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Laghman Province

Laghman
لغمان
Lush greenery stands in stark contrast to the surrounding desert in Laghman Province
Lush greenery stands in stark contrast to the surrounding desert in Laghman Province
Map of Afghanistan with Laghman highlighted
Map of Afghanistan with Laghman highlighted
Coordinates (Capital): 34°40′N 70°12′E / 34.66°N 70.20°E / 34.66; 70.20
Country Afghanistan
CapitalMihtarlam
Government
 • GovernorZain-Ul-Abideen
 • Deputy GovernorSaeed Ahmad[1]
 • Previous Governors [2]Abdul Habib Khaliqi (1963), Azizullah Khogiani (1965), Muhammad Hasan Gardezi (1967), Dr. Khalil Ahmad Abawi (1971)
Area
 • Total3,842.6 km2 (1,483.6 sq mi)
Population
 (2021)[3]
 • Total502,148
 • Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+4:30 (Afghanistan Time)
Postal code
27xx
ISO 3166 codeAF-LAG
Main languagesPashto
Dari
Pashayi

Laghman (Persian/Pashto: لغمان) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. It has a population of about 502,148,[3] which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. Laghman hosts a large number of historical landmarks, minarets, monuments, and other cultural relics that are manifestation of its old history and culture. The city of Mihtarlam serves as the capital of the province. In some historical texts the name is written as "Lamghan" or as "Lamghanat".

In 2021, the Taliban gained control of the province during the 2021 Taliban offensive.

Etymology

Laghman or Lamghan is originally named after Lamech (Mether Lam Baba), the father of Noah.[4]

History

A village sits in a valley in the Hindu Kush Mountain Range in Laghman Province

Located currently at the Kabul Museum are Aramaic inscriptions that were found in Laghman which indicated an ancient trade route from India to Palmyra.[5] Aramaic was the bureaucratic script language of the Achaemenids whose influence had extended toward Laghman.[6] During the invasions of Alexander the Great, the area was known as Lampaka.[7]

Inscriptions in Aramaic dating from the Mauryan Dynasty were found in Laghman which discussed the conversion of Ashoka to Buddhism.[8] The inscription mentions that the distance to Palmyra is 300 dhanusha or yojana.

The Mahamayuri Tantra dated to between the 1-3rd century mentions several popular Yaksha shrines. It mentions Yaksha Kalahapriya being worshipped in Lampaka.[9]

In the seventh century, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited Laghman, which he called "Lan-pro" and considered part of India. He indicated the presence of Mahayana Buddhists and numerous Hindus, including Brahmins:[10]

"For several centuries the native dynasty had ceased to exist, great families fought for preeminence, and the state had recently become a dependency of Kapis. The country produced upland rice and sugar cane, and it had much wood but little fruit; the climate was mild with little frost and no snow. [...] There were above ten Buddhist monasteries and a few Brethren the most of whom were Mahayanists. The non-Buddhists had a score or two of temples and they were very numerous."[11]

The Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam which was finished in 982 AD mentioned the presence of some idol worshipping temples in the area, and describes the province as an emporium of Hindūstān.[12][10]

The Kabul Shahis only retained Lamghan in the Kabul-Gandhara area by the time of Alp-tegin. According to Firishta, Sabuktigin had already begun raiding Lamghan under Alp-begin.[13] He crossed the Khyber Pass many times and raided the territory of Jayapala.[14] He plundered the forts in the outlying provinces of the Kabul Shahi and captured many cities, acquiring huge booty.[15] He also established Islam at many places. Jaipal in retaliation marched with a large force into the valley of Lamghan (Jalalabad) where he clashed with Sabuktigin and his son. The battle stretched on several days until a snowstorm affected Jaipala's strategies, forcing him to sue for peace.[14]

Jayapala then returned to Waihind but broke the treaty and mistreated the amirs sent to collect the tribute. Sabuktigin launched another invasion in retaliation.[16] According to al-Utbi, Sabuktigin attacked Lamghan, conquering it and burning the residences of the "infidels" while also demolishing its idol-temples and establishing Islam.[17] He advanced and butchered the idolaters, destroying the temples and plundering their shrines, even risking frostbite on their hands counting the large booty.[18]

To avenge the savage attack of Sabuktigin, Jayapala, who has earlier taken his envoys as hostage, decided to go to war again in revenge. The forces of Kabul Shahi were however routed and those still alive were killed in the forest or drowned in the river.[19] The second battle that took place between Sabuktigin and Jayapala in 988 A.D., resulted in the former capturing territory between Lamghan and Peshawar. Al-Ubti also states that the Afghans and Khaljis, living there as nomads, took the oath of allegiance to him and were recruited into his army.[20] Sabuktigin won one of his greatest battles in Laghman against Jayapala and his army numbering 100,000.[21] Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni built the Tomb of Lamech, amid gardens, over the site of his presumed grave, 50 kilometres from Mihtarlam.[22]

In the 14th and 15th centuries, Khārkhay Pashtuns such as Yusupzai and Tarkāṇī invaded the Laghmān valley and displaced the native Indo-Aryans.[23]

During the early years of the 16th century, the Mughal ruler Babur spent much time in Laghman, and in Baburnama (memoirs of Babur) he expatiated on the beauty of forested hillsides and the fertility of the valley bottoms of the region.[12] Laghman was recognized as a dependent district of Kabulistan in the Mughal era,[24] and according to Baburnama, "Greater Lamghanat" included the Muslim-settled part of the Kafiristan, including the easterly one of Kunar River. Laghman was the base for expeditions against the non-believers and was frequently mentioned in accounts of jihads led by Mughal emperor Akbar's younger brother, Mohammad Hakim, who was the governor of Kabul.[12] In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani defeated the Mughals and made the territory part of the Durrani Empire. In the late nineteenth century, Amir Abdur Rahman Khan forced the remaining kafirs (Nuristani people) to convert to Islam.

Recent history

U.S. Army Gen. David Petraeus walking with Governor Iqbal Azizi in 2011.

During the Soviet-Afghan war and the battles that followed between the rivaling warlords, many homes and business establishments in the province were destroyed. In addition, the Soviets are said to have employed a strategy that targeted and destroyed the agricultural infrastructure of Laghman.[25] As of 2007, an International Security Assistance Force Provincial Reconstruction Team led by the United States is based at Mihtarlam.

In 2021, the first stadium in Laghman opened in Mihtarlam.[26]

Healthcare

The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 39% in 2005 to 34% in 2011.[27] The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 3% in 2005 to 36% in 2011.[27] There are 57 medical health clinics and 2 government hospitals.[28]

Infrastructure and economy

Members of the U.S. Air Force inspecting the underside of a bridge as traffic squeezes through the narrow roadway in Mihtarlam.

The Alingar and Alishing rivers pass through Laghman, as the province is known for its lushness. Laghman has sizable amounts of irrigated land as one can find scores of fruits and vegetables from Laghman in Kabul. Other main crops in Laghman include rice, wheat and cotton as many people living in the area are involved in agricultural trade and business.

Spodumene mined at Alinghar Pegmatite Field.

Laghman also has an array of precious stones and minerals,[29] as it is well known for being a relatively untapped source of the Tourmaline and Spodumene gemstones which are reported to be in abundance at the northern portions of the province.[30] There are also marble mines.[31]

Places of interest

Education

The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 14% in 2005 to 26% in 2011.[27] The overall net enrolment rate (6–13 years of age) increased from 48% in 2005 to 52% in 2011.[27]

Universities

Demography

As of 2021, the total population of the province is about 502,148, which is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society.[3] According to the Naval Postgraduate School, as of 2010 the ethnic groups of the province are as follows: 52.0% Pashtun, 26.7% Pashai and Nuristani (Kata), and 21.7% Tajik.[32][33] The people of Laghman are overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim.

Laghman has a population of 396,000 people in 2008. The province has 60,048 households, with an average of six persons per home. Rural areas are home to 99 percent of the population. Sapi, Tajik, Nasir, Ibrahimkhail, Hoodkhail, Nuristani, Kharoti, Jabarkhail, Pashaie, Niazi, Pashtun, and Gujjars are the major ethnic groupings. Pashto is spoken in 345 of the 620 villages, accounting for about 58 percent of the population. Pashayi languages is the second most common language, spoken by a third of the people in 210 localities. Dari is spoken in 57 localities, accounting for slightly more than 9% of the population. Kochi people (nomads) live in Laghman province, and their numbers fluctuate depending on the season. In the winter, 94,020 people, or around 4% of the Kuchi population, stay in Laghman living in 40 communities.[34]

Districts

Districts of Laghman Province
District Capital Population (2020)[3] Area[35] Pop.
density
Notes
Alingar 109,343 804 136 70% Pashtun, 5% Tajik, 25% Pashai.[36]
Alishing 80,645 654 123 60% Pashai, 25% Pashtun, 15% Tajik.[37]
Dawlat Shah 37,599 741 51 70% Pashai, 29% Tajik, 1% Pashtun.[38]
Mihtarlam Mihtarlam 155,097 758 205 60% Pashtun, 35% Tajik, 5% Pashai.[39]
Includes the Badpash District.
Qarghayi 110,804 944 117 60% Pashtun, 20% Tajik, 20% Pashai.[40]
Laghman 493,488 3,978 124 52.0% Pashtuns, 26.7% Pashai, 21.3% Tajiks.[note 1]
  1. ^ Note: "Predominantely" or "dominated" is interpreted as 99%, "majority" as 70%, "mixed" as 1/(number of ethnicities), "minority" as 30% and "few" or "some" as 1%.
Districts of Laghman Province

Notable people from Laghman

References

  1. ^ "د نږدې شلو ولایاتو لپاره نوي والیان او امنیې قوماندانان وټاکل شول". 7 November 2021.
  2. ^ http://hafizsahar.com/Images/who.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ a b c d "Estimated Population of Afghanistan 2021-22" (PDF). National Statistic and Information Authority (NSIA). April 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  4. ^ "Afghanistan: Metar Lamech Shrine". www.culturalprofiles.org.uk. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  5. ^ Cultural policy in Afghanistan; Studies and documents on cultural policies; 1975
  6. ^ "AŚOKA". iranicaonline.org.
  7. ^ Henning, W. B. (2 April 2018). "The Aramaic Inscription of Asoka Found in Lampāka". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 13 (1): 80–88. JSTOR 609063.
  8. ^ Kurt A. Behrend (2004). Handbuch Der Orientalistik: India. The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara, Part 2, Volume 1. BRILL. p. 39. ISBN 9004135952.
  9. ^ THE MAHAMAYURI VIDYARAJNI SUTRA 佛母大孔雀明王經, Translated into English by Cheng Yew Chung based on Amoghavajra’s Chinese Translation (Taisho Volume 19, Number 982)
  10. ^ a b Verdun, Noémie (2024). The Books Sānk and Pātanğal: A Socio-cultural History of al-Bīrūnī's Interpretations of Sāṅkhya and Yoga. Brill. pp. 49–50.
  11. ^ Watters, Thomas (1904). On Yuan Chwang's travels in India, 629-645 A.D. Royal Asiatic Society.
  12. ^ a b c Schimmel, Annemarie (1986). "Islam in India and Pakistan". In Bosworth, CE; van Donzel, E; Lewis, B; Pellet, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume V. Brill Archive. p. 649. ISBN 90-04-07819-3.
  13. ^ Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th-11th Centuries. Brill. 2002. p. 126. ISBN 0391041738.
  14. ^ a b K. A. Nilakanta Sastri. History of India, Volume 2. Viswanathan. p. 10.
  15. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1966). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The struggle for empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 3.
  16. ^ Roy, Kaushik (3 June 2015). Warfare in Pre-British India – 1500BCE to 1740CE. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 9781317586920.
  17. ^ Richard Maxwell Eaton. Essays on Islam and Indian History. Oxford University Press. p. 98.
  18. ^ Keay, John (12 April 2011). India: A History. Revised and Updated. Grove/Atlantic Inc. p. 212. ISBN 9780802195500.
  19. ^ Keay, John (12 April 2011). India: A History. Revised and Updated. Grove/Atlantic Inc. pp. 212–213. ISBN 9780802195500.
  20. ^ Syed Jabir Raza. "The Afghans and their relations with the Ghaznavids and the Ghurids". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. Indian History Congress: 786.
  21. ^ The History of India: The Hindu and Mahometan Periods, Mountstuart Elphinstone, p. 321.
  22. ^ Elphinstone, Mountstuart (2013), "SULTÁN MAHMÚD. (997–1030.)", The History of India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 532–579, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139507622.036, ISBN 978-1-139-50762-2, retrieved 2020-12-15
  23. ^ Strand, Richard (2011). "Irânian-Speaking Peoples of the Hindu-Kush Region". Nuristan.
  24. ^ The Garden of Eight Paradises: Babur and the Culture of Central Asia, Afghanistan
  25. ^ How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict, Arreguin-Toft, pg. 186
  26. ^ "First Stadium Opened in Laghman". Bakhtar News Agency. 2021-05-26. Retrieved 2021-07-21.
  27. ^ a b c d Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre Archived 2014-05-31 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "Laghman". English.
  29. ^ "Pegmatites of Laghman, Nuristan, Afghanistan". palagems.com.
  30. ^ Gemstones of Afghanistan, Chamberline, pg. 146
  31. ^ "Laghman".
  32. ^ "Welcome - Naval Postgraduate School" (PDF). www.nps.edu. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Laghman Province". Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  34. ^ Afghanistan Provincial Reconstruction Handbook. p. 103.
  35. ^ "FAO in Afghanistan - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations". www.fao.org. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  36. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office JALALABAD DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). 2005-10-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2023-06-08.
  37. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office JALALABAD DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). 2005-10-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  38. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office JALALABAD DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). 2005-10-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  39. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office JALALABAD DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). 2016-03-03. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  40. ^ "UNHCR Sub-Office JALALABAD DISTRICT PROFILE" (PDF). 2005-10-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  41. ^ "Home". hafizsahar.com.
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Laghman Province
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