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Help:IPA/Arabic

The chart below explains how Wikipedia represents Modern Standard Arabic pronunciations with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Wikipedia also has specific charts for Egyptian Arabic, Hejazi Arabic, Lebanese Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Arabic phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Modern Standard Arabic, and varieties of Arabic for regional variation.

IPA English
approximation
Arabic
letter/symbol
Usual
romanization
Letter

name

A–B
a[a] cat in British English, only approx. in American English َ a, á, e فَتْحَة (fatḥah)
[b] not exact, longer far ـَا
(ى at word end)
ā, â, aa, a أَلِف (ʾalif)

الف مقصورة (ʾalif maqṣūrah)

aj[c] /a/+/j/, my ْـَي ay, ai, ey, ei يَاء (yāʾ)
aw[d] /a/+/w/, noun ْـَو aw, au وَاو (wāw)
b bee ب b بَاء (bāʾ)
D
d dash د d دَال (dāl)
[e] emphatic and pharyngealized /d/, no equivalent, can be approximated to RP dawn ض ḍ, dh ضَاد (ḍād)
jam ج[f] j, ǧ, dj, g جِيم (jīm)
ð these ذ dh, ḏ ذَال (dhāl)
ðˤ[e][g] emphatic and pharyngealized [ð], can be approximated to RP mother ظ ظَاء (ẓāʾ)
F–H
f father ف f فَاء (fāʾ)
h hi ه h هَاء (hāʾ)
ħ hello, but pronounced in the back of your throat ح حَاء (ḥāʾ)
I–K
i[h] happy ِ i, e كَسْرَة (kasrah)
[i] machine ـِي ī, ee, i يَاء (yāʾ)
j yes ي y يَاء (yāʾ)
k skin ك k كَاف (kāf)
L–N
l lease (Received Pronunciation) ل l لَام (lām)
ɫ[j] tool
m me م m مِيم (mīm)
n no ن n نُون (nūn)
q like cat, but further down to the uvula (uvular). ق q, g, ' قَاف (qāf)
r "tapped" or "trilled" r;
Spanish perro
ر r رَاء (rāʾ)
s snake س s سِين (sīn)
[e] close to saw, emphatic and pharyngealized /s/ ص صَاد (ṣād)
ʃ sheep ش sh, š, ch شِين (shīn)
T–W
t stick ت
(sometimes ة)
t تَاء (tāʾ)

تاء مربوطة (tāʾ marbūṭah)

[e] emphatic and pharyngealized /t/, no equivalent ط طَاء (ṭāʾ)
θ think ث th, ṯ ثَاء (thāʾ)
u[k] fruition ُ u, o, ou ضَمَّة (ḍammah)
[l] boot ـُو ū, oo, ou, u وَاو (wāw)
w we و w وَاو (wāw)
X–Z
x ~ χ Scottish loch خ kh, ḫ, ḵ خَاء (khāʾ)
ɣ ~ ʁ like gallon, but with a guttural sound further down to the uvula (uvular). Alternatively like French paris غ gh, ġ, ḡ غَيْن (ghayn)
z zoo ز z زَاي (zāy)
Other
ʔ The pause in uh-oh!;

The 'tt' in kitten in Standard American English;
Cockney butter; glottal stop

ء ʾ ' هَمْزة (hamzah)
ʕ no equivalent in english
(voiced pharyngeal fricative or voiced creaky-voiced pharyngeal approximant)
ع ʿ ' ` عَيْن (ʿayn)
θ see under T—W
ˈ [ˈkiːwi] كِيوِي ('kiwi') Means that the following syllable is stressed: /ˈʕarabiː/ عربي ('Arab').
ː [kiːs] كِيس ('sack') Means that the preceding vowel is long
[ˈdˤɑħ.ħæ] ضَحّى ('[he] sacrificed'),
[mʊˈdær.rɪsæ] مُدَرِّسَة ('teacher [f.]'),
[ræs.ˈsæːmæ] رَسَّامَة ('paintress'),
[kæð.ˈðæːb] كَذَّاب ('liar [m.]')
A geminated consonant never belongs to one syllable and is often broken with a stress.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Allophones of /a/ include [ɑ] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æ] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  2. ^ Allophones of /aː/ include [ɑː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r]; and [æː] elsewhere (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  3. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aj/ may be realized as []~[ɛː]~[ej] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  4. ^ In colloquial pronunciation, /aw/ may be realized as []~[ɔː]~[ow] may occur (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595; Kaye 1997, p. 198).
  5. ^ a b c d Emphatic consonants may be either pharyngealized or velarized and are accompanied with labialization (Al-Ani 2008, p. 599; Kaye 1997, p. 193–194).
  6. ^ The letter ج represents [ɡ] in Egypt and [ʒ] in the Levant and the Maghreb (Al-Ani 2008, p. 598; Gairdner 1925, p. 23).
  7. ^ The letter ظ represents either [ðˤ] or [], depending on the speaker's dialect (Al-Ani 2008, p. 601).
  8. ^ Allophones of /i/ include [ɪ]~[e] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /ɪ/ completely becomes /e/ in some other particular dialects.
  9. ^ Allophones of /iː/ include [ɪː]~[ɨː] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).
  10. ^ [ɫ] occurs only in the word Allah: [ɑɫˈɫɑh] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 600; Kaye 1997, p. 196; Kaye 2009, p. 564).
  11. ^ Allophones of /u/ include [ʊ]~[ɤ]~[o] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197); they are distinct phonemes in loan words. /u/ completely becomes /o/ in some other particular dialects.
  12. ^ Allophones of /uː/ include [ʊː]~[ɤː]~[] before or adjacent to emphatic consonants and [q], [r], [ħ], [ʕ] (Al-Ani 2008, p. 595, 600; Thelwall & Sa'adeddin 1999, p. 52–53; Kaye 1997, p. 193, 197).

References[edit]

  • Al-Ani, Salman H. (2008). "Phonetics". Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. Vol. III. Brill. pp. 593–603. ISBN 978-90-04-14973-1.
  • Gairdner, W. H. T. (1925). The Phonetics of Arabic. Oxford University Press.
  • Kaye, Alan S. (1997). "Arabic Phonology". Phonologies of Asia and Africa. Vol. I. pp. 187–204.
  • Kaye, Alan S. (2009). "Arabic". In Comrie, Bernard (ed.). The World's Major Languages (PDF) (2nd ed.). Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. pp. 560–577. ISBN 978-0-415-35339-7.
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19815-6.
  • Mitchell, T. F. (1990). Pronouncing Arabic. Vol. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-815151-9.
  • Thelwall, Robin; Sa'adeddin, M. Akram (1999). "Arabic". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 51–54.
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Help:IPA/Arabic
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