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Kandalaksha

Kandalaksha
Кандалакша
A view of Kandalaksha
A view of Kandalaksha
Flag of Kandalaksha
Coat of arms of Kandalaksha
Location of Kandalaksha
Map
Kandalaksha is located in Russia
Kandalaksha
Kandalaksha
Location of Kandalaksha
Kandalaksha is located in Murmansk Oblast
Kandalaksha
Kandalaksha
Kandalaksha (Murmansk Oblast)
Coordinates: 67°09′25″N 32°24′42″E / 67.15694°N 32.41167°E / 67.15694; 32.41167
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMurmansk Oblast
Administrative districtKandalakshsky District
Founded11th century
Town status sinceApril 20, 1938[1]
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 • Total35,654
 • Municipal districtKandalakshsky Municipal District
 • Urban settlementKandalaksha Urban Settlement
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[3])
Postal code(s)[4]
184041
Dialing code(s)+7 81533
OKTMO ID47608101001

Kandalaksha (Russian: Кандала́кша; Finnish: Kantalahti, also Kandalax or Candalax in the old maps; Karelian: Kannanlakši; Northern Sami: Gáddeluokta; Skolt Sami: Käddluhtt) is a town in Kandalakshsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the head of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle. Population: 35,654 (2010 Russian census);[2] 40,564 (2002 Census);[5] 54,080 (1989 Soviet census).[6]

History

The settlement was founded the 11th century but may have existed as a temporary stop for fishermen from the 9th century.[citation needed] In the 13th century, it became a part of the Novgorod Republic along with the southern part of the Kola Peninsula, and in 1478 was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In 1915, the construction of a seaport started, and in 1918 a railroad connecting Moscow to Murmansk running through Kandalaksha was opened. On August 29, 1927, Kandalaksha was made the administrative center of the newly established Kandalakshsky District,[7] and on June 1, 1932, it was granted work settlement status.[1] Status of a town of district significance was granted to it on April 20, 1938.[1] On February 9, 1940, Kandalaksha was administratively separated from the district and granted the status of a town of oblast significance.[1]

In July 1941, during World War II, the town was the primary target of an unsuccessful German-Finnish offensive which attempted to cut the strategic Kirov Railway.

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of March 19, 1959, the Councils of Deputies of Kandalaksha and of Kandalakshsky District were merged into one Kandalaksha Town Council of Deputies.[8] While the district was nominally retained as a separate administrative division, all its subdivisions were administratively subordinated to the town's Council of Deputies.[8]

Since 1995, Vitino oil port operates near Beloye More a few kilometers south of Kandalaksha.

Kandalaksha Mayor Nina Varlamova was murdered in an attack in December 2008.[9]

International relations

Kandalaksha railway station

Twin towns and sister cities

Kandalaksha is twinned with:

Geography

The town is located at the head of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle.

Climate

Kandalaksha has a subarctic climate (Dfc) with mild, rainy summers, and cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Kandalaksha (Climate ID:22217)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
8.0
(46.4)
12.2
(54.0)
18.9
(66.0)
27.2
(81.0)
31.4
(88.5)
31.6
(88.9)
32.0
(89.6)
22.1
(71.8)
14.7
(58.5)
11.4
(52.5)
8.0
(46.4)
32.0
(89.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.8
(38.8)
9.8
(49.6)
16.2
(61.2)
19.5
(67.1)
16.9
(62.4)
11.4
(52.5)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
−5
(23)
4.9
(40.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.4
(11.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−6.2
(20.8)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.3
(41.5)
11.5
(52.7)
14.9
(58.8)
12.6
(54.7)
7.6
(45.7)
1.4
(34.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
−8.2
(17.2)
1.0
(33.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −15.8
(3.6)
−15.4
(4.3)
−11.1
(12.0)
−5.1
(22.8)
1.1
(34.0)
7.0
(44.6)
10.5
(50.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.8
(38.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12
(10)
−3.1
(26.3)
Record low °C (°F) −43.5
(−46.3)
−41.6
(−42.9)
−34.6
(−30.3)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−15
(5)
−4.5
(23.9)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.6
(25.5)
−9.7
(14.5)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−30.4
(−22.7)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−43.5
(−46.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
30
(1.2)
28
(1.1)
45
(1.8)
56
(2.2)
75
(3.0)
63
(2.5)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
46
(1.8)
44
(1.7)
571
(22.5)
Average rainy days 1 2 3 9 18 18 18 18 19 15 6 3 130
Average snowy days 24 23 22 15 9 1 0 0 1 11 21 24 151
Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 81 75 72 69 74 79 84 86 89 87 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 3.2 45.0 129.2 184.6 231.1 271.5 267.6 186.6 110.6 55.8 9.6 0.0 1,494.8
Source 1: Roshydromet[10]
Source 2: NOAA (sun)[11]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 52–53
  2. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  4. ^ Local post office info http://www.russianpost.ru/PostOfficeFindInterface/FindOPSByPostOfficeID.aspx?index=184041 Archived October 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  6. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  7. ^ Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 35
  8. ^ a b Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 55
  9. ^ Malpas, Anna (December 18, 2008). "Mayor Stabbed To Death". Moscow Times. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
  10. ^ "Climate of Kandalaksha" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  11. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1991-2020 — Kandalaksha". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 9, 2024.

Sources

  • Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области. (1995). Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области (1920-1993 гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север".
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Kandalaksha
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