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Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see Template:IPA and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Key[edit]

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs cabbie
भालू بھالو bhālū clubhouse
d[1] दाल دال dāl width, Spanish andar
[1] धूप دھوپ dhūp adhere (but dental)
जान جان jān budging
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā hedgehog
ɖ[1] डालना ڈالنا ālnā American bird
ɖʱ[1] ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan American birdhouse
f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf fuss
ɡ गोल گول gol ago
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar loghouse
ʔ[2] एतबार اعتبار iʻtibār[a] The pause in "uh-oh!", butter (glottal stop)
ɣ[4] बाग़ باغ ġ Similar to the French R
ɦ हम ہم ham ahead
हुक्म حکم ukm
j याद یاد yād yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzor scab
खाल کھال khāl cab
l लब لب lab leaf
m मगर مگر magar much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ panther
ɳ[5] किरण کرن kira American burn
ŋ रंग رن٘گ rag bang
p पल پل pal spot
फल پھل phal pot
q[4] क़रीब قریب qarīb somewhat like caught
r[6] रस رس ras Trilled ring
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarra
ɾ[6] ज़रा ذرا zarā American atom
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la American garter
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī no English equivalent
s सब سب sab sun
ʂ[5] नष्ट نشٹ na shoe but retroflex
ʃ काश کاش ś shoe
t[1] तालाब تالاب tālāb similar to outthink, Spanish tomar
लतीफ़ा لطیفہ laīfa
[1] थैला تھیلا thailā tub (but dental)
t͡ʃ चोर چور cor catch
t͡ʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا choṛnā achoo
ʈ[1] टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar stub (but retroflex)
ʈʰ[1] ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ tub (but retroflex)
ʋ[7] वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś vat
w[7] पकवान پكوان pakvān well
x[4] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb Scottish loch
z[4] काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz zoo
ʒ[4] अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām father
जेब جیب jeb Scottish say
ɛ[8] रहना رہنا rêhnā pen
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā seat
बोलो بولو bolo Scottish so
ɔː कौन کَون kaun American saw
ʊ उन اُن un book
ऊन اُون ūn moon
◌̃ मैं مَیں mai nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hindi and Urdu contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers although the dental [t] and [d] are used in place of the English /θ/ and /ð/ for some speakers with th-stopping.
  2. ^ In a number of words, the ع and/or ء is sometimes pronounced as ʔ in Urdu, which is typically not represented or pronounced in Hindi, except when the Urdu variant is transliterated into Hindi.
  3. ^ "Meaning of etibar in English". Rekhta Dictionary. Retrieved 2023-03-18.
  4. ^ a b c d e Mainly phonemes of Urdu. Hindi speakers may replace [x], [z], [ʒ], [ɣ] and [q] with [kʰ], [dʒ], [dʒʱ], [g] and [k] respectively.
  5. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  6. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  7. ^ a b [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  8. ^ [ɛ] occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.
  1. ^ Urdu transliteration. The Hindi variant is usually written as एतबार (etbār). Rekhta Dictionary transliterates this term as ए'तिबार (e'tibār) in Devanagari/Hindi.[3]

See also[edit]

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Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu
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