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Liberal Party (Spain, 1880)

.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Spanish. (December 2017) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Spanish article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 5,073 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Spanish Wikipedia article at [[:es:Partido Liberal (España, Restauración)]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|es|Partido Liberal (España, Restauración))) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Liberal Party
Partido Liberal
Leader
Founded23 May 1880
Dissolved1931 (1931)
Merger ofConstitutional Party,
Radical Party
IdeologyLiberalism
Social liberalism
Territorial autonomism
Economic liberalism
Political positionCentre

The Liberal Party (Spanish: Partido Liberal), originally called Liberal Fusionist Party (Spanish: Partido Liberal-Fusionista, PLF) until 1885, was a Spanish political party created in 1880 by Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. With the Conservative Party of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, it formed a two-party system of alternating governments, the turno, which characterised the Spanish Restoration during the late 19th century and the early 20th century.[1]

It combined republicans who did not accept the new law reflected in the Constitution of 1876 as well as monarchists, members of the Constitutional Party of general Francisco Serrano, of the Partido Radical of Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, the “posibilistas” of Emilio Castelar and other military groupings.

Its political programme included achieving universal male suffrage, which was achieved in 1890; liberty of religious association; and the separation of powers. Although it could be classified as a dynastic party, its membership included at the start of the 20th century some politicians who would later become Republicans, such as Niceto Alcalá Zamora.

The system of political alternation characterising the Restoration began when Cánovas ceded power to Sagasta and he formed the first government of 8 February 1881, which started the first stage of the system that would see three liberal governments (two headed by Sagasta and one by José Posada).

The second stage began when the system was institutionalised and endorsed in 1885 when both parties signed the Pact of El Pardo, which established that the parties would alternate in power after the death of Alfonso XII of Spain, which was guaranteed by the caciques networks with which both parties were involved across Spain. The pact kept out of power radical ideologies like anarchism, socialism and republicanism, which could threaten the monarchic regime.

In 1898, the first split in the Liberal Party occurred by Germán Gamazo abandoning the party and leading a breakaway group (the gamacistas), which ended up merging with the Conservative Party. After Sagasta's death in 1903, a leadership contest occurred between Eugenio Montero Ríos and Segismundo Moret, which eventually led to José Canalejas leading the party. He tried to reform it and bring it closer to the reality of the country, but his attempts to evolve the party were cut short by his murder in 1912. That reopened a leadership struggle between two new protagonists, the Conde de Romanones and Manuel García Prieto, and led the party into a deep crisis, coinciding with the disintegration of the political system in which it had played a major part. The disintegration ended in 1931 with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and finally the monarchy of Alfonso XIII of Spain.

Party leaders

See also

References

  1. ^ "Liberals (and Progressives) 1868-1931". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
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Liberal Party (Spain, 1880)
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