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Germinal matrix

In anatomy, the germinal matrix is a highly cellular and highly vascularized region in the brain out from which cells migrate during brain development. The germinal matrix is the source of both neurons and glial cells and is most active between 8 and 28 weeks gestation. It is a fragile portion of the brain that may be damaged leading to a germinal matrix hemorrhage (grade 1 intraventricular hemorrhage).

Location/anatomy: The germinal matrix is next to the lateral ventricles (the "inside" of the brain).

Function/physiology: Neurons and glia migrate radially outward from the germinal matrix towards the cerebral cortex. For more information, see the associated articles on neuronal migration and corticogenesis.[1][2][3]

Dysfunction/pathophysiology: in prenatology/neonatology, intraventricular hemorrhages occur starting in the germinal matrix due to the lack of structural integrity there. Intraventricular hemorrhages are a common and harmful issue in children born prematurely.[4]

See also


  1. ^ Nadarajah, Bagirathy; Parnavelas, John G. (1 June 2002). "Modes of neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 3 (6): 423–432. doi:10.1038/nrn845. ISSN 1471-0048. PMID 12042877. S2CID 38910547.
  2. ^ Nadarajah, B. (2003-06-01). "Neuronal Migration in the Developing Cerebral Cortex: Observations Based on Real-time Imaging". Cerebral Cortex. 13 (6): 607–611. doi:10.1093/cercor/13.6.607. ISSN 1047-3211. PMID 12764035.
  3. ^ Friocourt, Gaëlle; Kanatani, Shigeaki; Tabata, Hidenori; Yozu, Masato; Takahashi, Takao; Antypa, Mary; Raguénès, Odile; Chelly, Jamel; Férec, Claude (2008-05-28). "Cell-Autonomous Roles of ARX in Cell Proliferation and Neuronal Migration during Corticogenesis". Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (22): 5794–5805. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1067-08.2008. ISSN 0270-6474. PMC 6670801. PMID 18509041.
  4. ^ Brouwer, AJ; Groenendaal, F; Benders, MJ; de Vries, LS (2014). "Early and late complications of germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm infant: what is new?". Neonatology. 106 (4): 296–303. doi:10.1159/000365127. PMID 25171657. S2CID 3476273.
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Germinal matrix
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