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Black bulbul
(Hypsipetes leucocephalus psaroides)
Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh (India)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Pycnonotidae
Genus: Hypsipetes
Vigors, 1831
Type species
Hypsipetes psaroides
(black bulbul)
Vigors, 1831

see text

  • Ixocincla Blyth, 1845
  • Anepsia Reichenbach, 1850 (non Gistel, 1848: preoccupied)
  • Haringtonia Mathews & Iredale, 1917

Hypsipetes is a genus of bulbuls, songbirds in the family Pycnonotidae. Most of its species occur in tropical forests around the Indian Ocean. But while the genus is quite diverse in the Madagascar region at the western end of its range it does not reach the African mainland.

Most Hypsipetes bulbuls are dark greyish birds with orange or red bills and feet. The feathers on top of the head are slightly elongated and usually black, and can be erected to form a short and wispy crest.

Taxonomy and systematics

The genus Hypsipetes was introduced in 1831 by the Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors with Hypsipetes psaroides as the type species.[1] This taxon is now a subspecies of the black bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus psaroides.[2][3] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek hupsi meaning "high" with petēs meaning "-flyer".[4]


The genus contains 25 species:[3]

Extinct species

Former species

Some authorities, either presently or formerly, recognize several additional species as belonging to the genus Hypsipetes including:


  1. ^ a b Three species formerly assigned to Thapsinillas were moved to Hypsipetes after molecular phylogenetic analysis found Hypsipetes affinis embedded in the Hypsipetes clade.[5][3]
  2. ^ A species formerly placed in the monotypoc genus Cerasophila was moved to Hypsipetes after molecular phylogenetic analysis found embedded in the Hypsipetes clade.[5][3]


  1. ^ Vigors, Nicholas Aylward (1831). "Hypsipetes". Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London. 1 (4): 43.
  2. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. pp. 491–492. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  3. ^ a b c d Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Bulbuls". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  4. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ a b Shakya, Subir B.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2017). "The phylogeny of the world's bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) inferred using a supermatrix approach". Ibis. 159 (3): 498–509. doi:10.1111/ibi.12464. ISSN 0019-1019.
  6. ^ "Criniger chloronotus - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-05-09.
  7. ^ "Acritillas indica - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  8. ^ "Tricholestes criniger - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  9. ^ "Iole viridescens - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-04.
  10. ^ "Iole propinqua - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  11. ^ "Iole charlottae - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  12. ^ "Iole palawanensis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  13. ^ "Ixos nicobariensis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  14. ^ Balfour, Edward (1871). Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures. Printed at the Scottish & Adelphi presses.
  15. ^ "Ixos mcclellandii - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
  16. ^ a b c d Gregory (2000)
  17. ^ "Ixos mcclellandii tickelli - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
  18. ^ "Ixos mcclellandii holtii - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-06-14.
  19. ^ "Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  20. ^ "Ixos virescens (Sunda Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  21. ^ "Thapsinillas [affinis, mystacalis or longirostris] (Golden Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  22. ^ "Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-23.
  23. ^ "Hemixos casteonotus (Chestnut Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-23.
  24. ^ "Cerasophila thompsoni (White-headed Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-11-08.


Media related to Hypsipetes at Wikimedia Commons

  • Gregory, Steven M. (2000): Nomenclature of the Hypsipetes Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae). Forktail 16: 164–166. PDF fulltext
  • Moyle, Robert G. & Marks, Ben D. (2006): Phylogenetic relationships of the bulbuls (Aves: Pycnonotidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40(3): 687–695. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.04.015 (HTML abstract)
  • Pasquet, Éric; Han, Lian-Xian; Khobkhet, Obhas & Cibois, Alice (2001): Towards a molecular systematics of the genus Criniger, and a preliminary phylogeny of the bulbuls (Aves, Passeriformes, Pycnonotidae). Zoosystema 23(4): 857–863. PDF fulltext
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