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Foreign relations of Hungary

Hungary wields considerable influence in Central and Eastern Europe and is a middle power in international affairs.[1][2] The foreign policy of Hungary includes commitments to international development, international law, European integration, Atlantic co-operation and increased co-operation within the Global East.[3] The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade.

Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and holds current membership with the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024. In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 0.13% of its Gross National Income. In this regard, Hungary stands before Spain, Israel or Russia.

Hungary's capital city, Budapest is home to more than 100 embassies and foreign representative bodies.[4] Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and even others.[5]

From 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal was achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. It joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. It also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Ukraine, Slovakia, and Romania. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in Central and Eastern Europe.

Except for the short-lived neutrality declared by the anti-Soviet leader Imre Nagy in November 1956, Hungary's foreign policy generally followed the Soviet lead from 1947 to 1989. During the Communist period, Hungary maintained treaties of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. It was one of the founding members of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact and Comecon, and it was the first country to withdraw from those organizations. After 1989, it began to orient more towards the West, joining NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. In 2010, Hungary initiated its Eastern Opening Policy, marking a commitment to enhancing its relations with nations within the Global East.[3]

Meeting of Visegrád Group leaders, plus Germany and France in 2013
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament

Overview

As with any country, Hungarian security attitudes are shaped largely by history and geography. For Hungary, this is a history of more than 400 years of domination by great powers—the Ottomans, the Habsburg dynasty, the Germans during World War II, and the Soviets during the Cold War—and a geography of regional instability and separation from Hungarian minorities living in neighboring countries. Hungary's foreign policy priorities, largely consistent since 1990, represent a direct response to these factors. From 1990, Hungary's top foreign policy goal was achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. The Horn government achieved Hungary's most important foreign policy successes of the post-communist era by securing invitations to join both NATO and the European Union in 1997. Hungary became a member of NATO in 1999,[6] and a member of the EU in 2004.[7]

Hungary also has improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Slovakia and Romania periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary was a signatory to the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, has signed all of the CSCE/OSCE follow-on documents since 1989, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary's record of implementing CSCE Helsinki Final Act provisions, including those on the reunification of divided families, remains among the best in eastern Europe. Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955.

The Gabčíkovo - Nagymaros Dams project

This involves Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and was agreed on September 16, 1977 ("Budapest Treaty"). The treaty envisioned a cross-border barrage system between the towns Gabčíkovo, Czechoslovakia and Nagymaros, Hungary. After an intensive campaign, the project became widely hated as a symbol of the old communist regime. In 1989 the Hungarian government decided to suspend it. In its sentence from September 1997, the International Court of Justice stated that both sides breached their obligation and that the 1977 Budapest Treaty is still valid. In 1998 the Slovak government turned to the International Court, demanding the Nagymaros part to be built. The international dispute was partially solved in 2017.

On March 19, 2008, Hungary recognized Kosovo as an independent country.[8]

Relations between Hungary and its Western partners have strained, because Orban's government has maintained relations with Russia despite of sanctions against Russia after the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[9]

Illicit drugs: Major trans-shipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and transit point for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamines and methamphetamines

Refugee protection: The Hungarian border barrier was built in 2015, and Hungary was criticized by other European countries for using tear gas and water cannons on refugees of the Syrian Civil War as they were trying to pass the country.[10][11]

Since 2017, Hungary–Ukraine relations have rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.[12][13]

Hungary and Central Asia

Viktor Orbán at the 8th Summit of the Organization of Turkic States

A number of Hungarian anthropologists and linguists have long had an interest in the Turkic peoples, fueled by the eastern origin of the Hungarians' ancestors.[14] The Hungarian ethnomusicologist Bence Szabolcsi explained this motivation as follows: "Hungarians are the outermost branch leaning this way from age-old tree of the great Asian musical culture rooted in the souls of a variety of peoples living from China through Central Asia to the Black Sea".[15]

Since the political transformation in 1990, Hungary has prioritized its diplomatic engagements with the Turkic world.[16] in 2018, Hungary became an observer within the Organisation of Turkic States, underscoring a deepened engagement in regional cooperation.[17]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Hungary maintains diplomatic relations with (all UN member states except  Bhutan and  Vanuatu):

# Country Date
1  Austria 1918[18]
2   Switzerland 1918[18]
3  Norway 12 February 1920[19]
4  Bulgaria 9 August 1920[20]
 Holy See 10 August 1920[21][22]
5  Romania 21 August 1920[23]
6  Sweden 12 November 1920[24]
7  France 1920[25]
8  United Kingdom 22 May 1921[26]
9  United States 29 August 1921[27]
10  Poland 17 November 1921[28]
11  Netherlands 1921[29]
12  Serbia June 1921[30]
13  Belgium 20 February 1922[31]
14  Finland 12 April 1922[32]
15  Albania 23 May 1922[33]
16  Czech Republic 1922[34]
17  Luxembourg 17 July 1923[35]
18  Argentina 1924[18]
19  Mexico 13 January 1926[36]
20  Italy 15 April 1927[37]
21  Chile 1930[18]
22  Russia 6 February 1934[38]
23  Spain December 1944[39]
24  Ecuador September 1946[40]
25  Turkey 23 January 1947[41]
26  Denmark 10 May 1948[42]
27  North Korea 11 November 1948[43]
28  India 18 November 1948[44]
29  Israel 1948[18]
30  China 6 October 1949[45]
31  Vietnam 3 February 1950[46]
32  Mongolia 28 April 1950[47]
33  Iran 1951[18]
34  Bolivia 17 October 1952[48]
35  Egypt 13 October 1954[49]
36  Syria 13 October 1954[49]
37  Indonesia 26 June 1955[50]
38  Iceland 17 July 1955[51]
39  Myanmar 5 March 1956[52]
40  Sudan 7 March 1956[53]
41  Afghanistan 18 May 1956[54]
42  Uruguay 14 June 1956[55]
43  Greece 23 July 1956[56]
44  Tunisia 31 August 1956[49]
45  Iraq 30 August 1958[57]
46  Sri Lanka 15 February 1959[58]
47  Guinea 26 February 1959[59]
48  Yemen 21 March 1959[60]
49  Japan 29 August 1959[61]
50  Morocco 23 October 1959[62]
51  Ethiopia 17 November 1959[63]
52  Cuba 15 September 1960[64]
53  Somalia 14 October 1960[65]
54  Cyprus 18 October 1960[66]
55    Nepal 15 January 1961[67]
56  Mali 12 March 1961[68]
57  Brazil 21 March 1961[69]
58  Ghana 29 July 1961[70]
59  Algeria 7 April 1962[71]
60  Benin 18 June 1962[72]
61  Laos 12 September 1962[73]
62  Tanzania 23 November 1962[74]
63  Cambodia 22 July 1963[75]
64  Kenya 21 March 1964[76]
65  Nigeria 4 April 1964[77]
66  Kuwait 7 May 1964[78]
67  Jordan 16 May 1964[79]
68  Canada 11 June 1964[80]
69  Pakistan 26 February 1965[81]
70  Uganda 23 August 1965[41]
71  Lebanon 1 December 1965[68]
72  Mauritania 1 December 1965[82]
73  Zambia 13 August 1966[83]
74  Libya 2 July 1967[84]
75  Senegal 24 January 1968[18]
76  Ivory Coast 22 February 1968[85]
77  Burundi 29 May 1968[86]
78  Burkina Faso 8 June 1968[87]
79  New Zealand 30 March 1969[88]
80  Peru 16 April 1969[89]
81  Venezuela 30 April 1969[90]
82  Sierra Leone 10 November 1969[91]
83  Malaysia 29 December 1969[92]
84  Central African Republic 10 February 1970[93]
85  Republic of the Congo 14 February 1970[94]
86  Equatorial Guinea 18 February 1970[95]
87  Costa Rica 14 May 1970[48]
88  Togo 20 June 1970[96]
89  Singapore 24 August 1970[97]
90  Malta 12 December 1970[98]
91  Bangladesh 29 February 1972[99]
92  Australia 6 April 1972[100]
93  Gambia 14 June 1972[101]
94  Rwanda 31 July 1972[102]
95  Chad 1 November 1972[103]
96  Niger 3 February 1973[104]
97  Colombia 28 March 1973[105]
98  Guinea-Bissau 15 June 1973[106]
99  Democratic Republic of the Congo 16 June 1973[107]
100  Honduras 2 July 1973[48]
101  Philippines 28 September 1973[108]
102  Thailand 24 October 1973[109]
103  Germany 21 December 1973[110]
104  Portugal 1 July 1974[111]
105  Jamaica 8 February 1975[112]
106  Maldives 24 May 1975[113]
107  Trinidad and Tobago 7 June 1975[114]
108  Mozambique 26 June 1975[115]
109  Guyana 9 July 1975[116]
110  Cape Verde 16 July 1975[117]
111  Panama 4 September 1975[118]
112  Madagascar 1 December 1975[119]
113  Angola 23 December 1975[120]
114  Liberia 15 July 1976[121]
115  Fiji 12 August 1976[122]
116  Ireland 1 October 1976[123]
117  São Tomé and Príncipe 2 November 1976[124]
118  Papua New Guinea 15 January 1977[125]
119  Djibouti 28 June 1977[126]
120  Suriname 14 July 1977[127]
121  Grenada 30 July 1977[128]
122  Seychelles 30 November 1977[129]
123  Comoros 30 November 1977[130]
124  Barbados 8 March 1978[131]
125  Nicaragua 1 October 1979[132]
126  Botswana 30 April 1980[133]
127  Zimbabwe 22 December 1980[134]
128  Lesotho 29 March 1983[135]
129  Cameroon 21 January 1987[136]
130  Gabon 24 October 1988[122]
131  South Korea 1 February 1989[137]
 State of Palestine 23 June 1989[138]
132  United Arab Emirates 2 August 1989[139]
133  Bahrain 3 March 1990[140]
134  Namibia 23 March 1990[141]
135  Mauritius 24 April 1990[18]
136  Eswatini 9 May 1990[122]
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 June 1990[142]
137  Oman 20 June 1990[143]
138  Guatemala 11 October 1990[122]
139  Qatar 18 October 1990[144]
140  Malawi 26 December 1990[18]
141  Paraguay 2 May 1991[122]
142  San Marino 24 May 1991[145]
143  South Africa 24 July 1991[146]
144  Estonia 24 February 1921[147]
145  Latvia 2 September 1991[148]
146  Lithuania 2 September 1991[149]
147  El Salvador 26 September 1991[122]
148  Ukraine 3 December 1991[150]
149  Moldova 16 January 1992[151]
150  Slovenia 16 January 1992[152]
151  Croatia 18 January 1992[153]
152  Brunei 21 January 1992[122]
153  Belarus 12 February 1992[154]
154  Armenia 26 February 1992[155]
155  Uzbekistan 3 March 1992[156]
156  Kazakhstan 23 March 1992[157]
157  Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 April 1992[158]
158  Kyrgyzstan 16 April 1992[159]
159  Azerbaijan 27 April 1992[160]
160  Turkmenistan 11 May 1992[161]
161  Georgia 14 May 1992[162]
162  Tajikistan 2 July 1992[163]
163  Slovakia 1 January 1993[164]
164  Eritrea 24 August 1993[165]
165  Liechtenstein 18 September 1993[166]
166  North Macedonia 29 August 1994[167]
167  Andorra 1 March 1995[168]
168  Saudi Arabia 4 April 1995[169]
169  Dominican Republic 7 March 2003[170]
170  East Timor 24 January 2003[171]
171  Bahamas 29 April 2005[122]
172  Antigua and Barbuda 16 May 2005[122]
173  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 23 May 2005[172]
174  Belize 10 June 2005[122]
175  Haiti 11 July 2005[122]
176  Saint Lucia 7 October 2005[122]
177  Montenegro 14 June 2006[173]
178  Dominica 2 June 2008[122]
 Kosovo 27 June 2008[174]
179  Saint Kitts and Nevis 11 May 2011[122]
180  Solomon Islands 21 June 2011[175]
181  Tuvalu 11 July 2011[176]
182  Nauru 12 July 2011[122]
183  Samoa 7 September 2011[122]
184  South Sudan 23 September 2011[122]
185  Tonga 23 September 2011[122]
186  Federated States of Micronesia 7 September 2012[122]
187  Monaco 2 May 2016[177]
188  Kiribati 17 June 2016[122]
189  Palau 18 September 2017[178]
 Cook Islands 20 September 2018[179]
190  Marshall Islands 27 September 2019[122]

Relations by region and country

Multilateral

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union (See Hungary in the European Union)
 NATO (See Hungary in NATO)
  • Hungary joined NATO as a full member on 12 March 1999.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Hungary is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal[180][181] and maintains an honorary consulate in Praia.[182]
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia is accredited to Hungary from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ghana (See Ghana–Hungary relations)
  • Ghana is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Accra.
 Guinea-Bissau
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Hungary is accredited to Guinea-Bissau from its embassy in Lisbon, Portugal.[182]
 Mauritania
  • Hungary is accredited to Mauritania from its embassy in Rabat, Morocco.[183][184]
 Morocco
  • Hungary has an embassy in Rabat.
  • Morocco has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Latifa Akharbach, Morocco's under-secretary of Minister of Foreign Affairs visited Hungary in 2007.
 Uganda
  • Hungary is represented in Uganda by its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya[183] and an honorary consulate in Kampala.[183]
  • Hungary is realizing the largest foreign development program in its history in Uganda.[185]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina (See Argentina–Hungary relations)
  • Argentina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Belize
  • Belize does not have an accreditation to Hungary.
  • Hungary does not have an accreditation to Belize.
 Brazil 1927 (See Brazil–Hungary relations)
  • Brazil has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Brasília and a consulate-general in São Paulo.
 Canada 1964 (See Canada–Hungary relations)
 Colombia 28 March 1973 (See Colombia–Hungary relations)
  • Colombia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bogotá.
 Dominica
  • Hungary is accredited to Dominica from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.[188][183]
 Mexico 1925 (See Hungary–Mexico relations)

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1864, during the time of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Diplomatic relations were established between Hungary and Mexico in 1925 and were suspended in 1941. They were re-established on 14 May 1974.

 United States 1922 (See Hungary–United States relations)

Normal bilateral relations between Hungary and the U.S. were resumed in December 1945 when a U.S. ambassador was appointed and the embassy was re-opened.

 Uruguay (See Hungary–Uruguay relations)
  • Hungary is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina and has an embassy office in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 2022-12-02 (See Armenia–Hungary relations)

On 31 August 2012, Armenia severed relations with Hungary following the extradition of Ramil Safarov.[193] On 2 December 2022, Armenia and Hungary restored diplomatic relations.[194]

 Azerbaijan (See Azerbaijan–Hungary relations)
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Baku.
 China 1949-10-04 (See Hungary-China relations)
  • China has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Beijing and consulates-general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.
  • Officials from Hungary regularly visit China on trade missions, a factor that helped enable the buyout of distressed Hungarian chemical maker Borsodchem by the Chinese company Wanhua Industrial Group.[195]
 India (See Hungary–India relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in New Delhi.
  • India has an embassy in Budapest.
 Indonesia 1955 (See Hungary–Indonesia relations)
 Iran 1939
  • Since 1951, Hungary has an embassy in Tehran.[198]
  • Iran has an embassy in Budapest.[199]
  • Hungary is committed to expand cooperation with the Islamic Republic of Iran.[200]
 Iraq (See Hungary–Kurdistan Region relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Between August 2003 and March 2005, Hungary had contributed to more than 300 soldiers to the Multinational force in Iraq.
 Israel (See Hungary–Israel relations)
 Japan (See Hungary–Japan relations)
 Malaysia 1969 (See Hungary–Malaysia relations)
 Mongolia 1959-05-29
 North Korea (See Hungary–North Korea relations)
  • Relations between the two countries existed since the Korean War, but however have evolved into conflicts.
 Pakistan 1965-11-26 (See Hungary–Pakistan relations)
  • Since 1970, Hungary has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Karachi.[205]
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Budapest[206]
 Palestine 1988-11-23 (See Hungary–Palestine relations)
  • Hungary has a representative office in Ramallah.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Budapest.
 Qatar 18 October 1990[144]
 South Korea 1 February 1989[212] (See Hungary–South Korea relations)

The establishment of diplomatic relations between Hungary and the Republic of Korea began on 1 February 1989.

 Sri Lanka (See Hungary–Sri Lanka relations)

Sri Lanka has an embassy in Vienna, Austria that is accredited to Hungary[215] and has an honorary consulate in Budapest[216] Hungary maintains an honorary consulate in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[217] Hungary contributed to relief after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, and has since stepped up aid to Sri Lanka.[218]

 Thailand 1973-10-24
 Turkey (See Hungary–Turkey relations)
Memorial to Hungarian freedom fighters of 1848–1849 at Protestant Cemetery in Şişli, Istanbul.
 Vietnam 1950-02-03 (See Hungary–Vietnam relations)

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania (See Albania–Hungary relations)

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Albania is an candidate and Hungary is an EU member.
 Austria (See Austria–Hungary relations)

Austrian-Hungarian relations are the neighborly relations between Austria and Hungary, two member states of the European Union. Both countries have a long common history since the ruling dynasty of Austria, the Habsburgs, inherited the Hungarian throne in the 16th century. Both have been part of the now-defunct Austro-Hungarian Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1921, after their separation.

  • Austria has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Vienna and a consulate-general in Innsbruck.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-04-10
  • Hungary recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence on April 9, 1992.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Sarajevo.[228]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina is an candidate and Hungary is an EU member.
 Bulgaria 1920 (See Bulgaria–Hungary relations)
 Croatia (See Croatia–Hungary relations)
  • Croatia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Nicosia.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Czech Republic (See Czech Republic–Hungary relations)
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Prague.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark (See Denmark–Hungary relations)
 Estonia 1924-02-24
  • Estonia has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tallinn and two honorary consulates (in Tallinn and Tartu).[231]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Finland 20 May 1947 (See Finland–Hungary relations)
  • Hungary recognised Finland on August 23, 1920. Finland recognised Hungary on September 10, 1920.
  • Finland broke off diplomatic relations on September 20, 1944.
  • Diplomatic relations were re-established on May 20, 1947.
  • Both national languages, Finnish and Hungarian, are Uralic languages, which has led to cultural exchange albeit at a much smaller scale compared to the third major Uralic-speaking country, Estonia.
  • Finland has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs.[232]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Helsinki and four honorary consulates (in Turku, Mariehamn, Tampere and Joensuu).[233]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 France (See France–Hungary relations)
  • France has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Paris.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Germany (See Germany–Hungary relations)
  • Germany has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Greece (See Greece–Hungary relations)
  • Greece has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Athens.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Ireland 1976
 Italy
 Kosovo (See Hungary–Kosovo relations)

Hungary recognized Kosovo on 19 March 2008.[240]

  • Hungary has an embassy in Pristina.[241]
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Budapest.
 Latvia 1921-07-21
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Malta 1964
 Montenegro

Hungary recognized Montenegro shortly after their declaration of independence.

 Netherlands (See Hungary–Netherlands relations)
 Norway 1920
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920, but diplomatic representations were set up only in 1947–1948.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Oslo and 2 honorary consulates (in Stavanger and Sarpsborg).[248]
  • Norway has an embassy in Budapest.[249]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland (See Hungary-Poland relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Warsaw, a consulate-general in Kraków and a vice-consulate in Wrocław.
  • Poland has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal 1974-07-01
 Romania 1920 (See Hungary–Romania relations)
 Russia (See Hungary–Russia relations)
 Serbia 1882-11-21 (See Hungary–Serbia relations)
 Slovakia 1993 (See Hungary–Slovakia relations)
 Slovenia (See Hungary–Slovenia relations)
 Spain 1938-01-13 (See Hungary–Spain relations)
 Sweden 1945-12-28 (See Hungary–Sweden relations)
  • Hungary has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
  Switzerland
  • Hungary has an embassy in Bern and consulate in Geneva.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
 Ukraine (See Hungary–Ukraine relations)
 United Kingdom 1920 (See Hungary–United Kingdom relations)

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1972
 New Zealand
  • Hungary has an embassy in Wellington.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Hungary from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consulate in Budapest.

Foreign criticism

In December 2010, the Fidesz government adopted a press and media law which threatens fines on media that engage in "unbalanced coverage".[261] The law aroused criticism in the European Union as possibly "a direct threat to democracy".[261]

In 2013, the government adopted a new constitution that modified several aspects of the institutional and legal framework in Hungary. These changes have been criticized by the Council of Europe, the European Union and Human Rights Watch as possibly undermining the rule of law and human rights protection.[262]

See also

References

  1. ^ Solomon S (1997) South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership Archived at the Wayback Machine (archived 26 April 2015), ISS
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  3. ^ a b Péter, Dániel (2015). "The Eastern Opening - An Element of Hungary's Trade Policy". Retrieved 20 December 2023.
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  10. ^ Hungary border crackdown, The Guardian 16 September 2015
  11. ^ Hungarian police spray tear gas water cannons at migrants, CBS News 16 September 2015
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  13. ^ "Hungary-Ukraine relations hit new low over troop deployment Archived 2019-03-31 at the Wayback Machine". New Europe. 26 March 2018.
  14. ^ Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the early Middle Ages: an introduction to early Hungarian history. Central European University Press. pp. 409–410. ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1.
  15. ^ ipos, János Kazakh Folksongs from the Two Ends of the Steppe Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Hóvári, János (2022). "Hungary and the Turkic World: A Twenty-first Century Challenge | Hungarian Conservative". Hungarian Conservative. Retrieved 2023-12-20.
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Further reading

  • Borhi, László, "In the Power Arena: U.S.-Hungarian Relations, 1942–1989," The Hungarian Quarterly (Budapest), 51 (Summer 2010), pp 67–81.
  • Glant, Tibor, "Ninety Years of United States-Hungarian Relations," Eger Journal of American Studies, 13 (2012), pp 163–83.
  • Hornyak, Arpad. Hungarian-Yugoslav Diplomatic Relations, 1918–1927 (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press; 2013) 426 pages.
  • Niklasson, Tomas. "Regime stability and foreign policy change: interaction between domestic and foreign policy in Hungary 1956-1994" (PhD dissertation Lund University, 2006) online.
  • Váli, Ferenc A, "The Foreign Policy of Hungary" in Kuhlman, James A (ed.), The Foreign Policies of Eastern Europe: Domestic and International Determinants (Sijthoff, Leyden, 1978).
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Foreign relations of Hungary
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