Museums Archived 26 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, p. 228. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0-8028-2881-7
  19. ^ Sidney Smith, 1924
  20. ^ Charles F. Horne (1915). "The Code of Hammurabi: Introduction". Yale University. Archived from the original on 8 September 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
  21. ^ "Code of Nesilim". Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  22. ^ a b c Text and History: Historiography and the Study of the Biblical Text Archived 28 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, page 168
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kelle, Brad (2002), "What's in a Name? Neo-Assyrian Designations for the Northern Kingdom and Their Implications for Israelite History and Biblical Interpretation", Journal of Biblical Literature, 121 (4): 639–666, doi:10.2307/3268575, JSTOR 3268575
  24. ^ a b Kalimi, Isaac (2005). The Reshaping of Ancient Israelite History in Chronicles. Eisenbrauns. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-57506-058-3. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
  25. ^ Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William (19 November 2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802837110. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson (1 January 2003). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802849601. Retrieved 8 December 2016 – via Google Books.
  27. ^ Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Quote: "For a defense of the idea that Azariah of Judah headed up an anti-Assyrian coalition, see Tadmor, 'Azarijau of Yaudi' Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961): 232–271. However, Israelite and Judaean History, Old Testament Library. Edited by John H. Hayes and J. Maxwell Miller. London: SCM Press, 1977 says, 'Recently, Na'aman [Nadav Na'aman. "Sennacherib's 'Letter to God' on His Campaign to Judah", BASOR CCXIV (1974) 25–39] has shown conclusively that the fragment presumably mentioning Azriau king of Yaudi actually belongs to the time of Sennacherib and refers not to Azariah but to Hezekiah. In Tiglath-Pileser's annals there are two references to an Azariah (in line 123 as Az-ri-a-[u] and in line 131 as Az-r-ja-a-í) but neither of these make any reference to his country. Thus the Azriau of Tiglath-pileser's annals and Azariah of the Bible should be regarded as two different individuals. Azriau's country cannot, at the present, be determined.' Na'aman separates the country (Yaudi) from the name Azriau (p. 36). Also p. 28 on line 5 where the original transcription was '[I]zri-ja-u mat Ja-u-di' he reads 'ina birit misrija u mat Jaudi'. However, Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (OROT), p. 18, is less dogmatic. He says 'Hence we cannot certainly assert that this Azriau (without a named territory!) is Azariah of Judah; the matter remains open and undecided for the present and probably unlikely.' See Also CAH, 3:35–36."
  28. ^ Davies, Philip R. (June 1992). In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in Biblical Origins. A&C Black. p. 63. ISBN 9780567449184. The reference to az-ri-a-u (? ANET ia-u-ha-zi) (mat)ia-u-da-a is seen by a minority of scholars (see e.g. ANET) as a reference to Azariah of Judah; the majority, however, identify the state in question as Y'di, mentioned in the Zinjirli inscription and located in northern Syria.
  29. ^ Verzeichnis der in der Formerei der Königl. Museen käuflichen Gipsabgüsse (1902) Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine page 20
  30. ^ Levinson, Bernard M. (2010). "Esarhaddon's Succession Treaty as the Source for the Canon Formula in Deuteronomy 13:1". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 130 (3): 337–347. JSTOR 23044955. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  31. ^ Steymans, Hans U. (1 January 2013). "Deuteronomy 28 and Tell Tayinat : original research". Verbum et Ecclesia. University of Pretoria. 34 (2). doi:10.4102/ve.v34i2.870. hdl:2263/33483. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  32. ^ Thomas, D. Winton (1958) Documents from Old Testament Times; 1961 ed. Edinburgh and London: Thomas Nelson and Sons; p. 84.
  33. ^ Rainey 1994, p. 47.
  34. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (28 April 2007). Ahab Agonistes: The Rise and Fall of the Omri Dynasty. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9780567251718. "The Tel Dan inscription generated a good deal of debate and a flurry of articles when it first appeared, but it is now widely regarded (a) as genuine and (b) as referring to the Davidic dynasty and the Aramaic kingdom of Damascus."
  35. ^ Cline, Eric H. (28 September 2009). Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199711628. Today, after much further discussion in academic journals, it is accepted by most archaeologists that the inscription is not only genuine but that the reference is indeed to the House of David, thus representing the first allusion found anywhere outside the Bible to the biblical David.
  36. ^ Mykytiuk, Lawrence J. (1 January 2004). Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit. ISBN 9781589830622. Some unfounded accusations of forgery have had little or no effect on the scholarly acceptance of this inscription as genuine.
  37. ^ Biran, Avraham; Naveh, Joseph (1993). "An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan". Israel Exploration Journal. Israel Exploration Society. 43 (2–3): 81–98. JSTOR 27926300.
  38. ^ Warren, Charles (1870). "Phoenician inscription on jar handles". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 2 (30 September): 372.
  39. ^ Aderet, Ofer (9 March 2017). "The Writing on the Wall, Tablet and Floor". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  40. ^ "What's the Oldest Hebrew Inscription? A Reply to Christopher Rollston". Biblical Archaeology Society. 22 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  41. ^ "Archaeology: What an Ancient Hebrew Note Might Mean". Christianity Today. 18 January 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  42. ^ Nir Hasson, "Israeli archaeologists dig up artifact from time of Kings David and Solomon", Archived 8 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Haaretz, 15 July 2013.
  43. ^ "Decoded: Jerusalem's oldest Hebrew engraving refers to lousy wine". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  44. ^ Hoftijzer, J. & van der Kooij, G. (1976) "Aramaic Texts from Deir 'Alla", in: Documenta et Monumenta Orientis Antiqui 19. Leiden: Brill
  45. ^ Stern, Philip. Balaam in scripture and in inscription. Midstream (2002), (accessed 27 February 2009).
  46. ^ Kaufman, S. A. Anchor Bible Dictionary. pp. 173–178.[dead link]
  47. ^ See William F. Albright for the former and for the latter Edwin R. Thiele's, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983) 217. But Gershon Galil dates his reign to 697–642 BC.
  48. ^ Grena (2004), p. 26, Figs. 9 and 10
  49. ^ Shoham, Yair. "Hebrew Bullae" in City of David Excavations: Final Report VI, Qedem 41 (Jerusalem: Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2000), 33
  50. ^ Kantrowitz, Jonathan (3 January 2012). "Archaeology News Report: Seals of Jeremiah's Captors Discovered!". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  51. ^ Garfinkel, Yosef; Klingbeil, Martin; Hasel, Michael G.; Petruk, Néstor H. (May 2019). "Four Judean Bullae from the 2014 Season at Tel Lachish". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 381 (6): 41–56. doi:10.1086/703122. ISSN 0003-097X.
  52. ^ A Manual of Excavation in the Near East: Methods of Diging and Recording of the Tell en-Nasbeh Expedition in Palestine | Wm Frederic Badè | Palestine Inst Arch Berkeley CA | 1934
  53. ^ "Site History". Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  54. ^ "The First Extra-Biblical Reference to the Sabbath, c. 630 BC". Archived from the original on 21 April 2012.
  55. ^ "Mezad Hashavyahu Ostracon, c. 630 BC". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  56. ^ "Solving a Riddle Written in Silver". The New York Times. 28 September 2004. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  57. ^ "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context", Gabriel Barkay et al., Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 66, No. 4 (December 2003), pp. 162–171 (at JSTOR) Archived 16 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ "Biblical Artifact Proven to Be Real". Archived from the original on 10 November 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  59. ^ "Lachish letters". 10 January 1938. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  60. ^ T. C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 397. ISBN 978-0521227179.
  61. ^ "Bible side-lights from the Mound of Gezer, a record of excavation and discovery in Palestine : Macalister, Robert Alexander Stewart, 1870-1950 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive". Internet Archive. 25 March 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  62. ^ "PH209961". Searchable Greek Inscriptions. The Packard Humanities Institute. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  63. ^ Friesen, Steven (January 2007). "The Wrong Erastus: Status, Wealth, and Paul's Churches". Corinth in Context. Institute for the Study of Antiquity and Christian Origins. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. Thus the Erastus inscription soon became a linchpin in 20th century reconstructions of the social status of Pauline Christianity. Unfortunately, the inscription was incorrectly published and the identification of the two Erastus references is wrong. - Abstract Only.
  64. ^ Gill, David W. J. (1989). "Erastus the Aedile". Tyndale Bulletin. 40 (2): 298. doi:10.53751/001c.30545. S2CID 245872410.
  65. ^ a b Allegro, John Marco (1965). The Shapira affair. Doubleday. ISBN 9789120009094.
  66. ^ a b Vermès, Géza (2010). The story of the scrolls: the miraculous discovery and true significance of the Dead Sea scrolls. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-104615-0.
  67. ^ "Biblical artifacts". Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
  68. ^ Goren, Yuval; Arie, Eran (2014). "The Authenticity of the Bullae of Berekhyahu Son of Neriyahu the Scribe". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 372: 147–158. doi:10.5615/bullamerschoorie.372.0147. ISSN 0003-097X. S2CID 164807979.
  69. ^ "New exhibit: Three Faces of Monotheism". Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2009.


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List of inscriptions in biblical archaeology
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