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27.82 – 23.03 Ma
Formerly part ofTertiary Period/System
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionLAD of the Planktonic Foraminifer Chiloguembelina (Base of Foram Zone P21b)
Lower boundary GSSPMonte Cagnero, Central Apennines, Italy
43°38′48″N 13°28′04″E / 43.6466°N 13.4677°E / 43.6466; 13.4677
Lower GSSP ratifiedSeptember 2016[3]
Upper boundary definition
Upper boundary GSSPLemme-Carrosio Section, Carrosio, Italy
44°39′32″N 8°50′11″E / 44.6589°N 8.8364°E / 44.6589; 8.8364
Upper GSSP ratified1996[4]

The Chattian is, in the geologic timescale, the younger of two ages or upper of two stages of the Oligocene Epoch/Series. It spans the time between 27.82 and 23.03 Ma. The Chattian is preceded by the Rupelian and is followed by the Aquitanian (the lowest stage of the Miocene).[5]

Stratigraphic definition

The Chattian was introduced by Austrian palaeontologist Theodor Fuchs in 1894.[6] Fuchs named the stage after the Chatti, a Germanic tribe.[7] The original type locality was near the German city of Kassel.

The base of the Chattian is at the extinction of the foram genus Chiloguembelina (which is also the base of foram biozone P21b). An official GSSP for the Chattian Stage was ratified in October of 2016.

The top of the Chattian Stage (which is the base of the Aquitanian Stage, Miocene Series and Neogene System) is at the first appearance of foram species Paragloborotalia kugleri, the extinction of calcareous nanoplankton species Reticulofenestra bisecta (which forms the base of nanoplankton biozone NN1), and the base of magnetic C6Cn.2n.

The Chattian is coeval with regionally used stages or zones such as the upper Avernian European mammal zone (it spans the Mammal Paleogene zones 30 through 26 and part of 25[8]); the upper Geringian and lower Arikareean mammal zones of North America; most of the Deseadan mammal zone of South America; the upper Hsandgolian and whole Tabenbulakian mammal zone of Asia; the upper Kiscellian and lower Egerian Paratethys stages of Central and eastern Europe; the upper Janjukian and lower Longfordian Australian regional stages; the Otaian, Waitakian, and Duntroonian stages of the New Zealand geologic time scale; and part of the Zemorrian Californian stage and Chickasawhayan regional stage of the eastern US.

Volcanic event

During the Chattian the largest known single-event volcanic eruption occurred: the Fish Canyon eruption of La Garita with a magnitude of 9.2 and VEI of 8.[9] It has been dated to 27.51 Ma ago.[10]


  1. ^ Zachos, J. C.; Kump, L. R. (2005). "Carbon cycle feedbacks and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation in the earliest Oligocene". Global and Planetary Change. 47 (1): 51–66. Bibcode:2005GPC....47...51Z. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.01.001.
  2. ^ "International Chronostratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  3. ^ Coccioni, Rodolfo; Montanari, Alessandro; Nice, David; Brinkhuis, Henk; Deino, Alain; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Liter, Fabrizio; Maiorano, Patricia; Monechi, Simonetta; Prods, Jörg; Rochette, Pierre; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sideri, Marianna; Sprovieri, Mario; Tateo, Fabio; Touchard, Yannick; Can Simaeys, Stefaan; Williams, Graham L. (1 March 2018). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Chattian stage (Paleogene System, Oligocene Series) at Monte Cagnero, Italy". Episodes. 41 (1): 17–32. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2018/v41i1/018003. hdl:11573/1611823.
  4. ^ Steininger, Fritz F.; M. P. Aubry; W. A. Berggren; M. Biolzi; A. M. Borsetti; Julie E. Cartlidge; F. Cati; R. Corfield; R. Gelati; S. Iaccarino; C. Napoleone; F. Ottner; F. Rögl; R. Roetzel; S. Spezzaferri; F. Tateo; G. Villa; D. Zevenboom (1997). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Neogene" (PDF). Episodes. 20 (1): 23–28. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/1997/v20i1/005.
  5. ^ "International Commission on Stratigraphy 2017".
  6. ^ Harland, Brian et al. A Geological Time Scale 1989, Cambridge University Press, 1982. pp 64. ISBN 0-521-38361-7
  7. ^ Berry, Edward W. "The Mayence Basin, a Chapter of Geologic History", The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 16, No. 2, February 1923. pp. 114. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  8. ^ Alroy, John. "Mammal Paleogene zones". p. The Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  9. ^ Mason et al. (2004)
  10. ^ Lanphere & Baadsgaard (2001)


  • Fuchs, T.; 1894: Tertiaerfossilien aus den kohlenführenden Miocaenablagerungen der Umgebung von Krapina und Radaboj und über die Stellung der sogenannten "Aquitanischen Stufe", Königlich- Ungarische Geologische Anstalt, Mittheilungen und Jahrbuch 10, p. 163-175. (in German)
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Lanphere, M.A. & Baadsgaard, H.; 2001: Precise K–Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, Rb–Sr and U/Pb mineral ages from the 27.5 Ma Fish Canyon Tuff reference standard, Chemical Geology 175(3–4), pp 653–671.
  • Mason, B.G.; Pyle, D.M. & Oppenheimer, C.; 2004: The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth, Bulletin of Volcanology 66(8), pp 735–748.
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