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Hainan people

Hái-nâm-nâng
海南人
Total population
6 million+ worldwide
Regions with significant populations
Hainan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia), British Isles, Oceania, Americas
Languages
lingua: Hainamese, Standard Chinese
others: Hlai languages, Lingao dialect, Kim Mun, Tsat, Danzhou dialect and various other languages of the counties that they inhabit
Religion
Atheism, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity, etc.
Related ethnic groups
Putian people, Cantonese people, Tanka people, Hlai people, etc.

The Hainan people (Chinese: 海南人 Hái-nâm nâng), or Hainam people (pronounced in Hainamese) or Hainamese people, is a geographic term referring to the natives of Hainan, the southernmost and smallest Chinese province. The term "Hainanese" was frequently used to refer to all natives of Hainan island. Hainam Min speakers often refer to themselves as Qiongwen to distinguish themselves from other groups of Hainan such as the Cantonese, Tanka, Hlai, etc.

History

Hainamese students playing.

Hainam Han people trace their origin to Han colonists from the mainland south such as Putian city, Ningde and the towns and villages of Guangdong, including fishers[1] from nearby[2]. By contrast, the Lingaoese, Hlai, Tanka migrated to the island much earlier and are regarded as part of the Nanyue or Baiyue peoples.[3]

Putian colonists colonised Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan island from Putian city, displacing the native aborigines, who moved to mountain areas. As a result of immigration from adjacent provinces, some studies show that Hainanese genetically cluster closely with Guangxi and Guangdong Han Chinese.[4] In the main, however, Hainan Han cluster most closely with Singapore Chinese and Taiwan Han.[5]

Similarly to Fujian and Guangdong provinces, Hainan has been a source for emigration. Towards the turn of the 20th century, many Hainamese migrated to various Southeast Asian nations, where they worked as cooks, restaurateurs, coffee shop owners, clothes makers, sailors and hoteliers.


Chan Sing, one of the "villain" movie stars that dotted the Hong Kong movie industry was of Hainanese ancestry, as was the bartender who invented the world-famous Singapore Sling at the renowned Singapore Raffles Hotel, Mr. Ngiam Tong Boon.

In Thailand, the Thailand Prime Minister Pote Sarasin, Bank of Bangkok President Boonchu Rojanastien, singer Nichkhun of 2PM, media mogul Sondhi Limthongkul, the politically influential Sarasin family, as well as two of the wealthiest business families, the Chirathivats and the Yoovidhyas, are all Hainamese.

In Laos, former deputy prime minister Somsavat Lengsavad is also of Hainamese descent.

In Singapore, notable Hainamese politicians and statesmen include the current Prime Minister Lawrence Wong, as well as former education minister Lee Chiaw Meng, Cedric Foo, Chin Harn Tong and Mah Bow Tan.

Culture

Language

In Hainan, the lingua franca and language of prestige is referred to as Hainamese.[6] Numerous Wenchang Hainanese descended from Jinshi and merchants from Putian as many of their Jiapu (family genealogies) show.[7] Standard Chinese is also the lingua franca in the island province as in the rest of China.

Cuisine

Hainanese chicken rice

Numerous signature dishes such as the Hainanese chicken rice, Wenchang chicken, Hainanese pork chop, Hainanese mutton soup, Hainanese salted fish soup and beef noodle soup. Hainanese chicken rice is a recognised dish throughout Southeast Asia due to the Hainanese diaspora in these areas who famed it.

All these signature dishes are served at the various eateries located along Purvis Street, within the Hainanese enclave; as a result, Purvis Street is often referred to as "Hainan Second Street", while Middle Road and Seah Street are referred to as "Hainan First Street" and "Hainan Third Street" respectively.[8] It is often labelled as Singapore's national dish.[9]

Arts

Hainamese opera (Qiong opera) is a passion for many Hainamese, particularly for the older generation. Enriched with local flavours, Hainamese opera is part and parcel of Hainamese culture.[10]


Vintage skirt with human figures woven by the Run Li people of Hainan, courtesy the Wovensouls collection










Genetics

Hainanese Han represent the southernmost branch of the different types of Han Chinese, first being Han colonists to the island in significant numbers civilizing the island, particularly after the fall of the Northern Song dynasty. At this time, the island was considered a place of exile. More Han colonists migrated throughout the 16th and 17th centuries.[11]

According to an analysis of autosomal loci using the Huaxia platinum system, the Hainanese Han grouped together with geographically close Taiwan Han, even while showing subtle differentiation from other Han populations.[12]

According to an article published in the European Journal of Genetics on 2 March 2020, the Hainanese Han[13] cluster first with the Singapore Chinese and the Minnan Han population, followed by the Cantonese population. The same article states that Hainanese Han showed a close genetic relationship with the wider Han population with a pairwise FST of 0.002.[14]



See also

References

  1. ^ Tim Doling (1972). The Annals of Philippine Chinese Historical Association, Issues 3-7. Philippine Chinese Historical Association.
  2. ^ Koen De Ridder (2001). "Weiying Gu". Authentic Chinese Christianity: Preludes to Its Development (nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries). Leuven University Press. ISBN 90-586-7102-X.
  3. ^ David Goodman (2002). China's Provinces in Reform: Class, Community and Political Culture. Routledge. ISBN 11-347-1270-7.
  4. ^ "A comprehensive map of genetic variation in the world's largest ethnic group - Han Chinese". bioRxiv 10.1101/162982.
  5. ^ He, Guanglin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Jianxin; Wang, Mengge; Zou, Xing; Tang, Renkuan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Han; Li, Yingxiang; Hu, Rong; Wei, Lan-Hai; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Hou, Yiping (August 2020). "Inferring the population history of Tai-Kadai-speaking people and southernmost Han Chinese on Hainan Island by genome-wide array genotyping". European Journal of Human Genetics. 28 (8): 1111–1123. doi:10.1038/s41431-020-0599-7. PMC 7381617. PMID 32123326.
  6. ^ "Wenchang City". Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2011-04-15.
  7. ^ "莆田先民移民广东海南缘由初探 - 莆田文化网". www.ptwhw.com. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  8. ^ Abigail Ng WY (23 March 2017). "Youth camps keep Hainanese alive". The Straits Times Singapore. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  9. ^ Kugiya, Hugo (March 18, 2010). "Singapore's national dish: Hainan chicken rice". Crosscut. Archived from the original on 2011-08-31. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
  10. ^ Tim Doling (1996). Visiting Arts regional profile: Asia Pacific arts directory. UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 92-310-3254-2.
  11. ^ "Hainan - Chinese Province, Tropical Island, Maritime Silk Road | Britannica".
  12. ^ Wang, Mengge; Wang, Zheng; He, Guanglin; Jia, Zhenjun; Liu, Jing; Hou, Yiping (5 February 2018). "Genetic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of three Chinese ethnic groups using the Huaxia Platinum System". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 2429. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.2429W. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20871-7. PMC 5799253.
  13. ^ https://foa-media.arch.hku.hk/media/upload/ZHANG-Huali.pdf
  14. ^ He, Guanglin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Jianxin; Wang, Mengge; Zou, Xing; Tang, Renkuan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Han; Li, Yingxiang; Hu, Rong; Wei, Lan-Hai; Chen, Gang; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Hou, Yiping (August 2020). "Inferring the population history of Tai-Kadai-speaking people and southernmost Han Chinese on Hainan Island by genome-wide array genotyping". European Journal of Human Genetics. 28 (8): 1111–1123. doi:10.1038/s41431-020-0599-7. PMC 7381617. PMID 32123326.
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Hainan people
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