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Siberian thrush (Geokichla sibirica)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Turdidae
Genus: Geokichla
S. Müller, 1836
Type species
Turdus citrinus[1]
Latham, 1790

The Geokichla thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the thrush family, Turdidae. They were traditionally listed in the Zoothera, but molecular phylogenetic studies published in 2008 led to their placement in a separate genus.


The genus Geokichla was introduced in 1836 by the German naturalist Salomon Müller with Turdus citrinus Latham, 1790, the orange-headed thrush, as the type species.[2][3][4] The genus name combines the Ancient Greek geō- meaning "ground-" with kikhlē meaning "thrush.[5]

These species were formerly placed in the genus Zoothera. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by Gary Voelker and collaborators published in 2008 found that Zoothera was polyphyletic.[6][7] To create monophyletic genera 21 species were moved from Zoothera to the resurrected genus Geokichla.[8]

List of species

The genus contains the following 21 species:[8]

A subfossil specimen of a ground thrush has been found on the island of Mauritius:[9]


  1. ^ "Turdidae". The Trust for Avian Systematics. Retrieved 2023-07-15.
  2. ^ Müller, Salomon (1836). "Aanteekeningen, over de natuurlijke gesteldheid van een gedeelte der westkust en binnenlanden van Sumatra, met bijvoeging van eenige waarnemingen en beschrijvingen van verscheidene op dit, en andere Sunda-eilanden voorkomende dieren". Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie (in Dutch). 2: 315–355 [348–349].>
  3. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, eds. (1964). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 10. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 144.
  4. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Vol. 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 619. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  5. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 172. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  6. ^ Voelker, G.; Klicka, J. (2008). "Systematics of Zoothera thrushes and a synthesis of true thrush molecular relationships". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 49: 377–381. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.06.014.
  7. ^ Voelker, G.; Outlaw, R.K. (2008). "Establishing a perimeter position: speciation around the Indian Ocean Basin". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 21 (6): 1779–1788. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01588.x.
  8. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2023). "Thrushes". IOC World Bird List Version 13.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  9. ^ Hume, J.P. (2022). "A new subfossil ground thrush (Turdidae: Geokichla) from Mauritius, Mascarene Islands". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 142 (4): 388–403. doi:10.25226/bboc.v142i4.2022.a2. S2CID 254367025.
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