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House of Gonzaga

House of Gonzaga
Noble house
Motto: "Conduct us to the Mount"
(Latin: Ad montem duc nos)[1]
Country Italy
 France
Founded1328; 696 years ago (1328)
FounderLudovico I Gonzaga
Current headMaurizio Ferrante Gonzaga
(of the Vescovato cadet branch)
Final rulerFerdinando Carlo Gonzaga
Titles
Estate(s)Ducal Palace (Mantua)
Ducal Palace (Nevers)
Deposition1708 (1708) (Duchy of Mantua)
Cadet branchesGonzaga di Vescovato
(only remaining branch)

The House of Gonzaga (US: /ɡənˈzɑːɡə, ɡɒn-, -ˈzæɡ-/,[2] Italian: [ɡonˈdzaːɡa]) is an Italian princely family that ruled Mantua in Lombardy, northern Italy from 1328 to 1708 (first as a captaincy-general, then margraviate, and finally duchy). They also ruled Monferrato in Piedmont and Nevers in France, as well as many other lesser fiefs throughout Europe. The family includes a saint, twelve cardinals and fourteen bishops. Two Gonzaga descendants became empresses of the Holy Roman Empire (Eleonora Gonzaga and Eleonora Gonzaga-Nevers), and one became queen of Poland (Marie Louise Gonzaga).

History

The first members of the family of historical importance are known to have collaborated with the Guelph faction alongside the monks of the Polirone Abbey.[3] Starting from the 12th century they became a dominant family in Mantua, growing in wealth when their allies, the Bonacolsi, defeated the traditional familiar enemy, the Casalodi. In 1328, however, Ludovico I Gonzaga overthrew the Bonacolsi lordship over the city with the help of the Scaliger, and entered the Ghibelline party as capitano del popolo ("people's captain") of Mantua and imperial vicar of Emperor Louis IV.[4]

Ludovico was succeeded by Guido (1360–1369) and Ludovico II (1369–1382), while Feltrino, lord of Reggio until 1371, formed the cadet branch of the Gonzaga of Novellara, whose state existed until 1728. Francesco I (1382–1407) abandoned the traditional alliance with the Visconti of Milan, in order to align their rising power with the Republic of Venice.

In 1433, Gianfrancesco I assumed the title of Marquis of Mantua with the recognition of Emperor Sigismund, while obtaining recognition from the local nobility through the marriage of his daughter Margherita to Leonello d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara in 1435. In 1530 Federico II (1500–1540) received the title of Duke of Mantua. Also the two brothers of Federico II are historical characters of a certain importance: Ercole Gonzaga became a cardinal, presided over the Council of Trent and was almost elected Pope; Ferrante was a faithful ally of the Emperor Charles V who covered him with honors and positions, Ferrante was also the progenitor of the cadet branch of the Gonzaga of Guastalla. In 1531, the family acquired the Marquisate of Montferrat through marriage. Through maternal ancestors, the Gonzagas inherited also the Imperial Byzantine ancestry of the Paleologus, an earlier ruling family of Montferrat.

A cadet branch of the Mantua Gonzagas became dukes of Nevers and Rethel in France when Luigi (Louis) Gonzaga, a younger son of Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and Margherita Paleologa, married the heiress. The Gonzaga-Nevers later came to rule Mantua again when Louis's son Charles (Carlo) inherited Mantua and Montferrat, triggering the War of the Mantuan Succession.

Another cadet branch were first sovereign counts, later dukes of Guastalla. They descended from Ferrante, a younger son of Duke Francesco II of Mantua (1484–1519). Ferrante's grandson, Ferrante II, also played a role in the War of the Mantuan Succession. A further cadet branch was that of Sabbioneta, founded by Gianfrancesco, son of Ludovico III.

Marie Louise Gonzaga, daughter of Prince Charles Gonzaga-Nevers, was a Polish queen consort from 1645 to her death in 1667.

Two daughters of the house, both named Eleanor Gonzaga, became Holy Roman Empresses, by marrying emperors Ferdinand II of Germany and Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, respectively. From the latter Empress Eleonora, the current heirs of the Gonzaga descend.

Saint Aloysius Gonzaga was a member of a junior branch of this family.

The House of Gonzaga is the inspiration for the play-within-the-play in Shakespeare's Hamlet. In Act 3 scene 2, they act out a play called The Murder of Gonzago (or The Mousetrap).

Gonzaga rule continued in Mantua until 1708 and in Guastalla until 1746. Both ruling lines going extinct until passing on to a minor Gonzaga-Vescovato branch, which is the only remaining existing branch.

Rulers of the House of Gonzaga

House of Gonzaga

Partitions of Mantua under Gonzaga rule

      
             
       Lordship of
Bagnolo

(1399-1509)
Lordship of Mantua
(1328-1433)

Raised to:
Marquisate of Mantua
(1433-1530)
Marquisate
of Ostiano

(1st creation)
(1444-1466)
Lordship
of Luzzara

(1444-1561)
(brief reunion
with Mantua
1460-1478)


Raised to:
Marquisate
of Luzzara

(1561-1794)
      
Raised to:
Duchy of Mantua
(1530-1708)
(with Montferrat
since 1536)
County of Sabbioneta
(1478-1577)
Marquisate
of Ostiano

(2nd creation)
(1478-1495)
      
Lordship
of Bozzolo

(1st creation)
(1496-1529[5])
Raised to:
Duchy of Sabbioneta
(1577-1637)
       Lordship of
Castiglione

(1494-1593)

Raised to:
Marquisate of
Castiglione

(1593-1707)
                           
Lordship of
Novellara

(1360-1501)

Raised to:
County of
Novellara

(1501-1737)
Lordship of
Vescovato

(1519-1559)

Raised to:
Marquisate of
Vescovato

(1559-1796)
             
       Lordship
of Bozzolo

(2nd creation)
(1591-1668)
Marquisate
of Ostiano

(3rd creation)
(1591-1703)
      
       Annexed to the
Carafa and
Guzmán families
(1637-1689)

Annexed to Spain
       County of
Guastalla

(1539-1621)
(purchased from
the Torelli family)
Mantua annexed
to Austria;
Montferrat annexed
to Savoy
Annexed to Austria
(1703-08)
Annexed to Austria
Raised to:
Duchy of Guastalla
(1621-1746)
Annexed to Austria
Annexed to the
Duchy of Modena
Annexed to the
Duchy of Parma
Annexed
to Savoy

Table of rulers

Ruler Born Reign Ruling part Consort Death Notes
Ludovico I 1268
Mantua
Son of Guido Corradi da Gonzaga and Estrambina di San Martino
16 August 1328 – 18 January 1360 Lordship of Mantua Richilda Ramberti
1312
four children

Caterina Malatesta
c.1320
four children

Giovanna Malaspina of Fosdinovo
1340
six children
18 January 1360
Mantua
aged 91-92
With the help of Cangrande I della Scala, lord of Verona, Ludovico became Capitano del popolo of Mantua, and also the first effective ruler of his family.
Feltrino c.1290
Mantua
Third son of Ludovico I and Richilda Ramberti
1335 – 28 December 1374 Lordship of Novellara-Bagnolo Antonia da Correggio
c.1340
four children
28 December 1374
Padua
aged 83-84?
Conquered the region of Reggio as early as 1335, and on 17 May 1371 sold to Milan all this land, with the exception of Novellara and Bagnolo.
Guido 1290
Mantua
Second son of Ludovico I and Richilda Ramberti
18 January 1360 – 22 September 1369 Lordship of Mantua Agnese Pico di Mirandola
c.1310/20?
two children

Camilla Beccaria
c.1330?
no children

Beatrice of Bar
1340
six children
22 September 1369
Mantua
aged 78-79
Elected in Mantua. Got firstly elected in Reggio Emilia in 1335.
Ludovico II 1334
Mantua
Second son of Guido and Beatrice of Bar
22 September 1369 – 4 October 1382 Lordship of Mantua Alda d'Este
1356
two children
4 October 1382
Mantua
aged 47-48
Guido II[6] 1 February 1340
Novellara
Second son of Feltrino I and Antonia da Correggio
28 December 1374 – 2 February 1399 Lordship of Novellara Ginevra Malatesta
1374
four children
2 February 1399
Novellara
aged 59
Francesco I 1366
Mantua
Son of Ludovico II and Alda d'Este
4 October 1382 – 7 March 1407 Lordship of Mantua Agnese Visconti
15 August 1375
(by proxy)
25 December 1380
(formal)
one child

Margherita Malatesta
1399
two children
7 March 1407
Cavriana
aged 40-41
Giacomo c.1375
Novellara
First son of Guido II and Ginevra Malatesta
2 February 1399 – 1441 Lordship of Novellara Ippolita Pio
five children
1441
Novellara
aged 64-65
Children of Guido II, divided their inheritance.
Feltrino II c.1375
Novellara
Second son of Guido II and Ginevra Malatesta
2 February 1399 – 1424 Lordship of Bagnolo Antonia Gonzaga of Mantua
four children
1424
aged 48-49?
Regency of Carlo I Malatesta, Lord of Rimini (1407-1409) On 22 September 1433, the lordship was officially raised to a Marquisate, as Gian Francesco purchased his title from Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.
Gian Francesco 1 June 1395
Mantua
Son of Francesco I and Margherita Malatesta
7 March 1407 – 25 September 1444 Lordship of Mantua
(1407-1433)

Marquisate of Mantua
(1433-1444)
Paola Malatesta
22 August 1409
Pesaro
six children
25 September 1444
Mantua
aged 49
Guido c.1410?
Novellara
Second son of Feltrino II and Antonia Gonzaga of Mantua
1424 – 1456 Lordship of Bagnolo Unmarried 1456
aged 45-46?
Francesco I c.1420
Novellara
First son of Giacomo and Ippolita Pio
1441 – 8 February 1484 Lordship of Novellara Costanza Strozzi
seven children
8 February 1484
Novellara
aged 53-54
Ludovico III the Turk 5 June 1412
Mantua
First son of Gian Francesco and Paola Malatesta
25 September 1444 – 11 June 1478 Marquisate of Mantua Barbara of Brandenburg
12 November 1433
Mantua
fourteen children
11 June 1478
Goito
aged 66
Children of Gian Francesco, divided the land. After Alessandro's death, Ostiano returned to Mantua, only to be partitioned off again in the next generation.
Carlo 1415
Mantua
Second son of Gian Francesco and Paola Malatesta
25 September 1444 – 21 December 1456 Lordship of Luzzara Lucia d'Este
1437
no children

Ringarda Manfredi
two children
21 December 1456
Ferrara
aged 40-41
Alessandro 26 August 1427
Mantua
Third son of Gian Francesco and Paola Malatesta
25 September 1444 – 16 January 1466 Marquisate of Ostiano Agnese da Montefeltro
1446
no children
16 January 1466
Mantua
aged 38
Regency of Ringarda Manfredi (1456-1466) After his death, Luzzara returned to Mantua, only to be later partitioned off again and given to his cousin Rodolfo.
Ugolotto 1452
Mantua
Son of Carlo and Ringarda Manfredi
21 December 1456 – c.1470 Lordship of Luzzara Unmarried c.1470?
aged 17-18?
Giorgio c.1420
Novellara
Second son of Giacomo Gonzaga, Lord of Novellara and Ippolita Pio
1456 – 1487 Lordship of Bagnolo Paola Schianteschi
two or four children

Alda Torelli
at least four children
1487
Novellara
aged 56-57?
Federico I 25 June 1441
Mantua
Second son of Ludovico III and Barbara of Brandenburg
11 June 1478 – 14 July 1484 Marquisate of Mantua Margaret of Bavaria
6 June 1463
Mantua
six children
14 July 1484
Mantua
aged 43
Children of Ludovico III, divided the land.
Gian Francesco 4 October 1446
Mantua
Fourth son of Ludovico III and Barbara of Brandenburg
11 June 1478 – 27 August 1496 County of Sabbioneta Antonia del Balzo
17 July 1479
eleven children
27 August 1496
Bozzolo
aged 49
Rodolfo I 18 April 1452
Mantua
Fifth son of Ludovico III and Barbara of Brandenburg
11 June 1478 – 6 July 1495 Lordship of Luzzara Antonia Malatesta
11 January 1481
no children

Caterina Pico della Mirandola
1484
six children
6 July 1495
Fornovo
aged 43
Ludovico 21 August 1460
Mantua
Sixth son of Ludovico III and Barbara of Brandenburg
11 June 1478 – 19 January 1511 Marquisate of Ostiano Unmarried 19 January 1511
Gazzuolo
aged 50
Ostiano annexed to Sabbioneta
Gian Pietro 1469
Novellara
First son of Francesco I and Costanza Strozzi
8 February 1484 – 18 November 1515 Lordship of Novellara
(1484-1501)

County of Novellara and Bagnolo
(1501-1515)
Caterina Torelli
c.1495
eight children
18 November 1515
Novellara
aged 45-46
On 7 July 1501, obtained the comital title from Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Francesco II 10 August 1466
Mantua
First son of Federico I and Margaret of Bavaria
14 July 1484 – 29 March 1519 Marquisate of Mantua Isabella d'Este
11 February 1490
(by proxy)
15 February 1490
Pesaro
(formal)
eight children
29 March 1519
Mantua
aged 52
Cristoforo c.1470?
First son of Giorgio and Alda Torelli
1487 – 1510 Lordship of Bagnolo
(until 1509; at Vescovato since 1494)
Latina Ubaldini
three children
After 1510 Children of Giorgio, ruled jointly. Despite losing Bagnolo in 1509 (which merged again in Novellara), they kept rulership at Vescovato which they ruled from 1494. Cristoforo gave up his part in Vescovato in 1510. This feud was then sold in 1519 to Mantua, and given to a collateral line.
Giacomo c.1470?
Second son of Giorgio and Alda Torelli
1487 – 1519 Unmarried After 1519
Marco Antonio c.1470?
Third son of Giorgio and Alda Torelli
1487 – 1509 Unknown
four children
1509
aged c.38-39?
Guido II c.1470?
Fourth son of Giorgio and Alda Torelli
1487 – 1519 Laura Martinengo
six children
1519
aged 48-49?
Bagnolo reannexed to Novellara
Regency of Caterina Pico della Mirandola (1495-1502) Children of Rodolfo, divided officially their inheritance on 30 January 1511. Gian Francesco abdicated to his son shortly before his own death.
Gian Francesco 2 February 1488
Luzzara
First son of Rodolfo I and Caterina Pico della Mirandola
6 July 1495 – 11 October 1524 Lordship of Luzzara Laura Pallavicino
c.1510
eight children
18 December 1524
Luzzara
aged 36
Aloisio 20 April 1494
Luzzara
Second son of Rodolfo I and Caterina Pico della Mirandola
6 July 1495 – 19 July 1549 Lordship of Luzzara
(until 1511)

Lordship of Castiglione
(from 1511)
Ginevra Rangoni
24 July 1519
Mantua
no children

Caterina Anguissola
December 1540
three children
19 July 1549
Castel Goffredo
aged 55
Ludovico 1481
Bozzolo
First son of Gian Francesco and Antonia del Balzo
27 August 1496 – 1 July 1540 County of Sabbioneta Francesca Fieschi
1497
eleven children
1 July 1540
Bozzolo
aged 58-59
Children of Gian Francesco, divided the land, but given Federico's lack of descendants, the patrimony was inherited by Pirro. After Pirro's death Bozzolo (only) was annexed to Sabbioneta. Gazzuolo lived on until the next generation.
Federico I c.1480
Bozzolo
Second son of Gian Francesco and Antonia del Balzo
27 August 1496 – 28 December 1527 Lordship of Bozzolo Giovanna Orsini
1503
Asola
no children
28 December 1527
Todi
aged c.46-47
Pirro I 1490
Bozzolo
Third son of Gian Francesco and Antonia del Balzo
27 August 1496 – 22 January 1529 Lordship of Bozzolo
(at Gazzuolo 1496-1529;
at Bozzolo proper
1527-1529)
Camilla Bentivoglio
c.1500?
seven children
22 January 1529
Gazzuolo
aged 38-39
Bozzolo (only) briefly annexed to Sabbioneta (1529-1591)
Alessandro I 1496
Novellara
First son of Gian Pietro and Caterina Torelli
18 November 1515 – 26 February 1530 County of Novellara and Bagnolo
1518
four children
August 1530
Naples
aged 33-34
Abdicated shortly before his death.
Regency of Isabella d'Este (1519-1521) On 8 April 1530, the marquisate was officially raised to a Duchy, as Federico II obtained his title from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
Federico II 17 May 1500
Mantua
First son of Francesco II and Isabella d'Este
29 March 1519 – 28 June 1540 Marquisate of Mantua
(1519-1530)

Duchy of Mantua
(1530-1540)
Margherita Palaiologina of Montferrat
3 October 1531
Mantua
seven children
28 June 1540
Mantua
aged 40
Giovanni 1474
Mantua
Third son of Federico I and Margaret of Bavaria
29 March 1519 – 23 September 1525 Lordship of Vescovato Laura Bentivoglio
20 June 1491
Bologna
eight children
23 September 1525
Mantua
aged 50-51
Youngest child of Federico I of Mantua, inherited Vescovato at the same time as his nephew, Federico II was inheriting Mantua.
Regency of Laura Pallavicino (1524-1527) Fought with his brother Rodolfo, who wanted a condominium in Luzzara. Massimiliano won the war, and his brother eventually got a separate property at Poviglio, given by the Guastalla branch. In 1561 Massimiliano's lordship was elevated to a Marquisate.
Massimiliano 1513
Luzzara
Son of Gian Francesco and Laura Pallavicino
11 October 1524 – 4 March 1578 Lordship of Luzzara
(until 1561)

Marquisate of Luzzara
(from 1561)
Caterina Colonna
1548
five children
4 March 1578
Luzzara
aged 64-65
Alessandro 1497
Third son of Giovanni and Laura Bentivoglio
23 September 1525 – 17 September 1527 Lordship of Vescovato Ippolita Sforza
one child
17 September 1527
Riozzo
aged 29-30
Left a son, but was succeeded by his brother in the lordship.
Sigismondo I 1499
Fifth son of Giovanni and Laura Bentivoglio
17 September 1527 – December 1530 Lordship of Vescovato Antonia Pallavicino
1529
two children
December 1530
aged 30-31
Federico II c.1520
Gazzuolo (?)
First son of Pirro I and Camilla Bentivoglio
22 January 1529 – 1570 Lordship of Bozzolo
(at Gazzuolo only)
Lucrezia d'Incisa
1550
two children.
1570
Gazzuolo
aged 49-50
Children of Pirro I. Having lost Bozzolo, got control of the remaining territories. However, after their deaths these territories were also lost.
Carlo 1523
Gazzuolo
Second son of Pirro I and Camilla Bentivoglio
22 January 1529 – 13 June 1555 Lordship of Bozzolo
(at San Martino dell'Argine)
Emilia Cauzzi Gonzaga
c.1500?
seven children
13 June 1555
Gazzuolo
aged 32-33
Gazzuolo and San Martino divided and annexed to Sabbioneta and Mantua
Regency of Costanza da Correggio (1530-1540) Children of Alessandro I, ruled jointly.
Francesco II 16 January 1519
Novellara
First son of Alessandro I and
26 February 1530 – 1577 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Caterina Torelli
c.1495
eight children
1577
Mantua
aged 45-46
Camillo I 27 March 1521
Bologna
Second son of Alessandro I and
26 February 1530 – 24 April 1595 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Barbara Borromeo
(1538 – 1572)
1555
no children
24 April 1595
Novellara
aged 74
Alfonso I 25 September 1529
Turin
Fourth son of Alessandro I and Costanza da Correggio
26 February 1530 – 1 October 1589 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Vittoria di Capua
1567
thirteen children
1 October 1589
Novellara
aged 60
Regency of Antonia Pallavicino (1530-1544) During his rule the lordship was elevated to a marquisate.
Sigismondo II 1530
Luzzara
Son of Sigismondo I and Antonia Pallavicino
December 1530 – 1567 Lordship of Vescovato
(until 1559)

Marquisate of Vescovato
(from 1559)
Lavinia Rangoni
five children
1567
aged 36-37
Ferrante I
(Ferdinando I)
28 January 1507
Mantua
Third son of Francesco II, Marquis of Mantua and Isabella d'Este
3 October 1539 – 15 November 1557 County of Guastalla Isabella di Capua
1530
Naples
eleven children
15 November 1557
Brussels
aged 50
Guastalla was sold to the Gonzagas in 1539 by Ludovica Torelli.
Regency of Margherita Palaiologina of Montferrat, Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga and Ferrante I, Count of Guastalla (1540-1550) Left no descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Francesco III 10 March 1533
Mantua
First son of Federico II and Margherita Palaiologina of Montferrat
28 June 1540 – 21 February 1550 Duchy of Mantua Catherine of Austria
22 October 1549
Mantua
no children
21 February 1550
Mantua
aged 16
Regency of Giulia Gonzaga, Countess of Rodigo (1540-1545) In 1577, the county was elevated to a duchy, obtained from Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor.
Vespasiano 6 December 1531
Fondi
Son of Luigi Gonzaga Rodomonte, Heir of Sabbioneta and Isabella Colonna
1 July 1540 – 26 February 1591 County of Sabbioneta[7]
(1540-1577)

Duchy of Sabbioneta
(1577-1591)
Diana Folch de Cardona
April 1550
Piacenza
no children

Anna of Aragon
8 May 1564
Madrid
three children

Margherita Gonzaga of Guastalla
1581
no children
26 February 1591
Sabbioneta
aged 59
Regencies of Caterina Anguissola (1549-1550) and Giovanni Anguissola (1550-1565) Children of Aloisio, divided the land.
Alfonso November 1541
Castel Goffredo
First son of Aloisio and Caterina Anguissola
19 July 1549 – 19 July 1549 Lordship of Castiglione
(at Castel Goffredo)
Ippolita Maggi
1568
Milan
seven children
7 May 1593
Gambaredolo
aged 51
Ferrante 28 July 1544
Castel Goffredo
Second son of Aloisio and Caterina Anguissola
19 July 1549[8] – 15 February 1586 Lordship of Castiglione
(until 1579; at Castiglione proper)

Marquisate of Castiglione
(from 1579)
Marta Tana
15 November 1566
eight children
15 February 1586
Milan
aged 41
Orazio 1545
Castel Goffredo
Third son of Aloisio and Caterina Anguissola
19 July 1549 – 13 January 1587 Lordship of Castiglione
(at Solferino)
Paola Martinengo
1568
no children
13 January 1587
Mantua
aged 41-42
Castel Goffredo and Solferino merged again in Castiglione
Regency of Margherita Palaiologina of Montferrat, Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga and Ferrante I, Count of Guastalla (1550-1556)
Guglielmo 24 April 1538
Mantua
Second son of Federico II and Margherita Palaiologina of Montferrat
21 February 1550 – 14 August 1587 Duchy of Mantua Eleanor of Austria
26 April 1561
Mantua
three children
14 August 1587
Goito
aged 49
Cesare I 6 September 1536
Mantua
Son of Ferrante I and Isabella di Capua
15 November 1557 – 17 February 1575 County of Guastalla Camilla Borromeo
12 March 1560
two children
17 February 1575
Guastalla
aged 38
Carlo I 20 April 1551
Vescovato
First son of Sigismondo II and Charlotte de Choiseul
1567 – 9 January 1614 Marquisate of Vescovato Emilia Olimpia Ferrero Fieschi
(d.1630)
seven children
9 January 1614
Siena
aged 62
Regency of Camilla Borromeo (1575-1579) On 2 July 1621 the County was raised to a Duchy. With this new dignity Ferrante claimed for himself (unsuccessfully) the main Duchy of Mantua during the War of Mantuan Succession.
Ferrante II
(Ferdinando II)
1563
Guastalla
Son of Cesare I and Camilla Borromeo
17 February 1575 – 5 August 1630 County of Guastalla
(1575-1621)

Duchy of Guastalla
(1621-1630)
Vittoria Doria
1587
eleven children
5 August 1630
Guastalla
aged 66-67
Prospero 1543
Luzzara
Son of Massimiliano and Caterina Colonna
4 March 1578 – 25 September 1614 Marquisate of Luzzara Isabella Gonzaga of Bozzolo
1576
thirteen children
25 September 1614
Mantua
aged 70-71
Son-in-law of Pirro II of Bozzolo.
Rodolfo II 7 March 1569
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Second son of Ferrante and Marta Tana
15 February 1586 – 3 January 1593 Marquisate of Castiglione Elena Aliprandi
29 October 1588
four children
3 January 1593
Castel Goffredo
aged 23
Left no male descendants.
Vincenzo I 21 September 1562
Mantua
Son of Guglielmo and Eleanor of Austria
14 August 1587 – 18 February 1612 Duchy of Mantua Margherita Farnese
2 March 1581
Piacenza
(annulled 26 May 1583)
no children

Eleonora de' Medici
29 April 1584
Mantua
six children
18 February 1612
Mantua
aged 49
Isabella 12 January 1565
Sabbioneta
Daughter of Vespasiano and Anna of Aragon
26 February 1591 – 10 February 1637 Duchy of Sabbioneta Luigi Carafa della Stadera
29 November 1584
Bozzolo
one child
10 February 1637
Naples
aged 72
Survived her son; after her death, the duchy was inherited by her granddaughter, Anna Carafa della Stadera, and then to the House of Guzmán.
Sabbioneta inherited by the Carafa family and the House of Guzmán
Pirro II 3 May 1540
San Martino dall'Argine
First son of Carlo and Emilia Cauzzi Gonzaga
1591 - 15 June 1592 Lordship of Bozzolo Francesca Guerrieri
two children
15 June 1592
San Martino dall'Argine
aged 52
Possibly for compensation, Bozzolo was returned to this branch after Vespasiano of Sabbioneta's death.
Giulio Cesare 1552
San Martino dall'Argine
Sixth son of Carlo and Emilia Cauzzi Gonzaga
1591 - 23 June 1609 Lordship of Bozzolo Flaminia Colonna
1587
two children
23 June 1609
Bozzolo
aged 52
Francesco 27 April 1577
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Fifth son of Ferrante and Marta Tana
3 January 1593 – 23 October 1616 Marquisate of Castiglione
(at Castiglione proper)
Bibiana of Pernstein
5 February 1598
Prague
eight children
23 October 1616
Toscolano-Maderno
aged 39
Brothers of Rodolfo II, divided the land once more.
Cristierno 30 September 1580
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Sixth son of Ferrante and Marta Tana
3 January 1593 – September 1630 Marquisate of Castiglione
(at Solferino)
Marcella Malaspina of Gragnola
December 1605
three children
September 1630
Solferino
aged 49-50
Camillo II 25 May 1581
Novellara
Third son of Alfonso I and Vittoria di Capua
24 April 1595 – 1640

10 September 1644 – 8 November 1650
County of Novellara and Bagnolo Caterina d'Avalos
(1586-1618)
13 January 1605
nine children
8 November 1650
Novellara
aged 69
Abdicated to his son, but given his premature death he eventually resumed government.
Francesco Annibale 31 July 1546
Gazzuolo
Third son of Carlo and Emilia Cauzzi Gonzaga
23 June 1609 - 11 March 1620 Marquisate of Ostiano Unmarried 11 March 1620
Mantua
aged 73
Bishop of Mantua, recovered the property of his family at Ostiano. Left no descendants, and Ostiano was inherited by his nephew, the lord of San Martino dell'Argine.
Regency of Isabella Gonzaga of Novellara (1609-1613) Nephew of Giulio Cesare, Pirro II and Francesco-Annibale. Reunited Bozzolo with Ostiano.
Scipione 1595
San Martino dall'Argine
Son of Ferrante Gonzaga of Bozzolo and Isabella Gonzaga of Novellara
23 June 1609 - 12 May 1670 Lordship of Bozzolo Maria Mattei
(d.1658)
1640
three children
12 May 1670
San Martino dall'Argine
aged 74-75
11 March 1620 - 12 May 1670 Marquisate of Ostiano
Bozzolo annexed to Ostiano
Francesco IV 7 May 1586
Mantua
First son of Vincenzo I and Eleonora de' Medici
18 February – 22 December 1612 Duchy of Mantua Margherita of Savoy
19 February 1608
Turin
three children
22 December 1612
Mantua
aged 40
After his death his possessions were divided.
Ferdinando 26 April 1587
Mantua
Second son of Vincenzo I and Eleonora de' Medici
22 December 1612 – 29 October 1626 Duchy of Mantua
(at Mantua)
Caterina de' Medici
3 October 1531
Mantua
no children
29 October 1626
Mantua
aged 39
Brother and daughter of Francesco IV, divided the inheritance.
Regency of Margherita of Savoy (1612-1627)
Maria 29 July 1609
Mantua
Daughter of Francesco IV and Margherita of Savoy
22 December 1612 – 14 August 1660 Duchy of Mantua
(at Montferrat)
Carlo Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers
25 December 1627
Mantua
two children
14 August 1660
Porto Mantovano
aged 51
Francesco Giovanni 10 April 1593
Vescovato
Son of Carlo and Emilia Olimpia Ferrero Fieschi
9 January 1614 – 31 August 1636 Marquisate of Vescovato Camilla Ponzoni
(d.1635)
1617
four children

Ottavia Cecilia Flameni
(d.1640)
c.1635
no children
31 August 1636
Vescovato
aged 43
Federico I 20 May 1591
Vicenza
Son of Prospero and Isabella Gonzaga of Bozzolo
25 September 1614 – 3 August 1630 Marquisate of Luzzara Elisabetta Gonzaga of Poviglio
(d.1620)
seven children

Fulvia di Basilio
c.1625?
one child
3 August 1630
Treviso
aged 39
Son-in-law of Luigi, who was a son of Rodolfo Gonzaga of Poviglio.
Regencies of Cristierno Gonzaga, Marquis of Solferino and Cardinal Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio (1616-1621) and Gridonia Gonzaga (1621-1629) Left no male descendants. The marquisate passed to his brother.
Luigi 1611
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Second son of Francesco and Bibiana of Pernstein
23 October 1616 – 22 February 1636 Marquisate of Castiglione
(at Castiglione proper)
Laura del Bosco Ventimiglia
January 1630
Palermo
four children
22 February 1636
Palermo
aged 24-25
Vincenzo II 7 January 1594
Mantua
Third son of Vincenzo I and Eleonora de' Medici
29 October 1626 – 25 December 1627 Duchy of Mantua Isabella Gonzaga of Novellara
23 August 1616
Mantua
no children
25 December 1627
Mantua
aged 40
Carlo I 6 May 1580
Paris
Third son of Ludovico Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers and Henriette of Cleves
25 December 1627 – 22 September 1637 Duchy of Mantua
(at Mantua)
Catherine of Mayenne
1 February 1599
Soissons
no children
22 September 1637
Mantua
aged 57
Grandson of Federico II, won the War of the Mantuan Succession. From 1627 onwards, the Dukes of Mantua were also Dukes of Nevers, hence the branch name Gonzaga-Nevers.
Luigi I 1602
Luzzara
Seconsd son of Federico I and Elisabetta Gonzaga of Poviglio
3 August 1630 – 3 November 1666 Marquisate of Luzzara Elena Gonzaga of Vescovato
(d.1620)
nine children
3 November 1666
Luzzara
aged 63-64
Cesare II 1592
Mantua
First son of Ferrante II and Vittoria Doria
5 August 1630 – 26 February 1632 Duchy of Guastalla Isabella Orsini
(1598-1623)
1612
two children
26 February 1632
Vienna
aged 39-40
Ferrante III
(Ferdinando III)
4 April 1618
Mantua
First son of Cesare II and Isabella Orsini
26 February 1632 – 11 January 1678 Duchy of Guastalla Margherita d'Este
24 June 1647
Guastalla
two children
11 January 1678
Guastalla
aged 59
Guastalla annexed to Milan (1678-1693)
Ferdinando I 7 August 1614
Castiglione delle Stiviere
Third son of Francesco and Bibiana of Pernstein
22 February 1636 – 23 April 1675 Marquisate of Castiglione
(at Castiglione proper)
Olimpia Sforza Visconti
December 1644
three children
23 April 1675
Castiglione delle Stiviere
aged 60
Left no male descendants. The marquisate went to his cousin, the marquis of Solferino.
Carlo II 2 June 1618
Vescovato
First son of Francesco Giovanni and Camilla Ponzoni
31 August 1636 – 19 September 1695 Marquisate of Vescovato Unmarried 19 September 1695
Vescovato
aged 77
Children of Francesco Giovanni, ruled jointly.
Sigismondo III 11 February 1625
Vescovato
Second son of Francesco Giovanni and Camilla Ponzoni
31 August 1636 – 31 December 1694 Elena Sforza Amigoni
1673
three children
31 December 1694
Mantua
aged 69
Regency of Maria, Duchess of Montferrat (1637-1647) Grandson of Carlo I. Also Duke of Nevers as Charles III.
Carlo II 31 October 1629
Mantua
Son of Carlo II Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers and Maria, Duchess of Montferrat
22 September 1637 – 14 August 1665 Duchy of Mantua
(in Mantua only until 1660; in Mantua and Montferrat from 1660)
Isabella Clara of Austria
7 November 1649
Mantua
one child
14 August 1665
Mantua
aged 35

government.

Alessandro II 1611
Novellara
First son of Camillo II and Caterina d'Avalos
1640 – 10 September 1644 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Caterina Torelli
c.1495
eight children
10 September 1644
Novellara
aged 32-33
His father abdicated for him, but he died four years later, with no descendants; his father returned to government.
Alfonso II 20 April 1616
Novellara
Second son of Camillo II and Caterina d'Avalos
8 November 1650 – 25 July 1678 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Ricciarda Cybo-Malaspina
1648
four children
25 July 1678
Novellara
aged 62
Regency of Isabella Clara of Austria (1665-1671) Left no descendants. After his death Mantua and Montferrat fell under Austrian control.
Ferdinando Carlo 31 August 1652
Revere
Son of Carlo II and Isabella Clara of Austria
14 August 1665 – 5 July 1708 Duchy of Mantua Anna Isabella Gonzaga of Guastalla
July 1671
Mantua
no children

Suzanne Henriette of Lorraine
8 November 1704
Tortona
no children
5 July 1708
Padua
aged 55
Mantua-Montferrat annexed to Austria
Federico II 1636
Luzzara
First son of Luigi I and Elena Gonzaga of Vescovato
3 November 1666 – 8 March 1698 Marquisate of Luzzara Luigia Ludovica Gonzaga of Castiglione
(1653-1715)
1667
fourteen children
8 March 1698
Luzzara
aged 61-62
Ferdinando II Filippo 1 December 1643
First son of Scipione and Maria Mattei
12 May 1670 - 1672 Marquisate of Ostiano Maria Mattei
(d.1658)
1640
three children
1672
aged 28-29
Gian Francesco II 20 February 1646
San Martino dall'Argine
Second son of Scipione and Maria Mattei
1672 - 24 April 1703 Marquisate of Ostiano Unmarried 24 April 1703
San Martino dall'Argine
aged 57
Ostiano annexed to Mantua (1703-1708) and then to Guastalla
Carlo 3 May 1616
Castiglione delle Stiviere
First son of Cristierno and Marcella Malaspina of Gragnola
September 1630 – 23 April 1675

23 April 1675 - 21 May 1680
Marquisate of Castiglione
(at Solferino until 1675; in all Castiglione from 1675)
Isabella Martinengo
1643
eight children
21 May 1680
Solferino
aged 64
From 23 April 1675, reunited once more the marquisates of Solferino and Castiglione.
Camillo III 23 August 1649
Novellara
First son of Alfonso II and Ricciarda Cybo-Malaspina
25 July 1678 – 16 August 1727 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Matilde d'Este
c.1495
eight children
16 August 1727
Novellara
aged 77
Ferdinando II 28 August 1648
Solferino
First son of Carlo and Isabella Martinengo
21 May 1680 – 21 January 1707 Marquisate of Castiglione Laura Pico della Mirandola
28 February 1680
four children
11 February 1723
Venice
aged 74
In 1707, after an attack in Castiglione, he escaped to Venice alongside Ferdinando Carlo Gonzaga of Mantua.
Castiglione annexed to Austria
Vincenzo 18 May 1634
Guastalla
Son of Andrea Gonzaga of San Paolo and Laura Crispiano
1693 – 28 April 1714 Duchy of Guastalla Teodora Porzia Guidi di Bagno
(?-1672)
c.1670?
no children

Maria Vittoria Gonzaga of Guastalla
1679
five children
28 April 1714
Guastalla
aged 79
Grandson of Ferrante II, married Maria Vittoria, daughter of Ferrante III.
Francesco Gaetano 1673
Vescovato
First son of Sigismondo III and Elena Sforza Amigoni
19 September 1695 – 24 July 1735 Marquisate of Vescovato Anna Goldoni Vidoni
(1677-1730)
1696
one child
24 July 1735
Vescovato
aged 61-62
Luigi II 19 September 1679
Luzzara
Second son of Federico II and Caterina Pico della Mirandola
8 March 1698 – 12 June 1738 Marquisate of Luzzara Charlotte de Choiseul
(1679-1734)
1703?
seven children
12 June 1738
Luzzara
aged 58
Antonio Ferrante
(Antonio Ferdinando)
9 December 1687
Guastalla
First son of Vincenzo and Maria Vittoria Gonzaga of Guastalla
28 April 1714 – 16 April 1729 Duchy of Guastalla Margherita Cesarini
(1695-1725)
c.1720?
no children

Theodora of Hesse-Darmstadt
29 July 1727
Darmstadt
no children
16 April 1729
Guastalla
aged 41
Filippo Alfonso 3/4 December 1700
Novellara
Son of Camillo III and Matilde d'Este
16 August 1727 – 13 December 1728 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Eleonora Tanara
no children
13 December 1728
Massa
aged 28
Left no descendants. The county passed to his sister.
Riccarda 22 February 1698
Novellara
Second daughter of Camillo III and Matilde d'Este
13 December 1728 – 12 October 1737 County of Novellara and Bagnolo Alderano I Cybo-Malaspina
29 April 1715
Milan
three children
24 November 1768
Massa
aged 70
Sister of Filippo Alfonso, ruled the county after the extinction of the male line. In 1737, after the War of the Polish Succession, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor passed the county to Rinaldo d'Este.
Novellara annexed to Modena
Giuseppe Maria 20 April 1690
Guastalla
Second son of Vincenzo and Maria Vittoria Gonzaga of Guastalla
16 April 1729 – 15 August 1746 Duchy of Guastalla Eleanor of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg
29 March 1731
Lilienfeld
no children
15 August 1746
Padua
aged 56
From 1739 until his death, his mental illness caused his wife to assume the reins of the duchy. Left no descendants.
Regency of Eleanor of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg (1739-1746)
Guastalla annexed to Parma
Sigismondo IV 1702
Vescovato
Only son of Francesco Gaetano and Anna Goldoni Vidoni
24 July 1735 – 1779 Marquisate of Vescovato Carlotta Barisoni
(1700-1738)
1724
four children
1779
Venice
aged 76-77
Left no surviving male offspring. After his death the marquisate was inherited by a distant cousin.
Basilio 26 September 1711
Luzzara
Third son of Luigi II and Charlotte de Choiseul
12 June 1738 – 29 May 1782 Marquisate of Luzzara Maria Borromeo
(d.1761)
c.1735?
seven children
29 May 1782
Luzzara
aged 70
None of the children survived him. He was succeeded by his brother.
Francesco Niccolò 26 December 1731
Vescovato
First son of Francesco Ferrante Gonzaga of Vescovato and Giulia Isolani
1779 – 4 September 1783 Marquisate of Vescovato Olimpia Scotti
1756
five children
4 September 1783
Mantua
aged 72
Great-great-grandson of Giordano, brother of Carlo I.
Giovanni 4 July 1721
Luzzara
Fifth son of Luigi II and Charlotte de Choiseul
29 May 1782 – 3 April 1794 Marquisate of Luzzara Teresa Anguissola
(1745-1819)
1716
two children
3 April 1794
Mantua
aged 72
Left no male descendants. After his death Luzzara was annexed to Savoy.
Luzzara annexed to Savoy
Francesco Luigi 21 October 1763
Vescovato
First son of Francesco Niccolò and Olimpia Scotti
4 September 1783 – 1796 Marquisate of Vescovato Giulia Cavriani
(1767-1846)
1716
two children
17 December 1832
Venice
aged 69
In 1796 he was dispossessed of the marquisate, but retained the title.
Vescovato occupied by France

Family tree

The branches of the Gonzaga family, showing marquises and (subsequently) dukes of Mantua in bold, dukes of Nevers and Rethel in italics and the Guastalla line to the right.

Gianfrancesco
Marquis of Mantua
1407–1444
Ludovico III
Marquis of Mantua
1444–1478
Federico I
Marquis of Mantua
1478–1484
Francesco II
Marquis of Mantua
(1484–1519)
Margaret Paleologa
Marquises of Montferrat
Federico II
Marq. (1519–30), Duke (1530–40)
Ercole
Bishop (1521)
Cardinal (1527)
Ferrante I
Count of Guastalla
(1539–1557)
Francesco III
(1540–1550)
Guglielmo I
(Guglielmo X in Montferrat)
(1550–1587)
Louis of Nevers (1581–1595)Cesare I
Count of Guastalla
(1557–1575)
Vincenzo I
(1587–1612)
Charles III of Nevers
a.k.a.
Carlo I of Mantua
(1627–1637)
Ferrante II
1st. Duke of Guastalla
(1575–1630)
Francesco IV
(1612)
Ferdinando I
(1612–26)
Vincenzo II
(1626–27)
Charles of Nevers
(1609–1631)
m. Maria of Mantua
Cesare II
Duke of Guastalla
(1630–1632)
Andrea
Count of San Paolo (d.1686)
Maria of Mantua
(1609–1660), m.
Charles of Nevers
Carlo II
(1637–1665)
Ferrante III
Duke of Guastalla
(1632–1678)
Ferdinando Carlo
(1665–1708)
Anna Isabella
(1678–1692)
Maria Vittoria
(1659–1707)
Vincenzo
Duke of Guastalla
(1692–1714)
Eleonora Luisa
(1686–1741)
m. Francesco de' Medici
Antonio Ferrante
Duke of Guastalla
(1714–1729)
Giuseppe
Duke of Guastalla
(1729–1746)

Saint Aloysius Gonzaga

Roman Catholic cardinals

See also

Bibliography

  • Brinton, Selwyn (1927). The Gonzaga. Lords of Mantua. London: Methuen.

References

  1. ^ Francesca Cappelletti; Gerlinde Huber-Rebenich (1997). Der Antike Mythos und Europa. Gebrüder Mann Verlag. p. 250.
  2. ^ "Gonzaga". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  3. ^ Page at sapere.it
  4. ^ Brunelli, Roberto (2010). I Gonzaga. Quattro secoli per una dinastia. Mantua. ISBN 978-88-89832-98-1.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  5. ^ In Gazzuolo and San Martino dell'Argine the Bozzolo branch held rule until 1570 and 1555, respectively.
  6. ^ This numbering II includes Guido, Lord of Mantua as Guido I
  7. ^ Obtained the personal title of marquis in 1565, and the title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1574. The land he ruled was elevated to a Duchy in 1577.
  8. ^ Officially invested on 20 March 1559.
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House of Gonzaga
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