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Kampar River

Kampar River
Sungai Kampar
The Kampar River near Muara Takus, a historical Buddhist temple complex thought to belong to the Sriwijaya empire[1]
Kampar River is located in Sumatra
Kampar River
Location of river mouth
Kampar River is located in Indonesia
Kampar River
Kampar River (Indonesia)
Native nameBatang Kampar (Indonesian)
Location
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceRiau, West Sumatra
DistrictPelalawan Regency, Kampar Regency, Kuantan Singingi Regency, Lima Puluh Kota, Sijunjung Regency
Physical characteristics
Source 
 • locationLima Puluh Kota and Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatra
Mouth 
 • location
Kuala Kampar, Pelalawan Regency, Riau
 • coordinates
0°28′08″N 103°08′42″E / 0.469°N 103.145°E / 0.469; 103.145
Length413.5 km (256.9 mi)
Basin size26,038 km2 (10,053 sq mi)[2]
Discharge 
 • locationKampar Delta, Malacca Strait
 • average1,351 m3/s (47,700 cu ft/s)[2] (Period of data: 2009–2013)2,063 m3/s (72,900 cu ft/s)[3]
Basin features
Tributaries 
 • leftKampar Kiri River
 • rightKampar Kanan River

The Kampar River is on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia, about 800 km northwest of the capital Jakarta.[4] It is a well-known river surfing destination because of its tidal bore, known as Bono.

Course

The river originates in the Barisan Mountains of West Sumatra and flows to the island's eastern coast, emptying into the Malacca Strait, directly opposite Singapore. It is the confluence of two tributaries of almost equal size: the Kampar Kanan River (or Right Kampar) and the Kampar Kiri River (or Left Kampar). The Kampar Kanan River passes through Lima Puluh Kota Regency and Kampar Regency, while the Kampar Kiri River through Sijunjung Regency, Kuantan Singingi Regency, and Kampar Regency. The tributaries meet in the Langgam subdistrict of Pelalawan Regency before flowing into the Malacca Strait as the Kampar River.[5][6]

Koto Panjang, an artificial lake upstream of the river, is the reservoir for a hydroelectric generating plant with a capacity of 114 MW.[7]

The hydropower lake of Koto Panjang

Tidal bore

A large tidal bore that can include breaking waves occurs on the river. It is known as Bono, which means true.

The river widens as it approaches the sea, and its water volume increases as it is joined by tributaries.[1] During the rainy season, normally November to December,[8] the volume is greatly increased, and the shallow estuary becomes even wider. Upstream the river's cross-section changes suddenly, becoming much narrower. The bore is caused by sea water from a high tide flowing upstream from the wide, shallow estuary into the rapidly narrowing channel, meeting the river water flowing downstream.[9]

The waves can travel from the sea at speeds of up to 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph), and when sea water at full tide combines with heavy rain upstream they can reach a height of 4–6 metres (13–20 ft), accompanied by a loud roaring sound and strong winds.[1][10] Bono waves can persist for four hours or more, and travel as far upstream as Tanjung Pungai, Meranti, Pelalawan Regency, 60 kilometres (37 mi) inland.[7] Bono is not just one wave but a series of many, sometimes on the left and right river banks and at other times in the middle of the river.

The large number of ships sunk in the Kampar River's estuary has been attributed to the Bono waves, called by locals as "Seven Ghosts",[11] considered to be the incarnation of the seven evil spirits. Although they still used the river as the ground for boating agility tests.[10]

The bore is used for river surfing.[12][13] Surfing the Bono waves is difficult, owing to the quantity of mud in the river.[10] The river is inhabited by crocodiles,[11] so surfers are usually escorted by rescue boats for their safety.[12]

The Bono wave can be seen at a number of places on the river, such as Tanjung Sebayang, Pulau Muda, Teluk Meranti and Tanjung Pungai, all in Pelalawan Regency. The area can be reached from Pangkalan Kerinci within 4 hours by car, or 3 hours by speedboat. Pangkalan Kerinci can be reached within 90 minutes by car from Pekanbaru or Pekanbaru international airport.[10] The river can also be reached from nearby Singapore.[14]

The Bono area is not far from Tesso Nilo National Park and Kerumutan Natural Reserve and local government planned to extend the Bono tourist attraction with ecotourism.[8]

Geography

The river flows in the central area of Sumatra with predominantly tropical rainforest climate (designated as Af in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification).[15] The annual average temperature in the area is 24 °C. The warmest month is October, when the average temperature is around 26 °C, and the coldest is November, at 22 °C.[16] The average annual rainfall is 2667 mm. The wettest month is November, with an average of 402 mm rainfall, and the driest is June, with 104 mm rainfall.[17]

Kampar River
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
112
 
 
25
22
 
 
261
 
 
26
22
 
 
225
 
 
27
22
 
 
276
 
 
25
21
 
 
244
 
 
25
22
 
 
104
 
 
26
22
 
 
217
 
 
26
22
 
 
149
 
 
26
21
 
 
173
 
 
28
21
 
 
208
 
 
29
22
 
 
402
 
 
24
21
 
 
297
 
 
26
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [16]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.4
 
 
77
72
 
 
10
 
 
79
72
 
 
8.9
 
 
81
72
 
 
11
 
 
77
70
 
 
9.6
 
 
77
72
 
 
4.1
 
 
79
72
 
 
8.5
 
 
79
72
 
 
5.9
 
 
79
70
 
 
6.8
 
 
82
70
 
 
8.2
 
 
84
72
 
 
16
 
 
75
70
 
 
12
 
 
79
72
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Tempat tempat Wisata di Kabupaten Pelalawan" (in Indonesian). Riau Tourism Board. 2010-07-24. Archived from the original on 2012-06-23. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
  2. ^ a b Zumrodi, Maszoom (2015). "POLA PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA AIR WILAYAH SUNGAI KAMPAR".
  3. ^ Francisca, Wit; Tim, Rixen; Antje, Baum; Widodo, S. Pranowo; Andreas, A. Hutahaean (2018). The Invisible Carbon Footprint as a hidden impact of peatland degradation inducing marine carbonate dissolution in Sumatra, Indonesia.
  4. ^ Sungai Kampar at Geonames.org (cc-by); Last updated 2013-06-04; Database dump downloaded 2015-11-27
  5. ^ Ridwan, Adin (2010). Atlas Indonesia (in Indonesian). Tiga Menara.
  6. ^ McNally, Rand (1993). The New International Atlas.
  7. ^ a b "Waduk Koto Panjang". Riau Pos (in Indonesian). 12 June 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Portal Situs Berita Riau" (in Indonesian). Riauterkini.com. Retrieved 2012-06-22.
  9. ^ Kodoatie; Sjarief (2010). Tata Ruang Air (in Indonesian). Penerbit Andi. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-979-29-1242-5. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d Mocelies Ullies (30 January 2012). "detikTravel – Bukan Berselancar Biasa di Gelombang Bono, Sungai Kampar" (in Indonesian). Travel.detik.com. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
  11. ^ a b Swanton, Will (April 13, 2011). "Nice waves, pity about the crocs". The Australian.
  12. ^ a b Afriatni, Ami (May 10, 2012). "A Journey to the Heart of the Bono". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2012.
  13. ^ Howard, Jake (April 11, 2012). "Freshwater perfection". ESPN.
  14. ^ "Exploring the tidal bores of Indonesia". Surfer Today. May 16, 2011.
  15. ^ Peel, M C; Finlayson, B L; McMahon, T A (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  16. ^ a b "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  17. ^ "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.
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Kampar River
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