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Levi, from the Twelve sons of Jacob, c. 1590 by Jacob de Gheyn II
Born16 Nisan
Died1431, 1430 or 1429 BC (AM 2331 or AM 2332) (aged 137)[1]
ChildrenGershon (son)
Kehath (son)
Merari (son)[2]
Jochebed (daughter)
RelativesReuben (brother)
Simeon (brother)
Judah (brother)
Dan (half brother)
Naphtali (half brother)
Gad (half brother)
Asher (half brother)
Issachar (brother)
Zebulun (brother)
Dinah (sister)
Joseph (half brother)
Benjamin (half brother)
Rachel (aunt/stepmother)

Levi (/ˈlv/ LEE-vy; Hebrew: לֵוִי, Modern: Levī, Tiberian: Lēwī) was, according to the Book of Genesis, the third of the six sons of Jacob and Leah (Jacob's third son), and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Levi (the Levites, including the Kohanim) and the great-grandfather of Aaron, Moses and Miriam.[3] Certain religious and political functions were reserved for the Levites.


The Torah suggests that the name Levi refers to Leah's hope for Jacob to join with her, implying a derivation from Hebrew yillaweh, meaning he will join, but scholars suspect that it may simply mean "priest", either as a loanword or by referring to those people who were joined to the Ark of the Covenant. Another possibility is that the Levites were a tribe of Judah not from the clan of Moses or Aaron and that the name "Levites" indicates their joining - either with the Israelites in general or with the earlier Israelite priesthood in particular.[4]

The Book of Jubilees states that Levi was born "in the new moon of the first month", which means that he was born on 1 Nisan.[5]

Simeon and Levi slay Hamor and Shechem

Levi and the "Blessing of Jacob"

In the Book of Genesis, Levi and his brother, Simeon, exterminate the city of Shechem in revenge for the rape of Dinah, seizing the wealth of the city and killing the men.[6] The brothers had earlier misled the inhabitants by consenting to Dinah's rapist marrying her in exchange for the men of the city to be circumcised, and when Jacob hears about their destruction of Shechem, he castigates them for it.[7] In the Blessing of Jacob, Jacob is described as imposing a curse on the Levites, by which they would be scattered, in punishment for Levi's actions in Shechem.[8]

Some textual scholars date the Blessing of Jacob to a period between one and two centuries before the Babylonian captivity, and some Biblical scholars regard the curse, and Dinah herself, as an aetiological postdiction to explain the fates of the tribe of Simeon and the Levites, with one possible explanation of the Levites' scattered nature being that the priesthood was originally open to any tribe but gradually became seen as a distinct tribe itself.[4] Nevertheless, Isaac, Levi's grandfather, gives a special blessing about the lineage of priests of God.[9]

The family of Levi

In the Book of Genesis, Levi is described as having fathered three sons—Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.[10] A similar genealogy is given in the Book of Exodus, where it is added that among Kohath's sons was one—Amram—who married a woman named Jochebed, who was closely related to his father, and they were the biological parents of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam;[11] though some Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Torah state that Jochebed was Amram's father's cousin, the Masoretic Text states that she was his father's sister,[12] and the Septuagint mentions that she was one of his father's sisters. The Masoretic Text's version of Levi's genealogy thus implies (and in Numbers 26:59, explicitly states) that Levi also had a daughter (Jochebed), and the Septuagint implies further daughters. The names of Levi's sons, and possible daughter, are interpreted in classical rabbinical literature as being reflections on their future destiny.[13] In some apocryphal texts such as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, and the Book of Jubilees, Levi's wife, his children's mother, is named as Milkah, a daughter of Aram,[14][15] but according to the Book of Jasher, the name of Levi's wife was Adinah.

Family tree


In post-Torah tradition

Levi, Russian icon

In accordance with his role as founder of the Levites, Levi is referred to as being particularly pious. The Blessing of Moses, which some textual scholars attribute to a period just before the deuteronomist, speaks about Levi via an allegorical comparison to Moses himself,[16] which haggadah take to support the characterization of Levi (and his progeny) as being by far the greatest of his brothers in respect to piety. The apocryphal Prayer of Asenath, which textual scholars believe dates from some time after the first century AD, describes Levi as a prophet and saint who is able to forecast the future and understand heavenly writings, and as someone who admonishes the people to forgive and to be in awe of God.[17] The Book of Malachi argues that Yahweh chose the Levites to be priests because Levi, as God's minister,[18] embodied true religious principles, possessed reverence for Yahweh, held the divine name in awe, upheld peace, provided a model of good morality, and turned many people away from sin.[19]

Testament of Levi

The Testament of Levi is believed to have been written between 153 BC and 107 BC, and closer to the latter date.[20] On his deathbed, Levi gathered all his children to narrate the story of his life to them, and prophesied unto them what they would do, and what would happen to them until judgment day. He also told them that God had chosen him and his seed as priest of Lord unto eternity.[21] In this testament, Levi is described as having had two visions. The first vision covered eschatological issues, portraying the seven heavens, the Jewish Messiah, and Judgement Day. The second vision portrays seven angels bringing Levi seven insignia signifying priesthood, prophecy, and judgement; in the vision, after the angels anoint Levi, and initiate him as a priest, they tell him of the future of his descendants, mentioning Moses, the Aaronid[citation needed] priesthood, and a time when there would be priest-kings; this latter point was of particular interest to the Maccabean period of John Hyrcanus, who was both a high priest, and warrior-king.

The Book of Jubilees similarly has Isaac telling Levi of the future of his descendants, again predicting priesthood, prophets, and political power,[22] and additionally describes Jacob as entrusting Levi with the secrets of the ancients, so that they would be known only to the Levites;[23] however, like the Testament of Levi, the Book of Jubilees is regarded as a Maccabean-era document.[4]


A Samaritan tradition recorded in the late 19th century considered Neby Lawin, just north of Silat ad-Dhahr to be the burial place of Levi.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Exodus 6:16
  2. ^ Genesis 46:11
  3. ^ Ex. 6:16-20
  4. ^ a b c "Levi, Tribe of", in the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
  5. ^ "Book of Jubilees 28:20".
  6. ^ Genesis 34
  7. ^ Genesis 34:30–31
  8. ^ Genesis 49:–7
  9. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). Legends of the Jews Vol I : Isaac blesses Levi and Judah Archived 2018-10-11 at the Wayback Machine (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  10. ^ Genesis 46:11
  11. ^ Exodus 6:16–20
  12. ^ New American Bible, footnote to Exodus 6:20
  13. ^ Numbers Rabbah 3:12
  14. ^ Jubilees 34:20
  15. ^ Testament of Levi 11
  16. ^ Deuteronomy 33:8–10
  17. ^ Kaufmann, Kohler. "Jacob's Heroic Sons". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  18. ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol II : Ascension of Levi Archived 2017-12-01 at the Wayback Machine (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  19. ^ Malachi 2:4–6
  20. ^ Charles, Robert Henry (1911). "Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 666–668.
  21. ^ The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, R. H. Charles
  22. ^ Jubilees 31:12–17
  23. ^ Jubilees 45:16
  24. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 219

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Levi, Tribe of". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

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