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List of active nationalist parties in Europe

Nationalist parties in Europe have been on the rise since the early 2010s[1][2][3][4][5] due to, according to some, austerity measures and immigration.[6][7]

Analyses

Linguist Ruth Wodak has stated that the populist parties rising across Europe do so for different reasons in different countries. In an article published in March 2014, she divided these political parties into four groups: "parties [which] gain support via an ambivalent relationship with fascist and Nazi pasts" (in, e.g., Austria, Hungary, Italy, Romania, and France), parties which "focus primarily on a perceived threat from Islam" (in, e.g., the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland), parties which "restrict their propaganda to a perceived threat to their national identities from ethnic minorities" (in, e.g., Hungary, Greece, Italy, and the United Kingdom), and parties which "endorse a fundamentalist Christian conservative-reactionary agenda" (in, e.g., Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria).[8] According to The Economist, the main attraction of far-right parties in the Scandinavian countries is the perception that their national culture is under threat.[9]

Different parts of Europe have nationalist parties with various ideologies and goals. Most nationalist parties in Central and Western Europe are described as "right-wing populists".[10] According to Thomas Klau of the European Council on Foreign Relations "as antisemitism was a unifying factor for far-right parties in the 1910s, 20s and 30s, Islamophobia has become the unifying factor in the early decades of the 21st century."[11] At the other side, there are non-rightist nationalist forces, many of them are leftist, civic or big-tent parties, which often advocate regionalism.

Overview

There are several nationalist political parties of all kinds in Europe, with different cases among the countries.

In Cyprus, because of the complicated situation on the island nation, most of the political forces are described as nationalist but on a different perspective each: leftist-nationalist AKEL supports Cypriotism, social-democratic EDEK, green KOSP and centrist DIKO are Greek-Cypriot nationalist, while national-populist ELAM supports Hellenic nationalism and union with Hellas.

In Belarus (Belaya Rus) and in Azerbaijan (New Azerbaijan Party), the dominant ruling parties are also big-tent nationalist, while in Russia both the ruling big-tent party (United Russia) and the main opposition parties (leftist Commnist Party and far-right LDPR) are nationalist. In Turkey, almost all the political parties, from centre-left kemalists to the far-right, are nationalist, including the government parties (conservative AKP, far-right MHP) and the main opposition (kemalist CHP, civic nationalist İYİ).

Right-wing or far-right nationalist parties are the biggest party in Switzerland (Swiss People's Party) and the ruling party in Italy (Brothers of Italy, Lega), in Hungary (Fidesz) and in Poland (United Right), part of the government in Finland (Finns Party) , while in Sweden (Swedish Democrats) and in Serbia (United Serbia) they support the government. Also, in North Macedonia, nationalist VMRO-DPMNE is one of the two major parties in the country.

In the UK, Scotland's government is ruled by SNP, a catch-all and mostly social-democratic nationalist party that supports Scottish independence. In Spain, the centre-left government is supported by leftist nationalist ERC (Catalonia) and EH-Bildu (Basque) that seeking Catalan and Basque independence prospectively and also by the centrist nationalist and pro-Basque-independence BNP. In Norway (civic nationalist Centre Party) and in Cyprus (centrist DIKO, social-democratic EDEK), non-rightist nationalist parties are coalition partners on the governments. Also in Moldova, leftist nationalist PSRM is one of the two major political forces.

In all other countries, nationalist parties are in opposition. In some countries, opposition nationalist parties are major or significant players in politics, such as France's National Rally and La France Insoumise, Germany's AfD, Spain's Vox, Hellas' Hellenic Solution, Serbia's Oathkeepers and Dveri, Portugal's Chega, Netherlands' PVV and Forum for Democracy, Catalonia's (Esp) Junts and CUP, Ukraine's Batkivshchyna and Svoboda, Estonia's Conservative People's Party, Austria's Freedom Party, Bulgaria's Revival, Flanders' (Bel) Vlaams Belang and New Flemish Alliance, Hungary's Jobbik and Our Homeland Movement, Czechia's SPD, Norway's Progress Party, Armenia's Revolutionary Federation, Wales' (UK) Plaid Cymru, Sprska's (B&H) Alliance of Independents Social Democrats, Slovakia's National Party, Republika and Smer, Slovenia's SDS, Cyprus' AKEL and ELAM, Denmark's People's Party, Ireland's Sinn Fein, Moldova's Şor, Croatia's Homeland Movement, Luxembourg's Alternative Democratic Reform, Bosnia's Party of Democratic Action etc. In the United Kingdom, there is UK Independence Party, as a minor political player.

Separatist/regionalist nationalist parties with strong influence in the whole countries' politics are mentioned above, are ERC, Junts and CUP from Catalonia, Lega from Northern Italy, SNP from Scotland, Vlaams Belang and New Flemish Alliance from Flanders, Alliance of Independents Social Democrats from Sprska and Plaid Cymru from Wales. Also, there are some separatist nationalist parties with strong -or even majority- influence at local councils: Basqonian Geroa Bai from Navarre, Pe a Corsica from Corsica, Croatian Democratic Union from Croat-speaking Bosnia and Galician Nationalist Bloc from Galicia.

There are some cases, like Hellas's Golden Dawn, Slovakia's L'SNS, Croatia's Party of Rights or Germany's NPD, in which parties with significant role on the politics were ultra-nationalist and described as neonazist. Today, NPD is a minor extra-parliamentary party in Germany, Golden Dawn has eclipsed and condemned by the Hellenic Supreme Court as a criminal organization, Party of Rights is also almost eclipsed in Croatia, while L'SNS is still a parliamentary active political force in Slovakia. In Turkey, the government coalition partner MHP is considered ultra-conservative and neo-fascist, with links to the racist organization "Grey Wolves". In Italy, governing Brothers of Italy has post-fascist roots, while some years earlier the political parties MSI and its successor National Alliance (neo-fascist and post-fascist prospectively) were major political forces. In Hellas, the parliamentary political party of Spartans, though not neonazi/neofascist itself, entered the Parliament because of the endorsement of National Party - Hellenes and its leader Ilias Kasidhiaris, an ex-leading member of the neonazi Golden Dawn. Also, parties like Ukraine's Svoboda or Russia's LDPR have described as alleged with neonazism and neofascism.

Recent developments

Estonian General election, March 2019

The Conservative People's Party of Estonia is an Estonian far-right political party, founded in 2012. During the 2019 Estonian parliamentary election it had the largest gain overall of all parties, increasing their seat count by 12 to a total of 19 seats. Its public support is on the rise, according to opinion polls.

Spanish General election, November 2019

Vox is a Spanish right-wing to far-right political party, founded in 2012. It obtained, by surprise, 24 seats in the Spanish parliament in the April 2019 election. In the November 2019 election Vox obtained 52 seats (an increase) from what it got in early 2019. The president of Vox is Santiago Abascal and its general secretary is Javier Ortega Smith. Its public support is on the rise, according to results of subsequent regional elections, and opinion polls.

Hungarian Parliamentary Elections, 3 April 2022

Hungary held its General Parliamentary Elections on 3 April 2022, where 199 seats in the National Assembly of Hungary were filled. Two nationalist parties, emerged with seats in the new Assembly, with the new Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, being from the Fidesz-Christian Democratic People's Party. His party gained 135 seats, while the Our Homeland Movement gained 7 seats. This put 142 out of 199 seats in the Hungarian National Assembly under the control of nationalist parties..

Swedish General Elections, 11 September 2022

Sweden held its 2022 Swedish general election on 11 September 2022, where 349 seats in the Riksdag were filled. Sweden Democrats Sweden's far-right political party made gains winning 73 seats and becoming the 2nd largest party in Sweden with 20.07%. After the election Sweden Democrats joined the government.

They had two minor nationalist party's also ran Alternative for Sweden and Swedish Resistance Movement however they got a small % of the vote.

Italian General Elections, 25 September 2022

Italy held its General Elections on 25 September 2022, where 400 Deputies were elected to the Lower House and 200 Senators to the Upper House of the Italian Parliament. Italy's largest far-right party, the Lega Nord or "League" secured 125 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) and 58 seats in the Senate (Upper House). The Brothers of Italy, another nationalist party, gained 32 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 18 seats in the Senate.

Observers commented that the results shifted the geopolitics of the European Union, following far-right gains in France, Spain, and Sweden.[12][13][14] It was also noted that the election outcome would mark Italy's first far-right-led government and the country's most right-wing government since 1945.[15][16][17]

Finnish General Elections, 2 April 2023

Finland held its General Elections, 2 April 2023, where 200 seats in the Eduskunta were elected to the Lower House. Finland's largest far-right party, the Finns Party secured 46 seats in the parliament, it was the second largest party with 20.07% of the vote.

They had two minor party's also ran Blue-and-Black Movement and Finnish People First but they got a small % of the votes.

Hellenic election, 2023

On the Hellenic Parliamentary elections in June 2023, far-right nationalist party Spartans entered the Parliament gaining 12/300 MP seats and around 4.5% of the popular vote. Two parties often described by some as nationalist also entered the Parliament: national-conservative Hellenic Solution gained 12/300 seats and around 4.5% of the popular vote, while christian-nationalist party Victory gained 10/300 sets with popular vote around 3.5%. Finally, Course of Freedom, an anti-establishment party which is described by some as left-wing nationalist, gained 3% of the popular vote and 8/300 seats. Totally, there are 12/300 (4%) seats belonging to a clearly far-right nationalist party, while by adding the seats of parties that sometimes described as nationalist, a total number of 42/300 (14%) of the Parliament MPs.

Prior to the election, there was an increasing coiling around National Party – Hellenes and its leader Ilias Kasidhiaris. Kasidhiaris, a former leading member of neonazi Golden Dawn party, tried to present a party with modern nationalist far-right profile, managing to reach around 5% in 2023 polls.[18] Finally, a law that exclude political parties connected to individuals sentenced as part of criminal organizations (Kasidhiaris is sentenced as leading person of Golden Dawn and serves his sentence on prison), did not allow at the party to take part on the election. Kasidiaris and his party, endorsed Spartans party, so it managed to enter the Parliament.

List

  •   the governing party
  •   giving parliamentary support

National

Country Party Date established % of popular vote Votes Seats Ideology, description Europarty
 Albania Albanian National Front Party 1989
0 / 140
Albanian nationalism, national conservatism, Greater Albania
 Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation 1890 21.11% (2021) 269,481
7 / 105
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia[19][20] PES
Republican Party of Armenia 1990 5.22% (2021) 66,650
4 / 105
Armenian nationalism, National conservatism, Tseghakronism, Russophilia EPP
 Austria Freedom Party of Austria 1956 16.2% (2019) 772,666
31 / 183
National conservatism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration,[21] euroscepticism ID
 Belgium New Flemish Alliance 2001 16.03% (2019) 1,086,787
25 / 150
Flemish nationalism, Regionalism, Separatism, Conservatism, Liberal conservatism,[22] Republicanism EFA
Vlaams Belang 2004 11.95% (2019) 810,177
18 / 150
Flemish nationalism[23]
Right-wing populism
Separatism[23]
National conservatism[24]
Euroscepticism[25]
ID
 Bulgaria IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement 1999
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, traditionalism
National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria 2011
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism
Attack 2005
0 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism,[26] ultranationalism,[27][28]
Bulgarian National Union – New Democracy 2014
0 / 240
National Socialism, Ultranationalism
Revival (Bulgarian political party)
2014
13.58% (2023)
358,174
37 / 240
Bulgarian nationalism, national conservatism, Euroscepticism, anti-Western.
 Croatia Homeland Movement 2020 10.8% (2020) 12,000 (2021)
6 / 151
Croatian nationalism, Right-wing populism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Conservatism, Soft Euroscepticism
Croatian Party of Rights 1990 3.0% (2011) 72,360
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism[29][30][31]
Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević 2009
2.8% (2011)
66,150
1 / 151
National conservatism, social conservatism, Euroscepticism AECR
Croatian Pure Party of Rights 1992
0 / 151
Croatian nationalism, National conservatism, Protectionism
 Cyprus National Popular Front 2008 6.8% (2021) 24,255
4 / 56
Greek nationalism
 Czech Republic Freedom and Direct Democracy 2015 9.56% (2021) 513,900
20 / 200
Czech nationalism, Anti-immigrant, Anti-Muslim Eurosceptism ID
 Denmark Danish People's Party 1995 2.6% (2022) 93.428
7 / 179
National conservatism, Danish nationalism, Anti-immigration,[32][33] Euroscepticism[34][35] ID
The New Right 2015 3.7 % (2022) 129,524
3 / 179
Conservatism, National conservatism, Economic liberalism, Danish nationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam
Hard Line 2017 1.8 % (2019) 63,114
0 / 179
Ethnonationalism, Identitarianism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Hard Euroscepticism
 Estonia Conservative People's Party of Estonia 2012 17.8% (2019) 99,672
19 / 101
Estonian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, Euroscepticism, Ethnopluralism ID
 Finland Finns Party 1995 20.07% (2023) 620,102
46 / 200
Finnish nationalism,[36] Anti-Immigration,[37][38] Euroscepticism ID
 France National Rally 1972 18.6% (2022) 4,248,626
89 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism[39][40][41] ID
Reconquête 2021 4.24% (2022) 964,868
0 / 577
French nationalism, Anti-Immigration, Euroscepticism
 Georgia Georgian March 2017 0.25% (2020) 4,769
0 / 150
Georgian nationalism, Anti-immigration, Social conservatism,
 Germany Alternative for Germany 2013 10.3% (2021) 4,803,902
67 / 736
Euroscepticism, National conservatism ID
National Democratic Party 1964 0.1% (2021) 64,574
0 / 736
German nationalism, Neo-nazism APF
 Greece Course of Freedom 2016 3.17% (2023) 165,310
8 / 300
Left-wing nationalism, Sovereigntism, Anti-austerity, Left-wing populism, Progressivism, Euroscepticism
Democratic Patriotic Movement - Victory 2019 3.69% (2023) 192,239
10 / 300
Religious conservatism, Christian nationalism
Golden Dawn 1993 not able to contest, cancelled by Supreme Court
0 / 300
Greek nationalism, Anti-immigration, Irredintism,[42] Ultranationalism,[43] Neo-fascist,[44] Neo-nazism
Greek Solution 2016 4.45% (2023) 262,218
12 / 300
National conservatism, Greek nationalism, Economic nationalism, Euroscepticism, Anti-immigration, Right-wing populism
National Party - Hellenes 2020 not able to contest, cancelled by Supreme Court
0 / 300
Greek nationalism, Ultranationalism, Anti-immigration, Nativism
Spartans 2017 4.68% (2023) 243,922
12 / 300
Greek nationalism, Ultranationalism, Anti-immigration, Conservatism, Euroscepticism
 Hungary Fidesz 1988 54.10% (2022) 3,057,195
135 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, national conservatism, anti-immigration, right-wing populism
Our Homeland Movement 2018 6.18% (2022) 332,440
7 / 199
Hungarian nationalism, anti-immigration, Hungarian irredentism
 Ireland Sinn Féin 1905 24.5% (2020) 535,595
37 / 166
Irish republicanism, Left-wing nationalism
Irish Freedom Party 2018 0.3% (2020) 5,495
0 / 160
Hard Euroscepticism, Irish nationalism
National Party 2016 0.2% (2020) 4,773
0 / 166
Nationalism, Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam
 Italy Brothers of Italy 2012 26.0% (2022) 7,284,952
118 / 400
National conservatism,[45] Right-wing populism AECR
League 1991 8.7% (2022) 2,458,752
66 / 400
Right-wing populism, Sovereigntism, Conservatism ID
 Latvia National Alliance 2010 9.40% (2022) 84,939
13 / 100
Latvian nationalism[46] AECR
Latvian Nationalists 2018 0.50% (2018) 4,245
0 / 100
Latvian nationalism[47]
 Lithuania Young Lithuania 2009
0 / 141
Lithuanian nationalism, national conservatism, protectionism
 Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party 1987 9.27% (2023) 348,990
5 / 60
conservatism AECR
 Malta Moviment Patrijotti Maltin 2016 0.36% (2017) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, right-wing populism, anti-immigration, anti-Islam
Imperium Europa 2000 3.17% (2019) 1,117
0 / 67
Maltese nationalism, Pan-European nationalism, anti-immigration, anti-Zionism
 Netherlands Party for Freedom 2006 23.69% (2023) 2,414,657
37 / 150
Anti-immigration, Anti-Islam, Euroscepticism ID
Forum for Democracy 2016 2.24% (2023) 228,822
4 / 150
Anti-immigration, National conservatism, Euroscepticism
 North Macedonia VMRO-DPMNE 1990 34.57% (2020) 315,344
44 / 120
Macedonian nationalism,[48] Christian democracy,[49] National conservatism[50] EPP
 Norway Progress Party 1973 11.7% (2021) 346,053
21 / 169
Right-wing populism,[51] Conservative liberalism,[52][51] Anti-immigration,[53] Euroscepticism[54]
Centre Party 1920 13.6% (2021) 402,481
28 / 169
Norwegian nationalism (Civic nationalism),[55] Euroscepticism,[56] Agrarianism[56]
 Poland United Right 2015 35.4% (2023) 7,640,854
191 / 460
National conservatism,[57][58] Christian democracy, soft euroscepticism[59][60] AECR
Law and Justice 2001
part of United Right alliance
161 / 460
Christian democracy, Soft Euroscepticism, Economic Nationalism AECR
Sovereign Poland 2012
part of United Right alliance
18 / 460
National conservatism, Euroscepticism, Political Catholicism AECR
Confederation Liberty and Independence 2018 7.16% (2023) 1,547,364
18 / 460
Hard Euroscepticism, Polish Nationalism, Ordoliberalism
National Movement 2012
part of Confederation alliance
5 / 460
Polish nationalism, national conservatism, anti-globalization
 Portugal Rise Up 2000 0.09% (2022) 5,236
0 / 230
Portuguese nationalism, Hard Euroscepticism AENM
Chega 2019 7.28% (2022) 410,965
12 / 230
Portuguese nationalism, national conservatism ID
 Romania Greater Romania Party 1991 0.55% (2020) 32,654
0 / 329
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment
Rational Romania 2019 - - - Romanian rational nationalism. Neutral, Objective, Patriotic
Alliance for the Union of Romanians 2019 8.99% (2020) 535,828
47 / 329
Romanian nationalism, Union with Moldova, Anti-Hungarian sentiment, Christian Nationalism
 Russia LDPR 1991 7.55% (2021) 4,252,096
21 / 450
Russian nationalism, Russian imperialism, anti-Americanism[61][62]
 Serbia Serbian People's Party 2014
2 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, National conservatism
Serbian Party Oathkeepers 2012 3.87% (2022) 138,260
10 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Social conservatism, Russophilia
Dveri 1999 3.84% (2022) 140,100
6 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Right-wing populism, Christian right, Conservatism, Monarchism, Economic nationalism, Eco-nationalism, Euroscepticism
Serbian Radical Party 1991 2.23% (2022) 80,218
0 / 250
Serbian nationalism, Serbian irredentism, Right-wing populism, Hard Euroscepticism, National conservatism, Russophilia
 Slovakia Slovak National Party 1989 5.63% (2023) 166,995
10 / 150
Slovak ultra-nationalist,[63][64][65][66][67][68] Antiziganism[69][70][71] MELD
Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia 2011 0.84% (2023) 25,003
0 / 150
Neo-fascism APF
 Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party 1989 23.5 (2022) 279,897
27 / 90
Slovenian nationalism, National conservatism, Right-wing populism, Social conservatism EPP
Slovenian National Party 1991 1.5% (2022) 17,736
0 / 90
Slovenian nationalism[72]
 Spain Vox 2013 15.1% (2019) 3,639,772
52 / 350
Spanish nationalism, National Conservatism[73] AECR
Spanish Falange of the JONS 1976 0.04% (2016) 9,862
0 / 350
Falangism
España 2000 2002 0.04% (2011) 9,266
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism
National Democracy 1995 0.01% (2011) 1,867
0 / 350
Spanish nationalism APF
La Falange 1999 0.00% (2016) 254
0 / 350
Falangism, national syndicalism, Spanish nationalism
 Sweden Sweden Democrats 1988 20.5% (2022) 1,322,214
73 / 349
Swedish nationalism,[74] Anti-immigration,[75] Euroscepticism[76] AECR
Alternative for Sweden 2018 0.26% (2022) 16,646
0 / 349
Swedish nationalism, Anti-immigration, Euroscepticism
Swedish Resistance Movement 1997 0.03% (2018) 2,106
0 / 349
Militant national socialist[77] (part of the Nordic Resistance Movement)
  Switzerland Swiss People's Party 1971 27.93% (2023) 713,471
62 / 200
National conservatism,[78][79] Economic liberalism,[79] Agrarianism,[80][81] Euroscepticism[82]
 Turkey Nationalist Movement Party 1969 10.0% (2023) 5,484,515
50 / 600
Turkish nationalism
Good Party 2017 9.69% (2023) 5,272,482
43 / 600
Turkish nationalism,[83][84] Kemalism,[84][85] National conservatism[85]
Victory Party 2021 2.25% (2023) 1,211,917
0 / 600
Turkish nationalism
 Ukraine Right Sector 2014 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
Svoboda 1991 2.15% (2019) 315,568
1 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism,[86] Anti-Russian[87]
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1992 2.15% (2019) 315,568
0 / 450
Ukrainian nationalism
 United Kingdom British National Party 1982 0.00% (2019) 510
0 / 650
White supremacism, British nationalism, British Fascism, Right-wing populism AENM
National Front 1967 0.00% (2015) 1,114
0 / 650
White supremacism, British nationalism, British Fascism
Patriotic Alternative 2019
0 / 650
White nationalism, British nationalism, Anti-immigration

Disputed

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Peace to Luhansk region  Luhansk People's Republic 2014 74.12% (2018)
37 / 50
Russian nationalism, Luhansk separatism
Donetsk Republic  Donetsk People's Republic 2005 72.38% (2018)
74 / 100
Russian nationalism, Donbass separatism
Unity Party  South Ossetia 2003 46.3% (2009) 21,246
17 / 34
Ossetia
Free Motherland  Artsakh 2005 44.2% (2010) 29,252
14 / 33
Armenian nationalism, United Armenia
National Unity Party Cyprus  Northern Cyprus 1975 44.1% (2009) 622,804
27 / 50
Turkish nationalism
Vetëvendosje  Kosovo 2005 26.27% (2019) 221,001
29 / 120
Albanian Nationalism & Greater Albania
Renewal  Pridnestrovia 2000 % (2010) 75,800
25 / 43
Centrism, Russian Nationalism
United Abkhazia  Abkhazia 2004 % (2012)
3 / 35
Republicanism

Regional

Party Country Date established % of popular vote (legislature) Votes (legislature) Seats Ideology
Basque National Party Spain Basque Autonomous Community 1895 37.4% (2016) 398,168
28 / 75
Basque nationalism
Geroa Bai (Basque National Party + other minor parties) Spain Navarre 2011 15.8% (2015) 53,497
9 / 50
Basque nationalism
EH Bildu Spain Basque Autonomous Community

Spain Navarre

2011 21.1% (2016)

14.2% (2015)

225,172

48,166

18 / 75
8 / 50
Basque nationalism
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats Bosnia and Herzegovina  Republika Srpska 1996 34.6% (2022) 221,554
29 / 83
Serbian nationalism
Together for Catalonia Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.6% (2017) 940,602
34 / 135
Catalan independence
Liberalism
Republican Left of Catalonia–Catalonia Yes Spain  Catalonia 2017 21.4% (2017) 929,407
32 / 135
Catalan independence
Social democracy
Popular Unity Candidacy Spain  Catalonia 2017 8.2% (2017) 193,352
4 / 135
Catalan independence
Anti-capitalism
Pè a Corsica France  Corsica 2002 45.4% (2017)
(54.5% in second round)
54,212
(67,253 in second round)
32 / 63
Corsican nationalism
New Flemish Alliance Belgium  Flanders 2001 24.83% (2019) 1,052,252
35 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Regionalism
Separatism[23]
Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Republicanism
Flemish Interest Belgium  Flanders 2004 18.50% (2019) 783,977
23 / 124
Flemish nationalism
Right-wing populism
Separatism
National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Republicanism
ID
Martinican Independence Movement France  Martinique 2002 30.3% (2015)
(54.1% in second round)
36,523
(83,541 in second round)
33 / 51
Martinican nationalism
Scottish National Party United Kingdom  Scotland 1934 44.1% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 46.5%)
(Regional vote: 41.7%)
2,013,484
(Constituency vote: 1,059,897)
(Regional vote: 953,587)
63 / 129
Scottish independence
Scottish nationalism
Regionalism
Plaid Cymru United Kingdom  Wales 1925 20.7% (2016)
(Constituency vote: 20.5%)
(Regional vote: 20.8%)
420,924
(Constituency vote: 209,376)
(Regional vote: 211,548)
12 / 60
Welsh nationalism
Welsh independence
Civil nationalism
Regionalism
Sinn Féin Northern Ireland Northern Ireland 1905 27.9% (2016) 224,245
27 / 90
Irish republicanism,

Left-wing nationalism

Party of Democratic Action[88] Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 24.4% (2022) 238,111
26 / 98
Bosniak nationalism
Croatian Democratic Union Bosnia and Herzegovina  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1990 13.3% (2022) 130,567
15 / 98
Croatian nationalism
Galician Nationalist Bloc Spain  Galicia 1982 23.79% (2020) 311,340
19 / 75
Galician nationalism
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians Serbia  Vojvodina 1994 9.29% (2020) 75,218
11 / 120
Hungarian nationalism

European political parties with mainly nationalist parties

Ultra-nationalist, neo-fascist

National-conservative

Separatist/Regionalist

There are not europarties with left-wing or civic nationalist ideology, though there are individual national parties.

References

  1. ^ "EU president warns against rising nationalism in Europe". Today's Zaman. 11 November 2010. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  2. ^ "Special report: The rise of the right in Europe". Special Broadcasting Service. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Rising European nationalism chills investors". CBS News. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Fascism and Ultranationalism on the Rise in Countries Across Europe". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. 27 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  5. ^ "Peter Popham: Rise of far right threatens to pollute politics across Europe". The Independent. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  6. ^ Smith-Spark, Laura (9 May 2012). "Anger at austerity, immigration feeds far right's rise in Europe". CNN. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Rise of anti-immigration, anti-EU far right parties in Europe causes concern". Today's Zaman. 27 April 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  8. ^ Wodak, Ruth (4 March 2014). "Right wing populist parties on the rise". Cyprus Mail. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Culture matters more". The Economist. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  10. ^ "Continent of Fear: The Rise of Europe's Right-Wing Populists". Spiegel Online. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
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Sources

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List of active nationalist parties in Europe
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