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Help:IPA/Insular Catalan

The charts below show the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) representations of Insular Catalan pronunciations (Balearic, which includes Ibizan, Majorcan and Minorcan, and Alguerese). For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Key for Insular Catalan[edit]

Standard Catalan phonemes, in bold, are followed by their most common phonetic values and their respective occurrence amongst the Insular Catalan dialects.

Except for complex clusters, examples in the charts are spelled in Standard Catalan.

IPA Consonants
Phoneme B A Examples English approximation
Ib. Ma. Mi.
/b/ b bell, abans best
/d/ d drac door
ð ɾ freda there / US atom
/dz/ dz dz setze adze
z realitza zebra (B) / adze (A)
// mitjà, viatge jeep
/f/ f força, prov face
/ɡ/ ɡ ɡ ɡ guant got
ɟ gas got (rest of B & A) / RP due (Ma.)
ɣ ʝ ɣ lloguer between got and hot (rest of B & A) / d'you (Ma.)
ɣ iogurt between got and hot
/k/ k k k cor scan
c cas scan (rest of B & A) / stew (Ma.)
/l/ l l laca, mal pile
ɾ mala pile (B) / US atom (A)
/ʎ/ ʎ ʎ llac, cella billion
l ball billion (B) / pile (A)
j balls oily (B) / pile (A)
/m/ m meu, comte mode
ɱ limfa lymph
/n/ n neu note
/ŋ/ ŋ sang, víking ring
/ɲ/ ɲ ɲ nyeu onion
n any onion / note
jn anys point (B) / note (A)
/p/ p por, dubte span
/r/ r ruc, honra Scots rook
corr (corro C / córrec V)
/ɾ/ ɾ truc, hora, per US atom
/s/ s set, es, feliç sick
/ʃ/ ʃ xec ship
/iʃ/ caixa
/t/ t terra, fred stand
/ts/ ts potser cats
// txec, mig cheap
j vaig young
/v/ v vell, avanç vest
/z/ z zel, esma zebra
/(d)ʒ/ ʒ ja (rest of B & A), joc, gespa genre (B) / jeep (A)
vaig entrar jeep
IPA Syllabic consonants
/l/ arregl (arreglo C / arregle V) wrinkle
/ɾ/ ɾ̩ compr (compro C / compre V) US camper
IPA Marginal consonants
/h/ h ehem hot
/θ/ θ theta, López thing
/x/ x kharja, Bach Scots loch
IPA Semivowels
Phoneme B A Examples English approximation
Ib. Ma. Mi.
/j/ j iode, ja (Ib.) young
/w/ w quatre, prov (Old Ma.) quick
IPA Vowels
Phoneme B A Examples English approximation
Ib. Ma. Mi.
/a/ a a a anar, mà father
æ casa, sac bat
ə a casa, anar alpha (B) / father (A)
/ɛ/ ɛ set pet
/ə/ (*) ə e sec alpha (B) / face (A)
/e/ a entens alpha (B) / father (A)
i naixement alpha (B) / meet (A)
e séc face
/i/ i i sic meet
a inserir meet (B) / father (A)
/ɔ/ ɔ soc off
/o/ o o o o sóc, molt story
a hospital story (B) / father (A)
u u oratge rule (rest of B & A) / story (Ma.)
/u/ u suc, dues rule
IPA Marginal vowels
/y/ y déjà vu cute
IPA Suprasegmentals
Phoneme B A Examples English approximation
Ib. Ma. Mi.
ˈ ˈ Aina
[ˈainə] (B) / [ˈaina] (A)
primary stress
ˌ ˌ Bellver
[ˌbeʎˈvə] (B) / [ˌbelˈve] (A)
secondary stress
. . Badia
[bəˈði.ə] (B) / [baði.a] (A)
syllable break
ː ː Gemma
[ˈʒemːə] (B) / [ˈdʒemːa] (A)
long consonant/vowel
IPA Other representations
( ) ( ) Camps
[ˈkam(p)s] (B / A)
optional sound
(*) Stressed /ə/ corresponds to /ɛ/ in Central Catalan and /e/ in Western Catalan.


  • Lloret, Maria-Rosa, The phonological role of paradigms: The case of insular Catalan, Barcelona: University of Barcelona
  • Serra, Pep (2016), Territorial singularity reflected on a linguistic particularity: about a regressive assimilation in insular Catalan, Girona: University of Girona, ISSN 1616-413X
  • El català de l'Alguer: un model d'àmbit restringit, Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC), 2003

See also[edit]

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Help:IPA/Insular Catalan
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