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Foreign relations of Portugal

Foreign relations of Portugal are linked with its historical role as a major player in the Age of Discovery and the holder of the now defunct Portuguese Empire. Portugal is a European Union member country and a founding member of NATO. It is a committed proponent of European integration and transatlantic relations. João Gomes Cravinho is the current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.

Historical

Historically, the focus of Portuguese diplomacy has been to preserve its independence, vis-à-vis, the danger of annexation by Spain, and the maintenance of the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, which officially came into being in 1386, and with the United Kingdom as a successor to England, it is still in place today.

Other goals have also been constant such as the political stability of the Iberian peninsula and the affirmation of Portuguese interests in Europe and the Atlantic (also in the Indian and Pacific Oceans throughout different moments in history).

International organizations

Angela Merkel and José Manuel Barroso

Portugal was a founding member of NATO (1949), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1961), and European Free Trade Area (1960); it left the latter in 1986 to join the European Economic Community, which would become the European Union (EU) in 1993. In 1996, it co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). The country is a member state of the United Nations since 1955.

Recently, the primacy of the United States and inter-governmental organizations such as NATO and the United Nations have also been paramount in the affirmation of Portugal abroad.

Portugal has been a significant beneficiary of the EU. It was among the top beneficiaries of the EU-15 between 1995 and 2004 (only behind Spain and Greece in absolute terms, and behind Ireland and Greece in a per capita basis).[1] Portugal is a proponent of European integration and held the presidency of the European Union for the second time during the first half of 2000, and again in the second half of 2007. Portugal used its term to launch a dialogue between the EU and Africa and to begin to take steps to make the European economy dynamic and competitive. In 2002, the euro began to circulate as Portugal's currency. José Sócrates, as Prime Minister of Portugal, presided over the rotative Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the period July–December 2007.[2] In this post, Sócrates and his team focused on the EU-Brazil (1st EU-Brazil summit) and EU-African Union (2007 Africa-EU Summit) relations, as well as in the approval of the Treaty of Lisbon.

Portugal was a founding member of NATO; it is an active member of the alliance by, for example, contributing proportionally large contingents in Balkan peacekeeping forces. Portugal proposed the creation of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) to improve its ties with other Portuguese-speaking countries. Additionally, Portugal has participated, along with Spain, in a series of Ibero-American Summit. Portugal held the chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) for the year 2002. The chairman-in-office was Portuguese Foreign Minister António Martins da Cruz.

Disputes

Portugal holds claim to the disputed territory of Olivença on the Portugal-Spain border.

International visits

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Portugal maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[3]
1  Spain 5 October 1143
2  United Kingdom 9 May 1386
 Holy See 12 February 1481[4]
3  France 7 January 1485
4  Netherlands February 1641
5  Denmark 18 March 1641[5]
6  Sweden 29 July 1641
7  Austria April 1696
8  Russia 24 October 1779
9  United States 13 May 1791[6]
10  Brazil 29 August 1825
11  Belgium July 1834
12  Greece 22 July 1835[7]
13  Turkey 20 March 1843
14  Argentina 9 August 1852
15  Uruguay 16 October 1852[8]
16  Peru 26 March 1853[9]
17  Colombia 9 April 1857
18  Thailand 10 February 1859[10]
19  Japan 3 August 1860
20  South Africa February 1886
21  Italy 15 July 1872
22   Switzerland 5 November 1872
23  Paraguay 9 November 1878
24  Chile 28 February 1879
25  Mexico 6 December 1879
26  Bolivia 10 May 1879
27  Serbia 14 November 1882
28  Dominican Republic 1 May 1883[11]
29  Guatemala 20 August 1884[12]
30  Luxembourg 21 May 1891
31  Panama 21 May 1904[13]
32  Norway 17 March 1906[14]
33  Costa Rica 10 July 1913
34  Venezuela 11 December 1913[15]
35  Romania 27 August 1917
36  Cuba 16 May 1919[16]
37  Finland 10 January 1920
38  Czech Republic 18 October 1920[17]
39  Poland 13 May 1922
40  Egypt 25 June 1925[18]
41  Ireland 26 February 1942[19]
42  Philippines 4 July 1946
43  Iceland 23 January 1948[20]
44  Ecuador 28 August 1948
45  India 22 June 1949
46  Pakistan 4 November 1949
47  Indonesia 13 September 1950[21]
48  Canada 12 April 1952
49  Germany 10 November 1952[22]
50  Sri Lanka January 1953
51  Morocco 16 May 1955
52  Lebanon 1955
53  Iran 15 October 1956
54  Tunisia 21 May 1957
55  Nicaragua 3 March 1958[23]
56  Honduras 20 October 1958
57  Ethiopia 6 January 1959
58  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 July 1960
59  Australia 4 August 1960
60  Madagascar September 1960
61  South Korea 15 April 1961[24]
62  Republic of the Congo 25 May 1961
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 19 December 1962[25]
63  Iraq 8 February 1963
64  Haiti 1965
65  El Salvador 15 March 1966[26]
66  Eswatini 6 September 1968
67  Malawi 26 March 1969
68  Jordan July 1972
69  Bulgaria 26 June 1974
70  Hungary 1 July 1974
71  Mongolia 25 July 1974
72  Senegal 2 September 1974
73  Guinea-Bissau 29 November 1974
74  Bangladesh 16 December 1974
75  Ivory Coast 28 January 1975
76  Gabon 30 January 1975
77  Sierra Leone 18 February 1975[27]
78  Syria 19 February 1975
79  Burundi 22 February 1975
80  Cyprus 5 March 1975
81  Algeria 7 March 1975
82  Kuwait 1 April 1975
83  Tanzania 1 April 1975
84  Zambia 3 April 1975
85  Yemen 18 April 1975
 North Korea (suspended)[28] 22 April 1975
86  Ghana 27 May 1975
87  Mozambique 25 June 1975
88  Vietnam 1 July 1975
89  Niger 10 July 1975
90  Nigeria 10 July 1975
91  São Tomé and Príncipe 18 July 1975
92  Cape Verde 18 July 1975
93  Malta 22 July 1975
94  Malaysia December 1975
95  Libya 1975
96  Rwanda 12 February 1976
97  Mauritania 3 March 1976
98  Angola 9 March 1976
99  Liberia 19 March 1976
100  Lesotho 29 March 1976
101  Afghanistan 14 April 1976
102  United Arab Emirates 20 June 1976
103  New Zealand 22 June 1976
104  Bahrain 10 July 1976
105  Seychelles 16 August 1976[29]
106    Nepal 1 September 1976
107  Gambia 8 September 1976
108  Grenada 8 September 1976
109  Papua New Guinea 15 October 1976
110  Myanmar 14 November 1976[30]
111  Mauritius 12 December 1976
112  Mali 17 December 1976
113  Kenya 10 January 1977
114  Cameroon 12 February 1977
115  Central African Republic 15 February 1977
116  Fiji 21 February 1977
117  Equatorial Guinea 9 March 1977
118  Chad 4 April 1977
119  Suriname 2 May 1977
120  Israel 12 May 1977
121  Albania 21 June 1977
122  Benin 21 July 1977
123  Trinidad and Tobago 2 September 1977
124  Togo 18 March 1978
125  Burkina Faso 7 July 1978[31]
126  Guinea 2 January 1979
127  China 2 February 1979[32]
128  Guyana 14 February 1979
129  Jamaica 26 February 1979
130  Oman 26 October 1979
131  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
132  Botswana 21 April 1980
133  Saudi Arabia 18 July 1980
134  Singapore 7 January 1981
135  Sudan 11 January 1981
136  Qatar 1 May 1982
137  Antigua and Barbuda 20 March 1983
138  Somalia 3 April 1983
139  Vanuatu 30 August 1983
140  Tonga 1 November 1983
141  Kiribati 15 November 1983
142  Nauru 31 January 1984
143  Barbados 23 February 1989[33]
144  Estonia 1 October 1991
145  Latvia 2 October 1991
146  Lithuania 4 October 1991
147  Namibia 22 November 1991
148  Uganda 2 December 1991
149  Belarus 26 January 1992[34]
150  Ukraine 27 January 1992
151  Croatia 3 February 1992
152  Slovenia 3 February 1992
153  Liechtenstein February 1992
154  Georgia 23 May 1992
155  Armenia 25 May 1992
156  Cambodia 29 May 1992[35]
157  Azerbaijan 4 August 1992
158  Tajikistan 7 August 1992
159  Turkmenistan 13 August 1992
160  Kyrgyzstan 18 August 1992[36]
161  Kazakhstan 19 August 1992
162  Uzbekistan 28 August 1992
163  Belize 9 December 1992[37]
164  Slovakia 2 January 1993
165  Moldova 10 February 1993[38]
166  Bahamas 27 May 1993[37]
167  North Macedonia 15 November 1994
168  Andorra 22 December 1994[39]
169  Maldives 9 February 1995
170  Marshall Islands 10 February 1995[40]
171  Federated States of Micronesia 24 March 1995[41]
172  Saint Kitts and Nevis 1 March 1995[42]
173  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 12 April 1995
174  Laos 1 June 1995
 Cook Islands 12 August 1995
175  San Marino 29 August 1995
176  Eritrea 8 June 1995[37]
177  Samoa 9 June 1995[43]
178  Bosnia and Herzegovina 13 November 1995
179  Djibouti 19 March 1996[37]
180  Brunei 22 March 1996[37]
181  Palau 17 May 1996[44]
182  Saint Lucia 19 September 1996[37]
183  Solomon Islands 20 November 1996[45]
184  Comoros 27 December 1996[37]
185  Dominica 27 December 1996[37]
186  East Timor 20 May 2002
187  Montenegro 18 May 2007
188  Monaco 13 November 2008[46]
189  Tuvalu 26 May 2009
 Kosovo 14 November 2011[47]
190  South Sudan 23 April 2013[37]

Bilateral relationships

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 7 March 1975[3]
  • Algeria has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola 9 March 1976[3] See Angola–Portugal relations.

Portugal ruled Angola for 400 years,[48] colonizing the territory from 1483 until independence in 1975. Angola's war for independence did not end in a military victory for either side, but was suspended as a result of a coup in Portugal, that replaced the Caetano regime with a Military junta.

  • Angola has an embassy in Lisbon and a consulate-general in Porto.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Luanda and a consulate-general in Benguela.
 Cape Verde 18 July 1975[3] See Cape Verde–Portugal relations
  • Cape Verde has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Praia.
 Democratic Republic of Congo 7 July 1960[3]
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Kinshasa.
 Egypt 24 November 1942[3]
  • Egypt has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Cairo.
 Equatorial Guinea 9 March 1977[3]
  • Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Malabo.
 Ethiopia 6 January 1959[3]
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Guinea-Bissau 29 November 1974[3] See Guinea-Bissau–Portugal relations
  • Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Lisbon and a consulate-general in Albufeira.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bissau.
 Ivory Coast 28 January 1975[3]
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Ivory Coast from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.
 Libya 1975[3]
  • Libya has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal's embassy in Tripoli is currently suspended due to the current Libyan Crisis.
 Morocco 16 May 1955[3]
  • Morocco has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Rabat.
 Mozambique 25 June 1975[3] See Mozambique–Portugal relations.

Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975.

  • Mozambique has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Maputo and a consulate-general in Beira.
 Nigeria 10 July 1975[3]
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Abuja.
 São Tomé and Príncipe 18 July 1975[3] See Portugal–São Tomé and Príncipe relations.
  • Portugal has an embassy in São Tomé.
  • São Tomé and Príncipe has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Senegal 2 September 1974[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Lisbon.
 South Africa February 1886[3] See Portugal–South Africa relations.
 Tunisia 21 May 1957[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Lisbon.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 9 August 1852[3] See Argentina–Portugal relations
 Belize 9 December 1992[37]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 9 December 1992.[49]

 Brazil 29 August 1825[3] See Brazil–Portugal relations.

Relations between Brazil and Portugal have spanned over four centuries, beginning in 1532 with the establishment of São Vicente, the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas, up to the present day.[50] Relations between the two are intrinsically tied because of the Portuguese Empire. They continue to be bound by a common language and ancestral lines in Portuguese Brazilians, which can be traced back hundreds of years.

 Canada 12 April 1952[3] See Canada–Portugal relations.
  • Canada has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both nations are part of NATO.
 Chile 28 February 1879[3] See Chile–Portugal relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 9 April 1857[3]
  • Formal relations began in 1857.
  • Colombia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Cuba 1929[3]
  • Cuba has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Havana.
 El Salvador 15 March 1966[26]
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to El Salvador from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
 Mexico 6 December 1879[3] See Mexico–Portugal relations.
 Panama 21 May 1904[13]
  • Panama has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Panama City.
 Peru 26 March 1853[9]
  • Peru has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Lima.
 United States 13 May 1791[6] See Portugal–United States relations.

Portugal was among the first nations to establish diplomatic ties with the United States. Contributing to the strong ties between the United States and Portugal are the 20,000 Americans living in Portugal and some sizable Portuguese communities in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey, California, and Hawaii. The latest census estimates that 1.3 million individuals living in the United States are of Portuguese ancestry, with a large percentage coming from the Portuguese Autonomous region of the Azores.

 Uruguay 16 October 1852[8] See Portugal–Uruguay relations.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Venezuela 1914[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Caracas and a consulate-general in Valencia.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Lisbon.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia 25 May 1992[3] See Armenia–Portugal relations.
  • Armenia is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Rome, Italy.[51]
  • Portugal is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[52]
  • Portugal has recognized the Armenian genocide in 2019.
 Azerbaijan 4 August 1992[3] See Azerbaijan-Portugal relations.
  • Azerbaijan is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.
  • Portugal is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Bahrain 10 July 1976[3] See Bahrain–Portugal relations.

Bahrain was ruled by the Portuguese Empire from 1521 until 1602, when they were expelled by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty.

 China 2 February 1979[32] See China–Portugal relations.
  • China has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Macau and Shanghai.
 East Timor 20 May 2002[3] See East Timor–Portugal relations.

East Timor was an overseas territory of Portugal for over 400 years. Portugal was a strong advocate of independence for East Timor, which was occupied annexed by neighboring Indonesia between 1975 and 1999, and has committed troops and money to East Timor, in close cooperation with the United Nations, East Timor's Asian neighbors.

  • East Timor has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Dili.
 India 22 June 1949[3] See India–Portugal relations.
  • Relations between India and Portugal began amicably in 1947 when the former achieved independence. Relations went into decline after 1950 over Portugal's refusal to surrender its enclaves of Goa, Daman and Diu on India's west coast. By 1955, the two nations had cut off diplomatic relations, triggering a crisis which precipitated in the invasion of Portuguese India in 1961. Portugal refused to recognize Indian sovereignty over the annexed territories until 1974 when, following the Carnation Revolution, the new government in Lisbon recognized Indian sovereignty and restored diplomatic relations.
  • Relations have turned cordial since then and a number of state visits have been made, treaties have been signed. Indo-Portuguese bilateral trade grew from US$69 million in 1991 to US$289.52 million in 2005.
  • The Indian state of Goa hosted the 2013 Lusophony Games, the third edition of the multi-sport event for delegations representing every Portuguese-speaking National Olympic Committees.
  • India has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in New Delhi and a consulate-general in Panjim, Goa.
 Indonesia 4 January 1965[3] See Indonesia–Portugal relations.

In 1999, Indonesia and Portugal restored diplomatic relations, which were broken off following the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975.

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Iran 15 October 1956[3] See Iran–Portugal relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tehran.
 Iraq
  • Iraq has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is represented in Iraq through embassy in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates).
 Israel 12 May 1977[3]

The Estado Novo regime did not recognize Israel. Full diplomatic relations with the Israeli government were established in 1977, following the Portuguese revolution of 1974.[53]

  • Israel has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
 Japan 3 August 1860[3] See Japan–Portugal relations.
  • Japan has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kazakhstan 19 August 1992[3]
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Nur-Sultan.
 North Korea 22 April 1975[3] See Portugal–North Korea relations.

In 1975, North Korea and Portugal established diplomatic relations.[54] In 2017, Portugal cut diplomatic ties with North Korea.[55]

 Pakistan 4 November 1949[3]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Islamabad.
 Philippines 4 July 1946[3]
  • Philippines has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to the Philippines from its embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Qatar 1 May 1982[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Saudi Arabia 18 July 1980[3]
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Riyadh.
 South Korea 15 April 1961[24] See Portugal–South Korea relations

Although far apart in geographical terms, the known contacts between Portugal and Korea date from the beginning of the 17th century.

  • In 1604, a Portuguese merchant, João Mendes, traveled to East Asia via Macao to engage in trading and, after having been taken captive along with other crew in a sea battle with a Japanese foreign trade mission boat, landed in Tongyang, on the Southeastern coast of Korea.
    • But before that – throughout the 16th century – both Portuguese cartography and texts written by Portuguese Jesuit fathers provide a significant number of references to Korea. Luís de Fróis, in his History of Japan (which includes ten chapters on Korea), Tomé Pires, in his Summa Oriental, Fernão Mendes Pinto, celebrated author of The Peregrination, Fernão Vaz Dourado, Gaspar Vilela, or father Manuel Teixeira, are some of the authors and cartographers where numerous references to Korea can be found.
    • On the basis of toponyms related to Korea found in texts written and charts drawn by Portuguese travelers and cartographers, Korean historians have attributed to the Portuguese the introduction of Korea to the Western world.
    • Thus, Portugal and Korea can trace their relations back to the era when Portugal played a pioneering role in opening the sea routes between Europe and Asia, between East and West, setting out the first wave of globalization and fostering multiform contacts and exchanges between different civilizations that became the hallmark of the modern world.
    • Today, the relations between Portugal and Korea stand on solid grounds, built upon an extensive network of bilateral agreements and political visits at high level, as well as on a growing exchange of people to people contacts. With Asia taking centerpiece place in the world economy and Korea playing a leading role in Asia, trade and relations between both countries are expected to develop further.
  • On the sidelines of their meeting on 10 April the South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung-se and his Portuguese counterpart Rui Machete signed the Memorandum of Understanding between South Korea and Portugal concerning a Working Holiday Program.
  • The Memorandum of understanding (MOU) was brought into force on 10 April 2014, allowing an annual 200 youngsters aged 18–30 of each country to stay in the other country for up to one year traveling and working.
  • South Korea is the first country Portugal has concluded such an MOU with The bilateral MOU is expected to offer opportunities to future leaders of the two countries to better understand each other's cultures and promote exchanges and cooperation between the two countries.[56]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Seoul.[57]
  • South Korea has an embassy in Lisbon.[58]
 Thailand 10 February 1859[10]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bangkok.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Turkey 20 March 1843[3] See Portugal–Turkey relations

Turkey's 161 years of political relations with Portugal date back to the Ottoman period when the Visconde do Seixal was appointed as an envoy to Istanbul. Diplomatic relations ceased during World War I and were re-established in the Republican period in 1926. A resident embassy was established in 1957.

 United Arab Emirates 20 June 1976[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Vietnam 1 July 1975[3]
  • Portugal is accredited to Vietnam from its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand. However, Portugal has a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 19 December 1939[3] See Albania–Portugal relations.
  • Albania has an embassy in Lisbon.[59]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Albania is an EU candidate and Portugal is an EU member.
 Andorra 22 December 1994[39] See Andorra–Portugal relations
  • Andorra has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria April 1696[3] See Austria–Portugal relations
 Belgium July 1834[3]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Bulgaria 26 June 1974[3] See Bulgaria–Portugal relations.
  • Diplomatic relations were first established in 1925. They were severed in 1945 and were restored on 24 June 1974.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  • In 2007, the two countries signed a police co-operation agreement.
 Croatia 3 February 1992[3]
  • Croatia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus 5 March 1975[3]
 Czech Republic 1921
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark 18 March 1641[5] See Denmark–Portugal relations.
 Estonia
  • Estonia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Estonia from its embassy in Helsinki, Finland.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 10 January 1920[3]
  • Finland has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 France 1485[3] See France–Portugal relations

Portuguese links to France have remained very strong and the country is considered one of Portugal's main political partners.

 Germany 1871[3] See Germany–Portugal relations
 Greece 22 July 1835[7] See Greece–Portugal relations
  • Greece has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Holy See 23 May 1179[3]
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.
 Hungary 1 July 1974[3]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Iceland 23 January 1948[20]
  • Iceland is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Portugal is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 1942[3]
 Italy 15 July 1872[3] See Italy–Portugal relations
  • Italy has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Rome.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Kosovo 14 November 2011[47] See Kosovo–Portugal relations.

Portugal recognized Kosovo on 7 October 2008.[60][61][62] Kosovo has formally announced its decision to open an embassy in Lisbon.[63]

 Luxembourg
 Malta 22 July 1975[3] See Malta–Portugal relations.
  • Malta has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the Council of Europe.
 Netherlands February 1641[3] See Netherlands–Portugal relations
 North Macedonia
  • North Macedonia is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Portugal is accredited to North Macedonia from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
  • North Macedonia is an EU candidate and Portugal is an EU member.
 Norway 17 March 1906[14]
  • Norway has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland 13 May 1922[3] See Poland–Portugal relations
  • Poland has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 27 August 1917[3] See Portugal–Romania relations
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia 24 October 1779[3] See Portugal–Russia relations.
 Serbia 14 November 1882[3] See Portugal–Serbia relations.

Portugal established diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Serbia on 19 October 1917.[64] Relations continued with the successor Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The Portuguese recognized the government in exile of this state after the German occupation of 1941.[65] Relations with the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which took power in 1945 after World War II, were only established in 1974 after the Portuguese Carnation Revolution.[66] Following the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav wars, Portugal maintained relations with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, later reconstituted as Serbia and Montenegro and finally as Serbia after Montenegro declared its independence in July 2006.[67] Portugal has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Lisbon.[67]

In April 1999, Portugal participated in the NATO bombing of Serbia from the Aviano air base in Italy.[68] Portugal also provided troops as part of NATO peacekeeping efforts in the breakaway Serbian province of Kosovo in 1999.[69] In April 1999, Serbia filed a complaint with the International Court of Justice regarding Portugal's use of force in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[70] As of 2007, Portugal still had about 300 troops in Kosovo.[71]

  • In December 1997, President of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević received Portuguese Foreign Minister Jaime Gama to discuss strengthening bilateral relations.[72]
  • In January 2002, Jaime Gama returned to Yugoslavia in his capacity as Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Chairman-in-Office. The OSCE was engaged in stabilizing the situation in southern Serbia following the Kosovo War.[73]
  • In November 2003, the President of Serbia and Montenegro, Svetozar Marović, visited Portugal. During this visit, he signed an agreement on the succession of Bilateral Agreements between Yugoslavia and Portugal, extending prior agreements on tourism, business, scientific, and technological co-operation, and co-operation in information.[67]
  • In July 2005, Portuguese Minister of Defense Luís Amado visited Serbia and Montenegro, where he discussed military co-operation with his Serbian counterpart.[74]
  • In May 2007, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luís Amado gave strong support for Serbian ambitions to join the European Union.[75]
  • In July 2007, Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica visited Lisbon.[76]
  • In October 2008, Portugal recognized Kosovo's independence from Serbia.[77] (See also Kosovan–Portuguese relations.)
  • In November 2008, Portuguese Foreign Minister Luís Amado met with his Serbian counterpart Vuk Jeremić in Belgrade and voiced his support for removing the suspension of a trade agreement between Serbia and the European Union.[78] Also that month, the Serbian Minister of Science and Technological Development met a Portuguese delegation and discussed cooperation in energy efficiency, nanotechnology, and the food industry, with plans to sign a co-operation agreement on science and technology by the end of 2008.[79]
  • In February 2009, Serbian Defence Minister Dragan Šutanovac met with his Portuguese counterpart Nuno Severiano Teixeira. They signed an agreement on defense cooperation and discussed Serbia's NATO bid.[80][81]
  • In June 2009, Serbian Prime Minister Mirko Cvetković met with Portuguese parliamentary speaker Jaime Gama, and discussed improvements to bilateral cooperation.[82]

In the January–October 2006 period, bilateral trade between Serbia and Portugal were estimated at US$12.7 million.[67]

 Spain 5 October 1143[3] See Portugal–Spain relations.

Historically, the two states were long-standing adversaries, but in recent years, they have enjoyed a much friendlier relationship and in 1986, they entered the European Union together.

 Sweden 29 July 1641[3] See Portugal–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 5 November 1872[3]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Ukraine 27 January 1992[3] See Portugal–Ukraine relations.
  • Portugal recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Lisbon and a consulate in Porto.[85]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and of the Council of Europe.
  • Portugal is an EU member and Ukraine is an EU candidate.
  • As of 2015, according to United Nations statistics, there are 45,051 Ukrainians living in Portugal.[86]
 United Kingdom 9 May 1386[3] See Portugal–United Kingdom relations.

Portugal established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 9 May 1386.[87]

Both countries share common membership of the Atlantic co-operation pact,[90] Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE, and the World Trade Organization. Bilaterally the two countries have an Alliance.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 4 August 1960[3]
  • Australia has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
 New Zealand 22 June 1976[3]
  • New Zealand is accredited to Portugal from its embassy in Paris, France.
  • Portugal is accredited to New Zealand from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.

See also

References

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Foreign relations of Portugal
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