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Hospital pharmacy

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A hospital pharmacist checking a liquid solution.

A hospital pharmacy is a department within a hospital that prepares, compounds, stocks and dispenses inpatient medications. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized and investigational medications (medicines that are being studied, but have not yet been approved), than would be feasible in the community setting. Hospital pharmacies may also dispense over-the-counter and prescription medications to outpatients.

Electric track vehicle system for hospitals, type Telelift

Hospital pharmacies may provide a huge quantity of medications per day which is allocated to the wards and to intensive care units according to a patient's medication schedule. Larger hospitals may use automated transport systems to aid in the efficient distribution of medications.

Hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians compound sterile products for patients such as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and other medications given intravenously such as neonatal antibiotics and chemotherapy. Some hospital pharmacies may outsource high-risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies that specialize in compounding.

Hospital pharmacists often report an interest in undertaking research, although identify barriers to doing so during routine practice.[1] Many hospital pharmacists actively participating in research also have university affiliations.[2]

Hospital pharmacists provide services to people admitted to hospitals as in-patients.[3] The services provided include ensuring appropriate therapies are identified[4] and in reducing medication errors.[5] These services may be pharmacist-led interventions[6] or part of interdisciplinary teams.[7] They may further organise for medication reviews post-discharge.[8] These services may be provided in person or via telehealth.[9]

In the United States, hospital pharmacy was not a significant practice until the 1920s. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the medicine and pharmacy were commonly one practice, in which a medical apprentice would be responsible for the drug preparation.[10][vague].

Hospital pharmacists often require additional education support and professional development to develop advanced skills and specialisation.[11] Many health services require junior pharmacists to undertake pharmacy residencies for skill development.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Reali, Savannah; Lee, Teresa; Bishop, Jaclyn; Mirkov, Sanja; Johnson, Jacinta; McCourt, Elizabeth; Hughes, Jeffery; Pont, Lisa; Page, Amy Theresa; Penm, Jonathan (June 2021). "Attitudes, barriers and facilitators of hospital pharmacists conducting practice-based research: a systematic review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 51 (3): 192–202. doi:10.1002/jppr.1741. hdl:10453/150431. ISSN 1445-937X. S2CID 235649777.
  2. ^ Penm, Jonathan; Narayan, Sujita; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Johnson, Jacinta L.; Mirkov, Sanja; Page, Amy T.; Pont, Lisa G.; Patanwala, Asad E. (23 May 2022). "A benchmarking scoping review of research output from hospital pharmacy departments in Australia". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 52 (4): 275–282. doi:10.1002/jppr.1809. ISSN 1445-937X. S2CID 249032773.
  3. ^ Lee, Kyung Min Kirsten; Page, Amy; Kim, Sangseo; Al-Diery, Tarik; Koeper, Ivanka; Singh, Isabella; Hawthorne, Deborah; Johnson, Jacinta (2023-06-01). "Perceptions and expectations of health professionals regarding hospital pharmacy services and the roles of hospital pharmacists: A qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis". Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy. 10: 100264. doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2023.100264. hdl:10576/44611. ISSN 2667-2766. PMC 10182321. PMID 37193372.
  4. ^ Hopkins, Ria E.; Warner, Victoria; Sztal-Mazer, Shoshana; Poole, Susan; Page, Amy (December 2020). "The assessment and pharmacological management of osteoporosis after admission for minimal-trauma fracture at a major metropolitan centre". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 50 (6): 481–489. doi:10.1002/jppr.1674. ISSN 1445-937X. S2CID 229333146.
  5. ^ Mill, Deanna; Bakker, Michael; Corre, Lauren; Page, Amy; Johnson, Jacinta (1 December 2020). "A comparison between Parkinson's medication errors identified through retrospective case note review versus via an incident reporting system during hospital admission". International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 28 (6): 663–666. doi:10.1111/ijpp.12668. PMID 32844477. S2CID 221326541.
  6. ^ Coutsouvelis, John; Siderov, Jim; Tey, Amanda Y.; Bortz, Hadley D.; o'Connor, Shaun R.; Rowan, Gail D.; Vasileff, Hayley M.; Page, Amy T.; Percival, Mia A. (2020). "The impact of pharmacist-led strategies implemented to reduce errors related to cancer therapies: a systematic review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 50 (6): 466–480. doi:10.1002/jppr.1699. S2CID 229332634.
  7. ^ Massuger, Wayne; Moore, Gregory T. C.; Andrews, Jane M.; Kilkenny, Monique F.; Reyneke, Megan; Knowles, Simon; Purcell, Liz; Alex, George; Buckton, Stephanie; Page, Amy T.; Stocks, Nigel; Cameron, Don; Manglaviti, Francesca; Pavli, Paul (2019). "Crohn's & Colitis Australia inflammatory bowel disease audit: measuring the quality of care in Australia" (PDF). Internal Medicine Journal. 49 (7): 859–866. doi:10.1111/imj.14187. PMID 30525299. S2CID 54564573.
  8. ^ Deirdre Criddle; Manya Angley; Horst Thiele; Joy Gailer; Katie Phillips; Carly Pauw (4 July 2020). "Hospital-initiated medication review – time to deliver on a decade of promises". Journal of Pharmacy Practice & Research. 50 (3): 288–289. doi:10.1002/jppr.1665. S2CID 221890807.
  9. ^ Lowry, Samuel J.; Kay, Charlotte N.; Marsom, Erica N.; Park, Joon Soo; Poole, Susan; Page, Amy T. (2020). "Optimising health outcomes via pharmacist delivered telehealth medicines management: a systematic review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 50 (5): 377–390. doi:10.1002/jppr.1695. S2CID 225070505.
  10. ^ Holdford, David (2017). Introduction to Acute and Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practice (2nd ed.). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. pp. 21–26. ISBN 978-1585285457.
  11. ^ Khumra, Sharmila; Mahony, Andrew A.; Bergen, Phillip J.; Page, Amy T.; Elliott, Rohan A. (2021-04-23). "Exploring the practice, confidence and educational needs of hospital pharmacists in reviewing antimicrobial prescribing: a cross-sectional, nationwide survey". BMC Medical Education. 21 (1): 235. doi:10.1186/s12909-021-02664-1. ISSN 1472-6920. PMC 8066433. PMID 33892686.
  12. ^ Al-Diery, Tarik; Page, Amy Theresa; Johnson, Jacinta Lee; Walker, Steven; Sandulache, Diana; Wilby, Kyle John (22 March 2022). "Evidence for the development of skills for education, leadership and innovation through experiential-based foundational pharmacy residency programs: a narrative review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 52 (3): 180–195. doi:10.1002/jppr.1804. S2CID 247646461.
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Hospital pharmacy
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