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Haji Sumatrabhumi

Haji Sumatrabhumi (meaning "King of the land of Sumatra")[1][2] was a king of the Srivijaya Kingdom who sent envoys to the Chinese Song dynasty in 1017.[3][4] His name is recorded in Li Tao's Xu Zizhi Tongjian Changbian as Xiachi Suwuzhapumi (霞遲蘇勿吒蒲迷; Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese:[5] Hae-drij Su-mjut-traeH-phuX-mi).[6] The title "Haji" was generally a denomination for a vassal king.[7]

The envoys sent by Haji Sumatrabhumi brought gold-inscribed letter, with offerings of pearls, ivory, Sanskrit religious books, and slaves.[8][9] Emperor Zhenzong of Song was very pleased with them, and allowed the envoys to see the royal buildings, before sending them back with a reply letter and various other gifts.[8]

During his reign, Srivijaya was thought to have sustained attacks from Chola Kingdom, which peaked in 1025 under the leadership of King Rajendra I.[3] This event was recorded in the Tanjore inscription.[3]

The Srivijayan ruler after him was Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman, who was captured by the Chola forces in their attack on Kedah (Kadaram), one of Srivijaya's territories.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Houtsma, M. Th (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936: L - Moriscos. E.J. Brill. ISBN 9789004082656.
  2. ^ Journal asiatique (in French). Société asiatique. 1922. p. 224. Haji Sumatrabhümi « le roi de la terre de Sumatra »
  3. ^ a b c d Hall, D.G.E. (1981). History of South East Asia. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 67. ISBN 9781349165216.
  4. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Continental Sales, Incorporated. pp. 175–177. ISBN 9789814155670.
  5. ^ "Baxter-Sagart Old Chinese reconstruction (Version 1.00, 20 Feb. 2011)".
  6. ^ Xu Zizhi Tongjian Changbian, ch. 89.
  7. ^ Beberapa karya dalam ilmu-ilmu sastra. Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Indonesia. 1975. p. 87.
  8. ^ a b Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. L'Ecole. 1941. p. 285.
  9. ^ Collected articles. Siam Society. 1969.

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Haji Sumatrabhumi
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