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Gerald Jay Sussman

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Gerald Jay Sussman
Photograph of head of a man wearing glasses and a dark burgundy fez hat
Gerald Sussman appearing in a 1986 video recording of the SICP lectures
Born (1947-02-08) February 8, 1947 (age 77)
EducationMassachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, PhD)
Known forArtificial intelligence, Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs
SpouseJulie Sussman
AwardsIJCAI Computers and Thought Award (1981)
ACM Fellow (1990)
Scientific career
FieldsCognitive science, electrical engineering, computer science
InstitutionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology
Thesis A Computational Model of Skill Acquisition  (1973)
Doctoral advisorSeymour Papert
Doctoral students

Gerald Jay Sussman (born February 8, 1947) is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has been involved in artificial intelligence (AI) research at MIT since 1964. His research has centered on understanding the problem-solving strategies used by scientists and engineers, with the goals of automating parts of the process and formalizing it to provide more effective methods of science and engineering education. Sussman has also worked in computer languages, in computer architecture, and in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design.[1]



Sussman attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as an undergraduate and received his SB in mathematics in 1968. He continued his studies at MIT and obtained a PhD in 1973, also in mathematics, under the supervision of Seymour Papert. His doctoral thesis was titled "A Computational Model of Skill Acquisition" focusing on artificial intelligence and machine learning, using a computational performance model named HACKER.[2]

According to a common story,[3] in 1966, Marvin Minsky tasked his student Gerald Jay Sussman to “spend the summer linking a camera to a computer and getting the computer to describe what it saw.”[4] This story was often told to illustrate that the difficulty of computer vision was not apparent to AI researchers in the early days.

Academic work


Sussman is a coauthor (with Hal Abelson and Julie Sussman) of the introductory computer science textbook Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. It was used at MIT for several decades, and has been translated into several languages.[citation needed]

Sussman's contributions to artificial intelligence include problem solving by debugging almost-right plans, propagation of constraints applied to electrical circuit analysis and synthesis, dependency-based explanation and dependency-based backtracking, and various language structures for expressing problem-solving strategies. Sussman and his former student, Guy L. Steele Jr., invented the programming language Scheme in 1975.

Sussman saw that artificial intelligence ideas can be applied to computer-aided design (CAD). Sussman developed, with his graduate students, sophisticated computer-aided design tools for Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). Steele made the first Scheme chips in 1978. These ideas and the AI-based CAD technology to support them were further developed in the Scheme chips of 1979 and 1981. The technique and experience developed were then used to design other special-purpose computers. Sussman was the principal designer of the Digital Orrery, a machine designed to do high-precision integrations for orbital mechanics experiments. The Orrery hardware was designed and built by a few people in a few months, using AI-based simulation and compiling tools.[5]

Using the Digital Orrery, Sussman has worked with Jack Wisdom to discover numerical evidence for chaotic motions in the outer planets. The Digital Orrery machine is now retired at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Sussman was also the lead designer of the Supercomputer Toolkit, another multiprocessor computer optimized for evolving of ordinary differential equations. The Supercomputer Toolkit was used by Sussman and Wisdom to confirm and extend the discoveries made with the Digital Orrery to include the entire planetary system.[6][7]

Sussman has pioneered the use of computational descriptions to communicate methodological ideas in teaching subjects in Electrical Circuits and in Signals and Systems. Over the past decade Sussman and Wisdom have developed a subject that uses computational techniques to communicate a deeper understanding of advanced classical mechanics. In Computer Science: Reflections on the Field, Reflections from the Field, he writes "... computational algorithms are used to express the methods used in the analysis of dynamical phenomena. Expressing the methods in a computer language forces them to be unambiguous and computationally effective. Students are expected to read the programs and to extend them and to write new ones. The task of formulating a method as a computer-executable program and debugging that program is a powerful exercise in the learning process. Also, once formalized procedurally, a mathematical idea becomes a tool that can be used directly to compute results." Sussman and Wisdom, with Meinhard Mayer, have produced a textbook, Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics, to capture these new ideas.

Sussman and Abelson have also been a part of the free software movement, including releasing MIT/GNU Scheme as free software[8] and serving on the board of directors of the Free Software Foundation.[9]

Sussman's work is presented in many videos, such as: with Hal Abelson in a full 20 lecture version of MIT's SICP course,[10] for LispNYC,[11][12] at the International Conference on Complex Systems,[13] for ArsDigita University,[14] and giving the keynote talk at a Strange Loop conference.[15][16]

Awards and organizations


For his contributions to computer science education, Sussman received the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Karl Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award in 1990, and the Amar G. Bose award for teaching in 1992.[17]

Sussman and Hal Abelson are the only founding directors still active on the board of directors of the Free Software Foundation (FSF).[18]

Sussman is a fellow of the following institutions:

Sussman is member of the following institutions:

In 2023 he received the IEEE Computer Society’s Taylor L. Booth Education Award for his “inspirational approach to the teaching of computer science through functional programming".[19]

Personal life


Gerald Sussman is married to computer programmer Julie Sussman.[20]

In 2011, Sussman attended an event on Jeffrey Epstein's private island, Little Saint James, known as the "Mindshift Conference", hosted by Epstein and Al Seckel.[21]

Select bibliography


See also



  1. ^ Sussman, Gerald Jay. "Biographical sketch of Gerald Jay Sussman". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  2. ^ Sussman, Gerald (1973). A Computational Model of Skill Acquisition (Ph.D.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. hdl:1721.1/6894.
  3. ^ Kragic, Danica (2018-10-17). "From active perception to deep learning". Science Robotics. 3 (23). doi:10.1126/scirobotics.aav1778. ISSN 2470-9476. PMID 33141734. S2CID 53020752.
  4. ^ Papert, Seymour A. (1966-07-01). "The Summer Vision Project". hdl:1721.1/6125. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ Applegate, James; Douglas, M.; Gursel, Y.; Hunter, P.; Seitz, C.; Sussman, Gerald Jay (September 1985). "A Digital Orrery". IEEE Transactions on Computers. C-34 (9): 822–831. doi:10.1109/TC.1985.1676638. S2CID 10002156.
  6. ^ Applegate, James; Douglas, M.; Gursel, Y.; Sussman, Gerald Jay; Wisdom, Jack (July 1986). "The Outer Solar System for 200 Million Years". Astronomical Journal. 92: 176–194. Bibcode:1986AJ.....92..176A. doi:10.1086/114149. hdl:1721.1/6442.
  7. ^ Sussman, Gerald Jay; Wisdom, Jack (July 1988). "Numerical evidence that the motion of Pluto is chaotic". Science. 241 (4864): 433–7. Bibcode:1988Sci...241..433S. doi:10.1126/science.241.4864.433. hdl:1721.1/6038. PMID 17792606. S2CID 1398095. Archived from the original on 2017-07-06.
  8. ^ "MIT/GNU Scheme". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  9. ^ "Staff and Board". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  10. ^ Sussman, Gerald (July 1986). MIT OpenCourseWare: Video Lectures (videotape). Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  11. ^ Sussman, Gerald (January 2016). Flexible Systems, The Power of Generic Operations (videotape). LispNYC. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  12. ^ "LispNYC". LispNYC. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  13. ^ Sussman, Gerald (June 11, 2002). Formalizing Science (videotape). New England Complex Systems Institute (NECSI). Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  14. ^ Sussman, Gerald (2001). The Legacy of Computer Science (videotape). Archived from the original on 2011-10-13.
  15. ^ Sussman, Gerald (September 19, 2011). We Really Don't Know How To Compute! (videotape). InfoQ.
  16. ^ "Strange Loop". Strange Loop. Retrieved 2019-09-11.
  17. ^ a b "Gerald Sussman | MIT CSAIL". Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  18. ^ "Staff and Board — Free Software Foundation — Working together for free software". Retrieved 2022-06-01.
  19. ^ "Innovations in Education: A Conversation with Gerald Jay Sussman, Taylor L. Booth Education Award Recipient". IEEE Computer Society. March 5, 2024. Retrieved March 23, 2024.
  20. ^ Aquino, Mario (2011-09-22). "The teacher". Blogger. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  21. ^ "Jeffrey Epstein to Host Mindshift Conference".
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Gerald Jay Sussman
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