For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Foreign relations of Germany.

Foreign relations of Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) is a Central European country and member of the European Union, G4, G7, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It maintains a network of 229 diplomatic missions abroad and holds relations with more than 190 countries. As one of the world's leading industrialized countries it is recognized as a major power in European and global affairs.

History

The history of German foreign policy covers diplomatic developments and international history since 1871.

Before 1866, Habsburg Austria and its German Confederation were the nominal leader in German affairs, but the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia exercised increasingly dominant influence in German affairs, owing partly to its ability to participate in German Confederation politics through its Brandenburg holding, and its ability to influence trade through its Zollverein network. The question of excluding or including Austria's influence was settled by the Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. The unification of Germany was made possible by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, in which the smaller states joined behind Prussia in a smashing victory over France. The German Empire was put together in 1871 by Otto von Bismarck, who dominated German and indeed all of European diplomatic history until he was forced to resign in 1890.

Primary institutions and actors

Federal Cabinet

The three cabinet-level ministries responsible for guiding Germany's foreign policy are the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development and the Federal Foreign Office. In practice, most German federal departments play some role in shaping foreign policy in the sense that there are few policy areas left that remain outside of international jurisdiction. The bylaws of the Federal Cabinet (as delineated in Germany's Basic Law), however, assign the Federal Foreign Office a coordinating function. Accordingly, other ministries may only invite foreign guests or participate in treaty negotiations with the approval of the Federal Foreign Office.

Bundestag

With respect to foreign policy, the Bundestag acts in a supervisory capacity. Each of its committees – most notably the foreign relations committee – oversees the country's foreign policy. The consent of the Bundestag (and insofar as Länder are impacted, the Bundesrat) is required to ratify foreign treaties. If a treaty legislation passes first reading, it is referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, which is capable of delaying ratification and prejudice decision through its report to the Bundestag.[1]

In 1994, a full EU Committee was also created for the purpose of addressing the large flow of EU-related topics and legislation. Also, the committee has the mandate to speak on behalf of the Bundestag and represent it when deciding an EU policy position.[2] A case in point was the committee's involvement regarding the European Union's eastern enlargement wherein the Committee on Foreign Affairs is responsible for relations with ECE states while the EU Committee is tasked with the negotiations.[2]

NGOs

There is a raft of NGOs in Germany that engage foreign policy issues. These NGOs include think-tanks (German Council on Foreign Relations), single-issue lobbying organizations (Amnesty International), as well as other organizations that promote stronger bilateral ties between Germany and other countries (Atlantic Bridge). While the budgets and methods of NGOs are distinct, the overarching goal to persuade decision-makers to the wisdom of their own views is a shared one. In 2004, a new German governance framework, particularly on foreign and security policy areas, emerged where NGOs are integrated into actual policymaking.[3] The idea is that the cooperation between state and civil society groups increases the quality of conflict resolution, development cooperation and humanitarian aid for fragile states. The framework seeks to benefit from the expertise of the NGOs in exchange for these groups to have a chance for influencing foreign policy.[3]

Disputes

Chancellor Gerhard Schröder with U.S. President George W. Bush at the White House in 2001

In 2001, the discovery that the terrorist cell which carried out the attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001, was based in Hamburg, sent shock waves through the country[clarification needed].

The government of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder backed the following U.S. military actions, sending Bundeswehr troops to Afghanistan to lead a joint NATO program to provide security in the country after the ousting of the Taliban.

Nearly all of the public was strongly against America's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and any deployment of troops.[4] This position was shared by the SPD/Green government, which led to some friction with the United States.

In August 2006, the German government disclosed a botched plot to bomb two German trains. The attack was to occur in July 2006 and involved a 21-year-old Lebanese man, identified only as Youssef Mohammed E. H. Prosecutors said Youssef and another man left suitcases stuffed with crude propane-gas bombs on the trains.

As of February 2007, Germany had about 3,000 NATO-led International Security Assistance Force force in Afghanistan as part of the War on Terrorism, the third largest contingent after the United States (14,000) and the United Kingdom (5,200).[5] German forces are mostly in the more secure north of the country.

However, Germany, along with some other larger European countries (with the exception of the UK and the Netherlands), have been criticised by the UK and Canada for not sharing the burden of the more intensive combat operations in southern Afghanistan.[6][7]

Global initiatives

Humanitarian aid

Germany is the largest net contributor to the United Nations and has several development agencies working in Africa and the Middle East. The development policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is an independent area of German foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[8] It is the world's third biggest aid donor after the United States and France.[9] Germany spent 0.37 per cent of its gross domestic product (GDP) on development, which is below the government's target of increasing aid to 0.51 per cent of GDP by 2010. The international target of 0.7% of GNP would have not been reached either.

Ecological involvement

International organizations

Germany is a member of the Council of Europe, European Union, European Space Agency, G4, G8, International Monetary Fund, NATO, OECD, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UN, World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization.

European Union

The flag of Europe

European integration has gone a long way since the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the Elysée Treaty. Peaceful collaborations with its neighbors remain one of Germany's biggest political objectives, and Germany has been on the forefront of most achievements made in European integration:

Most of the social issues facing European countries in general: immigration, aging populations, straining social-welfare and pension systems – are all important in Germany. Germany seeks to maintain peace through the "deepening" of integration among current members of the European Union member states

Germany has been the largest net contributor to EU budgets for decades (in absolute terms – given Germany's comparatively large population – not per capita) and seeks to limit the growth of these net payments in the enlarged union.

NATO

A meeting of NATO heads of States and governments on 11 July 2018 in Brussels

Under the doctrine introduced by the 2003 Defense Policy Guidelines, Germany continues to give priority to the transatlantic partnership with the United States through the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. However, Germany is giving increasing attention to coordinating its policies with the European Union through the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

UN

The German Federal Government began an initiative to obtain a permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council, as part of the Reform of the United Nations. This would require approval of a two-thirds majority of the member states and approval of all five Security Council veto powers.

This aspiration could be successful due to Germany's good relations with the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Germany is a stable and democratic republic and a G7 country which are also favourable attributes. The United Kingdom and France support German ascension to the supreme body.[10] The U.S. is sending mixed signals.

NATO member states, including Germany, decided not to sign the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, a binding agreement for negotiations for the total elimination of nuclear weapons, supported by more than 120 nations.[11]

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which the Federal Republic of Germany maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[12]
1  Italy 2 December 1950
2  Netherlands 6 March 1951
3  India 7 March 1951
4  Sweden 4 April 1951
5  Luxembourg 23 April 1951
6  Norway 10 May 1951
7  United Kingdom 20 June 1951
8  Belgium 27 June 1951
9  Denmark 27 June 1951
10  Peru 28 June 1951
11  United States 2 July 1951
12  Brazil 10 July 1951
13  France 11 July 1951
14  Greece 12 July 1951
15  Ireland 26 July 1951
16  South Africa 14 August 1951
17  Pakistan 15 October 1951
18  Monaco 16 October 1951
19  Canada 8 November 1951
20  Serbia 8 December 1951 (as Yugoslavia)
27 April 1992 (as FR Yugoslavia)
4 February 2003 (as Serbia and Montenegro)
5 June 2006 (as Serbia)
21  Panama 17 December 1951
22  Argentina 30 December 1951
23  Uruguay 9 January 1952
24  Australia 28 January 1952
25  Chile 14 February 1952
26  Iran 26 February 1952
27  Nicaragua 10 April 1952
28  Japan 19 April 1952
29  Venezuela 28 April 1952
30   Switzerland 6 May 1952
31  Liechtenstein 6 May 1952
32  Thailand 28 May 1952
33  Turkey 21 June 1952
34  Indonesia 25 June 1952
35  Ecuador 14 July 1952
36  El Salvador 25 August 1952
37  Mexico 29 August 1952
38  Paraguay 1 October 1952
39  Costa Rica 7 October 1952
40  Syria 14 October 1952
41  Egypt 16 October 1952 (as Egypt)
22 February 1958 (as United Arab Republic)
11 September 1971 (as Egypt)
42  Portugal 10 November 1952
43  Spain 16 November 1952
44  Jordan 17 November 1952
45  Iceland 16 December 1952
46  Bolivia 30 December 1952
47  Colombia 13 January 1953
48  Lebanon 20 May 1953
49  Liberia 23 July 1953
50  Dominican Republic 11 September 1953
51  Iraq 19 September 1953
52  Haiti 23 September 1953
53  New Zealand 10 November 1953
54  Sri Lanka 9 December 1953 (under the name Ceylon)
22 May 1972 (under the name Sri Lanka)
55  Ethiopia 23 January 1954[13]
 Holy See 1 June 1954
56  Philippines 8 October 1954
57  Saudi Arabia 10 November 1954
58  Myanmar 4 December 1954 (under the name Burma)
18 June 1989 (under the name Myanmar)
59  Afghanistan 22 December 1954
60  Libya 3 June 1955
61  Cuba 30 June 1955
62  Russia 13 September 1955 (as Soviet Union)
24 May 1990 (as Russia)
63  Austria 5 January 1956
64  Sudan 12 March 1956
65  Tunisia 7 December 1956
66  Morocco 26 March 1957
67  South Korea 25 May 1957
68  Vietnam 12 June 1957 (South Vietnam)
12 September 1975 (North Vietnam)
2 July 1976 (as reunified Vietnam)
69  Ghana 24 June 1957
70  Malaysia 31 August 1957
71  Laos 31 January 1958
72    Nepal 23 April 1958
73  Guinea 30 July 1959
74  Guatemala 9 October 1959
75  Cameroon 1 January 1960
76  Honduras 20 January 1960
77  Burkina Faso 31 January 1960 (under the name Upper Volta)
4 August 1984 (under the name Burkina Faso)
78  Togo 27 April 1960
79  Madagascar 26 June 1960
80  Democratic Republic of the Congo 30 June 1960
81  Somalia 1 July 1960
82  Ivory Coast 7 August 1960
83  Chad 11 August 1960
84  Republic of the Congo 15 August 1960
85  Cyprus 20 August 1960
86  Mali 23 September 1960
87  Senegal 23 September 1960
88  Nigeria 1 October 1960
89  Central African Republic 1 December 1960
90  Sierra Leone 27 August 1961
91  Tanzania 9 December 1961 (as Tanganjika)
26 April 1964 (as Tanzania)
92  Gabon 13 April 1962
93  Algeria 3 July 1962
94  Jamaica 6 August 1962
95  Uganda 9 October 1962
96  Benin 15 October 1962 (under the name Dahomey)
30 November 1975 (under the name Benin)
97  Yemen 24 October 1962 (North Yemen)
19 December 1967 (South Yemen)
24 May 1990 (as unified Yemen)
98  Niger 11 January 1963
99  Burundi 24 January 1963
100  Mauritania 8 August 1963
101  Trinidad and Tobago 28 August 1963
102  Rwanda 13 December 1963
103  Kenya 18 December 1963
104  Cambodia 19 February 1964
105  Kuwait 20 May 1964
106  Zambia 24 October 1964
107  Malta 16 February 1965
108  Gambia 26 April 1965
109  Israel 10 May 1965
110  Malawi 24 September 1965
111  Singapore 24 December 1965
112  Botswana 1 October 1966
113  Maldives 10 October 1966
114  Barbados 30 November 1966
115  Romania 31 January 1967
116  Guyana 14 March 1967
117  Lesotho 15 February 1968
118  Mauritius 23 March 1968
119  Eswatini 15 November 1968 (under the name Swaziland)
19 April 2018 (under the name Eswatini)
120  Bangladesh 4 February 1972
121  Oman 16 May 1972
122  Bahrain 17 May 1972
123  United Arab Emirates 17 May 1972
124  Poland 14 September 1972
125  China 11 October 1972
126  Finland 7 January 1973
127  Qatar 15 January 1973
128  Bahamas 10 July 1973
129  Fiji 1 August 1973
130  Bulgaria 21 December 1973
131  Hungary 21 December 1973
132  Mongolia 31 January 1974
133  Grenada 6 February 1974
134  Guinea-Bissau 17 April 1974
135  Mozambique 25 June 1975
136  São Tomé and Príncipe 12 July 1975
137  Cape Verde 5 August 1975
138  Angola 16 August 1979
139  Suriname 25 November 1975
140  Tonga 1 May 1976
141  Samoa 18 May 1976
142  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1976
143  Seychelles 18 January 1977
144  Djibouti 27 June 1977
145  Comoros 2 February 1978
146  Solomon Islands 11 July 1978
147  Nauru 15 April 1979
148  Tuvalu 26 June 1979
149  Zimbabwe 18 April 1980
150  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13 June 1980
151  Kiribati 1 July 1980
152  Saint Lucia 1 August 1980
153  Dominica 9 December 1980[14]
154  Vanuatu 22 April 1981
155  Belize 1 March 1982
156  Antigua and Barbuda 11 March 1982
157  Brunei 30 January 1984
158  Saint Kitts and Nevis 27 August 1984
159  Albania 2 October 1987
160  Namibia 21 March 1990
161  Estonia 28 August 1991
162  Latvia 28 August 1991
163  Lithuania 28 August 1991
164  Marshall Islands 23 September 1991
165  Croatia 15 January 1992
166  Slovenia 15 January 1992
167  Ukraine 17 January 1992
168  Armenia 31 January 1992
169  Kyrgyzstan 3 February 1992
170  Kazakhstan 11 February 1992
171  Azerbaijan 20 February 1992
172  Tajikistan 28 February 1992
173  Turkmenistan 6 March 1992
174  Uzbekistan 6 March 1992
175  Belarus 13 March 1992
176  Georgia 13 April 1992
177  Micronesia 21 April 1992
178  Moldova 30 April 1992
179  Bosnia and Herzegovina 13 November 1992
181  Czechia 1 January 1993
181  Slovakia 1 January 1993
182  Eritrea 3 August 1993
183  North Macedonia 16 December 1993 (under the provisional name Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
12 February 2019 (under the name North Macedonia)
184  Andorra 8 March 1994
185  San Marino 1 October 1995
186  Palau 11 November 1997
187  North Korea 1 March 2001
 Cook Islands 11 September 2001
188  Timor-Leste 20 May 2002
189  Montenegro 14 June 2006
 Kosovo 21 February 2008
190  Equatorial Guinea 6 September 2010
191  South Sudan 9 July 2011
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 15 November 2017[15]
192  Bhutan 25 November 2020

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Notes
 Algeria See Algeria–Germany relations
 Angola See Angola–Germany relations
  • Angola has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Luanda.[17]
 Botswana See Germany–Botswana relations
  • Botswana has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Gaborone.[18]
 Burundi
  • Burundi has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bujumbura.[19]
 Cape Verde
  • Cape Verde has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in Cape Verde through its embassy in Senegal.[20]
 Cameroon See Cameroon–Germany relations
  • Cameroon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Yaoundé.[21]
 Central African Republic See Central African Republic–Germany relations
  • The Central African Republic is represented in Germany through its embassy in France.
  • Following the closing of the German embassy in Bangui in 1997 Germany is represented through its embassy in Cameroon.[22]
 Chad
  • Chad has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in N'Djamena.[23]
 Comoros
  • Comoros is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Comoros through its embassy in Tanzania.[24]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo See Democratic Republic of the Congo–Germany relations
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kinshasa.[25]
 Republic of the Congo
  • Republic of the Congo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Brazzaville.[26]
 Egypt See Egypt–Germany relations
  • Egypt has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Cairo.[27]
 Eritrea See Eritrea–Germany relations
  • Eritrea has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate general in Frankfurt.[28]
  • Germany has an embassy in Asmara
 Ethiopia See Ethiopia–Germany relations
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Addis Ababa.[29]
 Gabon
  • Gabon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Libreville.[30]
 Ghana See Germany–Ghana relations
  • Ghana has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Accra.[31]
 Guinea See Germany–Guinea relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Conakry
  • Guinea has an embassy in Berlin
 Kenya See Germany–Kenya relations
  • Germany has an embassy in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has an embassy in Berlin.[32]
 Liberia See Germany–Liberia relations
  • Liberia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Monrovia.[33]
 Libya See Germany–Libya relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tripoli[34]
 Madagascar See Germany–Madagascar relations
  • Madagascar has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Antananarivo.[35]
 Mali See Germany–Mali relations
  • Mali has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bamako.[36]
 Mauritania See Germany–Mauritania relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 November 1960 when has been accredited first Ambassador of FRG to Mauritania with residence in Dakar, M. Reichhold. On 6 May 1961 first Ambassador of Mauritania to FRG M. Mamadou Toure presented his credentials to President Lubke.[37]

  • Mauritania has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Nouakchott.[38]
 Morocco See Germany–Morocco relations
  • Morocco has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf and Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Rabat.[39]
 Mozambique See Germany–Mozambique relations
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Maputo.
 Namibia See Germany–Namibia relations
  • Namibia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Windhoek.[40]
 Niger See Germany–Niger relations
  • Niger has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Niamey.[41]
 Nigeria See Germany–Nigeria relations
 Rwanda See Germany–Rwanda relations
  • Rwanda has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kigali.[43]
 São Tomé and Príncipe
  • São Tomé and Príncipe is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in São Tomé and Príncipe though its embassy in Gabon.[44]
 Senegal See Germany–Senegal relations
  • Senegal has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dakar.[45]
 Sierra Leone
  • Sierra Leone has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Freetown.[46]
 Somalia See Germany–Somalia relations
  • Somalia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in Somalia through its embassy in Kenya.[47]
 South Africa See Germany–South Africa relations
  • South Africa has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Cape Town.[48]
 South Sudan See Germany–South Sudan relations
  • South Sudan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Juba.[49]
 Sudan See Germany–Sudan relations
  • Sudan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Due to the war in Sudan, Germany closed its embassy in Khartoum in 2023.
 Tanzania See Germany–Tanzania relations
 Togo See Germany–Togo relations
  • Togo has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lomé.[51]
 Tunisia
  • Tunisia has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Bonn, and consulates in Hamburg and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tunis.[52]
 Uganda See Germany–Uganda relations
  • Uganda has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kampala.[53]
 Zambia
  • Zambia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lusaka.[54]
 Zimbabwe
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Harare.[55]

Americas

Country Notes
 Antigua and Barbuda
  • Antigua and Barbuda is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in Antigua and Barbuda through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[56]
 Argentina See Argentina–Germany relations
 Bahamas
  • The Bahamas is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in the Bahamas through its embassy in Jamaica.[60]
 Barbados See Barbados–Germany relations
 Belize
  • Belize is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels.[62]
  • Germany is represented in Belize through its embassy in Guatemala.[62][63]
 Bolivia See Bolivia–Germany relations
  • Diplomatic relations between the two states were broken during the First World War.
  • Relations were restored after the war under the agreement concluded on 20 July 1921.[64][65]
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in La Paz.[66]
  • See also: German Bolivians
 Brazil See Brazil–Germany relations
 Canada See Canada–Germany relations

Canada operates consulates in Munich and Düsseldorf.[69] In addition to its embassy in Ottawa, Germany maintains consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[69]

 Chile See Chile–Germany relations
 Colombia See Colombia–Germany relations
  • Colombia has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Frankfurt and three honorary consulates in Bremen, Hamburg and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bogotá and four honorary consulates in Armenia, Barranquilla, Cali, and Medellin.[72]
 Costa Rica
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in San José.[73]
 Cuba See Cuba–Germany relations
  • Cuba has an embassy in Berlin and an embassy outpost in Bonn.
  • Germany has an embassy in Havana.[74]
  • The Federal Republic of Germany Germany ended diplomatic relations on January 14, 1963, due to the Hallstein Doctrine, two days after Cuba recognized the German Democratic Republic.
  • Diplomatic relations were re-established on 18 January 1975.
 Dominica
  • Dominica is represented in Germany through its embassy in London.
  • Germany is represented in Dominica through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[75]
 Dominican Republic
  • The Dominican Republic has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Santo Domingo.[76]
 Ecuador See Ecuador–Germany relations
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Quito.[77]
 El Salvador
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in San Salvador.[78]
 Grenada
  • Grenada has closed its embassy in Germany on 17 August 2013.
  • Germany is represented in Grenada through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[79]
 Guatemala
 Guyana See Germany–Guyana relations
  • Guyana is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels.
  • Germany is represented in Guyana through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[81]
 Haiti See Germany–Haiti relations
 Honduras
  • Honduras has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.[83]
 Jamaica See Germany–Jamaica relations
  • Jamaica has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kingston.[84]
 Mexico See Germany–Mexico relations
 Nicaragua See Germany–Nicaragua relations
  • Nicaragua has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Managua.[87]
 Panama
  • Panama has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Panama City.[88]
 Paraguay See Germany–Paraguay relations
 Peru See Germany–Peru relations
 St. Kitts and Nevis
  • St. Kitts and Nevis is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Kitts and Nevis through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[92]
 St. Lucia
  • St. Lucia is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Lucia through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[93]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines
  • St. Vincent and the Grenadines is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany is represented in St. Vincent and the Grenadines through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[94]
 Suriname
  • Suriname is represented in Germany through its embassy in the Netherlands.
  • Germany is represented in Suriname through its embassy in Trinidad and Tobago.[95]
 Trinidad and Tobago
  • Trinidad and Tobago is represented in Germany through its High Commission in the United Kingdom.
  • Germany has an embassy in Port of Spain.[96]
 United States See Germany–United States relations

Former chancellor Angela Merkel has sought warmer relations with the United States and to rebuild political ties on common values and beliefs.

 Uruguay See Germany–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela See Germany–Venezuela relations
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Caracas.[100]

Asia

Country Notes
 Afghanistan See Afghanistan–Germany relations
  • Germany was one of the first nations to recognise Afghan sovereignty, following the Soviet Union in 1991.[101]
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Bonn and Grünwald.[102]
  • Germany had an embassy in Kabul and a consulate-general in Mazar-i-Sharif.[102]
  • Afghanistan and Germany established close ties in 1935, as Afghanistan sought to break from their historical patterns of British and Russian alignment. Afghanistan resisted calls from Moscow and London to expel the Italian and German diplomatic corps for most of World War II.[103]
 Armenia See Armenia–Germany relations

Armenian-German relations have always been stable and solid; they continue to work together and advance through the years in cooperation. Their leaders have discussed bilateral relations and noted that they have considerably improved over the last few years.[104]

 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Germany relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Berlin.[106]
  • Germany has an embassy in Baku.[107]
 Bahrain See Bahrain–Germany relations
  • Bahrain has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Manama.[108]
 Bangladesh

After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971 East Germany was the third country in the world, and the first country in Europe, to officially recognise Bangladesh in 1972.[109] Bangladesh also warmly greeted German reunification. As an economic power as well as an important member of the European Union (EU), Germany is a reliable partner of Bangladesh in development cooperation. After establishment of diplomatic relations, the bilateral relations between the two countries began to grow steadily. Bangladesh is a priority partner country of German Development Cooperation (GTZ). In trade with Germany, Bangladesh has for years recorded a large surplus. Germany is the second largest export market of Bangladesh after the US. The cultural relationship of both the countries is very strong. The cultural cooperation between them is mainly channeled through the Goethe Institute that work on developing the cultural ties between both the countries by sponsoring local and German cultural activities. Both Germany and Bangladesh share common views on various international issues and work together in the UN and in other international forum. They have maintained and developed close and friendly relations in a wide range of field. The two countries are harmonized together by their commitment to various sectors mutually agreed upon, which is expected to be strengthened further in future.[citation needed]

  • Bangladesh has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dhaka.[110]
 Bhutan The Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Kingdom of Bhutan have maintained diplomatic relations since 25 November 2020. This move further deepened the friendly relations between the two countries. Consular relations have been in place since July 2000. Bhutan has agreed to let Germany set up an honorary consulate in Thimphu. Bhutan has an honorary consulate-general in Germany.
  • Bhutan is represented in Germany through its mission to the EU in Brussels.
  • Germany is represented in Bhutan through its embassy in India.[111]
 Brunei See Brunei–Germany relations
 Cambodia See Cambodia–Germany relations
  • Cambodia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Phnom Penh.[114]
 China See China–Germany relations

Germany has good relationships with the People's Republic of China, even though Angela Merkel and large parts of Germany's political class have recently criticised the People's Republic for holding back reforms in the field of democracy and human rights. In recent years trade between them has reached high volumes, both in imports and exports.[citation needed] In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Germany, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China's mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[115][116]

 Hong Kong See Germany–Hong Kong relations

There are no formal diplomatic relations between Hong Kong and Germany, due to the character of Hong Kong being a Special Administrative Region and not an independent nation.

 India

During the Cold War India maintained diplomatic relations with both West Germany and East Germany. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the reunification of Germany, relations have further improved. The German ambassador to India, Bernd Mutzelburg, once said that India and Germany, are not just 'natural partners', but important countries in a globalised world. Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited India recently, as did the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visit Germany. Both countries have been working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. As both countries are strong liberal democracies, they have similar objectives. UN reforms, fighting terrorism and climate change, and promotion of science, education, technology, and human rights, are some areas of shared interests, and collaboration between these two countries. Culturally too, Indian and German writers and philosophers, have influenced each other.[119] Recently, Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians. Germany was one of the first countries to agree with the Indo-US Nuclear deal.

 Indonesia See Germany–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia and Germany have traditionally enjoyed good, intensive and wide-ranging relations.
  • Germany and Indonesia, as the largest members of the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), respectively, take similar positions on many issues relating to the development of the two regional organizations.[130]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Jakarta.[131]
 Iran See Germany–Iran relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tehran.[132]
 Iraq See Germany–Iraq relations
  • Iraq has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Baghdad and a consulate-general in Erbil.[133]
  • There are currently some 84,000–150,000 Iraqis living in Germany.[citation needed]
 Israel See Germany–Israel relations

Germany-Israel relations refers to the special relationship between Israel and Germany based on shared beliefs, Western values and a combination of historical perspectives.[134] Among the most important factors in their relations is Nazi Germany's role in the genocide of European Jews during the Holocaust.[135] Following German history during the Holocaust, one of Postwar Germany's aims was to establish and maintain relations of Wiedergutmachung with the State of Israel. Starting with the Reparations Agreement in 1952, support for the national security of the State of Israel is central to German foreign policy. Germany has been actively involved in the Egypt–Israel peace treaty in 1979, the Oslo Accords (1993) which led to the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the continuing Israeli–Palestinian peace process which make Germany arguably (next to the United States) Israel's closest ally.[citation needed]

 Japan See Germany–Japan relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,[137][138] the promotion of economic exchange activities,[139] youth and sports exchanges[140] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[141] After China, Japan is Germany's principal trading partner in Asia in 2006.[142]

  • Japan has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Osaka.[143]
 Jordan See Germany–Jordan relations
  • Jordan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Amman and an honorary consulate in Aqaba.[144]
 Kazakhstan See Germany–Kazakhstan relations
  • Kazakhstan and Germany have established partnerships in the energy, technology and raw materials sectors.
  • Germany has a national pavilion at the Astana Expo 2017.[citation needed]
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Berlin,[145] an embassy outpost in Bonn, a consultaetegeneral in Frankfurt, and a consulate in Munich.[146]
  • Germany has an embassy in Astana and a consulate-general in Almaty.[146]
 Kuwait See Germany–Kuwait relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kuwait City.[147]
 Kyrgyzstan
  • Kyrgyzstan has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bishkek.[148]
 Laos See Germany–Laos relations
  • Laos has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Vientiane.[149]
 Lebanon See Germany–Lebanon relations
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Beirut.[150]
 Malaysia See Germany–Malaysia relations
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.[151]
 Maldives See Germany–Maldives relations
  • The Maldives have an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented in the Maldives through its embassy in Sri Lanka.[152]
 Mongolia See Germany–Mongolia relations
   Nepal See Germany–Nepal relations
  • Nepal has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Kathmandu.[154]
 North Korea See Germany–North Korea relations
  • North Korea has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Pyongyang.[155]
 Oman See Germany–Oman relations
  • Oman has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Muscat.[156]
 Pakistan See Germany–Pakistan relations

Pakistan and Germany enjoy extremely close, warm and historical relations.[157] Germany is Pakistan's fourth largest trading partner and biggest trading partner in the EU. Germany has been a reliable partner in trade, development, military, scientific and cultural co-operation. The collaboration between Germany and Pakistan dates back to the creation of Pakistan. Germany is home to 53,668 Pakistani immigrants.[citation needed]

  • Pakistan has an embassy in Berlin, a consulate-general in Frankfurt, and honorary consulates in Frankfurt, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, and Isartal.[158]
  • Germany has an embassy in Islamabad, a consulate-general in Karachi, and an honorary consulate in Lahore.[158]
  • See also Pakistanis in Germany
State of Palestine "Palestinian territories"[a] See Germany–Palestine relations
  • Palestine has a representative office in Berlin.
  • Germany has a representative office in Ramallah.[159]
 Philippines See Germany–Philippines relations

The relationship between Germany and the Philippines remains strong and positive. In 1955 an agreement was signed which led to a dynamic cooperation between the two countries.[citation needed]

  • The Philippines has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Manila.[160]
 Qatar See Germany–Qatar relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Doha.[161]
 Saudi Arabia See Germany–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate-general in Jeddah.[162]
 Singapore See Germany–Singapore relations
  • Singapore has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Singapore.[163]
 South Korea See Germany–South Korea relations
 Sri Lanka See Germany–Sri Lanka relations
  • Sri Lanka has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Colombo.[167]
 Syria See Germany–Syria relations
 Tajikistan See Germany–Tajikistan relations
  • Tajikistan has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Dushanbe.[170]
 Thailand See Germany–Thailand relations
  • Thailand has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bangkok.[171]
 Turkey See Germany–Turkey relations

Good Turkish/Ottoman-German relations from the 19th century onwards. They were allies in First World War. Germany promoted Turkish immigration after 1945 when it suffered an acute labor shortage. They were called Gastarbeiter (German for guest workers). Most Turks in Germany trace their ancestry to Central and Eastern Anatolia. Today, Turks are Germany's largest ethnic minority and form most of Germany's Muslim minority. Berlin is home to about 250,000 Turks,[172] making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey.

 Turkmenistan
  • Turkmenistan has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Ashgabat.[174]
 United Arab Emirates See Germany–United Arab Emirates relations
  • UAE has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Bonn and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.[175]
 Uzbekistan See Germany–Uzbekistan relations
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tashkent.[176]
 Vietnam See Germany–Vietnam relations
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate-general in Ho Chi Minh City.[177]
 Yemen See Germany–Yemen relations
  • Yemen has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sanaʽa which at the moment is only working to a limited extend due to the civil war.[178]

Europe

Balkan states
The European Union and the eurozone

The German government was a strong supporter of the enlargement of NATO.

Germany was one of the first nations to recognize Croatia and Slovenia as independent nations, rejecting the concept of Yugoslavia as the only legitimate political order in the Balkans (unlike other European powers, who first proposed a pro-Belgrade policy). This is why Serb authorities sometimes referred to "new German imperialism" as one of the main reasons for Yugoslavia's collapse.[citation needed][179] German troops participate in the multinational efforts to bring "peace and stability" to the Balkans.

Central Europe

Weimar triangle (France, Germany and Poland); Germany continues to be active economically in the states of Central Europe, and to actively support the development of democratic institutions. In the 2000s, Germany has been arguably the centerpiece of the European Union (though the importance of France cannot be overlooked in this connection).

Country Notes
 Albania See Albania-Germany relations
 Andorra
  • Andorra is accredited to Germany from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Germany is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.[181]
 Austria See Austria–Germany relations

Relations between them are close because as countries have strong historical and cultural ties.

 Belarus See Belarus-Germany relations
 Belgium See Belgium–Germany relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Germany relations

The German government has made continuous efforts concerning the peace process after the civil war.

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Munich, and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sarajevo.[187]
 Bulgaria See Bulgaria–Germany relations

The Bulgarian government views Germany as its key strategic partner in the EU.

  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Sofia.[188]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Croatia See Croatia–Germany relations
  • There are more than 200,000 Croats who live in Germany. Historically Germany has had a close collaboration with Croatia.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich and Stuttgart,[189] and honorary consulates in Dresden and Mainz.[190]
  • Germany has an embassy in Zagreb and an honorary consulate in Osijek.[190]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Cyprus See Cyprus–Germany relations
  • In 2004, an agreement on mutual recognition of university degrees was signed, designed to facilitate Cypriot and German students' admission to German and Cypriot universities.
  • There is a close and trustful cooperation at a government level. Minister of State Hoyer visited Cyprus on 11 and 12 February 2010. Federal Foreign Minister Westerwelle met with his Cypriot counterpart Marcos Kyprianou in Berlin on 2 March.[citation needed]
  • Cyprus has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.[191]
  • Germany has an embassy in Nicosia.[192]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the Council of Europe.
 Czech Republic See Czech Republic–Germany relations

Today, they share 815 km of common borders.

  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Berlin, consulates-general in Dresden and Munich, a consulate in Düsseldorf, and honorary consulates in Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Nuremberg, and Rostock.
  • Germany has an embassy in Prague.[193]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Denmark See Denmark–Germany relations
 Estonia See Estonia–Germany relations
 Finland See Finland–Germany relations
 France See France–Germany relations

Being the historic core of Europe and the "twin engine for European integration", the cooperation with France is one of the most central elements of German foreign policy. The Elysée Treaty from 1963 set the foundation for a collaboration that – next to the European project – also repeatedly called for a "Core Union" with maximum integration.[197] In recent times, France and Germany are among the most enthusiastic proponents of the further integration of the EU. They are sometimes described as the "twin engine" or "core countries" pushing for moves.[citation needed]

 Greece See Germany–Greece relations
  • The first Greek Embassy in Berlin was established in 1834, when Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia.[citation needed]
  • Greece has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Athens and a consulate-general in Thessaloniki.[199]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Georgia See Georgia–Germany relations
 Holy See See Germany–Holy See relations
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Berlin.
  • Germany's embassy to the Holy See is located in Rome.[201]
 Hungary See Germany–Hungary relations
  • Hungary has an embassy in Berlin,[202] consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Munich, and Stuttgart, an honorary consulate-general in Bremerhaven, and honorary consulates in Dresdener, Erfurt, Essen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Nuremberg, and Schwerin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Pécs.[203]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Iceland See Germany–Iceland relations
 Ireland See Germany–Ireland relations
 Italy See Germany–Italy relations
  • These two countries were part of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Italian regions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and South Tyrol were located inside the boundaries of the German Confederation.
  • Relations were established after the Unification of Italy.
  • They enjoy friendly relations and were members of the Axis during World War II, formed an alliance during the Cold War (West Germany), and are full members of the European Union and NATO.[citation needed]
  • Italy has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-generals in Cologne, Frankfurt, Hannover, Munich, and Suttgart, consulates in Freiburg and Dortmund, and a consular agency in Wolfsburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Rome and a consulate-general in Milan.[206]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Kosovo See Germany–Kosovo relations
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Berlin, consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, and a consulate in Stuttgart.[207]
  • Germany has an embassy in Pristina.
  • Germany is the second-largest donor to Kosovo, behind the United States.[208]
 Latvia See Germany–Latvia relations
  • Diplomatic relations were first established following Latvia's independence from Russian rule, under agreement signed in Berlin on 15 July 1920.[209] These relation lasted until the Soviet take over of Latvia in 1940.[citation needed]
  • Relations were reestablished in 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Berlin[210] and honorary consulates in Bremen, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Künzelsau, Munich and Rostock.[211]
  • Germany has an embassy in Riga.[212]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Liechtenstein See Germany–Liechtenstein relations
  • Liechtenstein has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is accredited to Liechtenstein from its embassy in Bern, Switzerland.[213]
 Lithuania See Germany–Lithuania relations
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Berlin and honorary consulates in Dresden, Erfurt, Essen, Künzelsau, and Munich.[214]
  • Germany has an embassy in Vilnius[215] and an honorary consulate in Klaipėda.[214]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Luxembourg See Germany–Luxembourg relations
 Malta See Germany–Malta relations
 Moldova See Germany–Moldova relations
 Monaco
  • Monaco has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France.[220]
 Montenegro See Germany–Montenegro relations
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Podgorica.[221]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Germany is an EU member and Montenegro is an EU candidate.
 Netherlands See Germany–Netherlands relations
  • Relations were established following the unification of Germany in 1871.
  • During the First World War, the German army refrained from attacking the Netherlands, and thus relations between the two states were preserved. At war's end in 1918, the former Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to the Netherlands, where he lived till his death in 1941.
  • The German army occupied the Netherlands during the Second World War and kept the country under occupation in 1940–1945.[citation needed]
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Düsseldorf and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in The Hague and a consulate-general which is at the same time an embassy outpost in Amsterdam.[222]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 North Macedonia See Germany–North Macedonia relations
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Berlin, an embassy outpost in Bonn, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Skopje.[223]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Germany is an EU member and North Macedonia is an EU candidate.
 Norway See Germany–Norway relations
  • Norway has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Oslo.[224]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland See Germany–Poland relations

During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union. The Polish-German border is 467 km long.[225]

  • Poland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Cologne, Hamburg, and Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Warsaw, consulates-general in Gdańsk, Kraków, Wrocław and a consulate in Opole, which is an outpost of the consulate-general in Wrocław.[226]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal See Germany–Portugal relations
  • Portugal has an embassy in Berlin, consulates-general in Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Stuttgart, and an outpost of the consulate-general Stuttgart in Hattersheim am Main.
  • Germany has an embassy in Lisbon.[227]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania See Germany–Romania relations
 Russia See Germany–Russia relations

Germany tries to keep Russia engaged with the rest of the Western world. The future aim is to promote a stable market-economy liberal democracy in Russia, which is part of the Western world.[citation needed]

 San Marino
  • San Marino is represented in Germany through its Ambassador in San Marino.
  • Germany is represented in Germany through its embassy in Rome and its consulate-general in Milan.[230]
 Serbia See Germany–Serbia relations
 Slovakia See Germany–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia

See Germany–Slovenia relations

  • Slovenia has an embassy in Berlin, and a consulate-general in Munich.
  • Germany has an embassy in Ljubljana.[236]
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta
  • Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 2017[237]
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta has an Embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany is represented to Sovereign Military Order of Malta through its Embassy to the Holy See.[238]
 Spain See Germany–Spain relations
 Sweden See Germany–Sweden relations
  Switzerland See Germany–Switzerland relations
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Berlin and consulates-general in Frankfurt, Munich, and Stuttgart.
  • Germany has an embassy in Bern.[241]
 Ukraine See Germany–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom See Germany–United Kingdom relations

Oceania

Country Notes
 Australia See Australia–Germany relations
  • Australia has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Frankfurt.
  • Germany has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.[249]
 Fiji
  • Fiji is represented in Germany through its embassy in Brussels.
  • Germany is represented in Fiji through its embassy in New Zealand.[250]
 Kiribati
  • Kiribati has an honorary consulate in Hamburg.
  • Germany is represented in Kiribati through its embassy in New Zealand.[251]
 Marshall Islands
  • The Marshall Islands is represented in Germany through its permanent mission to the United Nations.
  • Germany is represented in the Marshall Islands through its embassy in the Philippines.[252]
 Micronesia
  • Micronesia is represented in Germany though its embassy in the United States.
  • Germany is represented in Germany through its embassy in the Philippines.[253]
 Nauru
  • Nauru is represented in Germany through its consulate-general in Australia.
  • Germany is represented in Nauru through its embassy in Australia.[254]
 New Zealand See Germany–New Zealand relations
  • New Zealand has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Hamburg.
  • Germany has an embassy in Wellington.[255]
 Palau
  • Palau is represented in Germany through its embassy in the United States.
  • Germany is represented in Palau through its embassy in the Philippines.[256]
 Papua New Guinea
  • Papua New Guinea is accredited to Germany from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Germany is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its embassy in Canberra, Australia.[257]
 Samoa
  • Samoa is accredited to Germany from its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.
  • Germany is accredited to Samoa from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.[258]
 Solomon Islands
  • Solomon Islands is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Solomon Islands through its embassy in Australia.[259]
 Tonga See Germany–Tonga relations
  • Tonga is accredited to Germany from its embassy in London, United Kingdom.
  • Germany is accredited to Tonga from its embassy in Wellington, New Zealand.[260]
 Tuvalu
  • Tuvalu is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Tuvalu through its embassy in New Zealand.[261]
 Vanuatu
  • Vanuatu is represented in Germany through its embassy in Belgium.
  • Germany is represented in Vanuatu through its embassy in Australia.[262]

Notes

  1. ^ The Federal Republic of Germany does not recognised the State of Palestine as an independent and sovereign state.

See also

References

  1. ^ Feld, Werner (2012). Reunification and West German-Soviet Relations: The Role of the Reunification Issue in the Foreign Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1949–1957, with Special Attention to Policy Toward the Soviet Union. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 9789401194082.
  2. ^ a b Collins, Stephen (2002). German Policy-Making and Eastern Enlargement of the European Union During the Ko: Managing the Agenda?. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. p. 49. ISBN 0719063280.
  3. ^ a b Werner, Andreas (2016). NGOs in Foreign Policy: Security Governance in Germany and the Netherlands. Munster, Germany: Waxmann Verlag. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9783830934073.
  4. ^ "France and Germany Unite Against Iraq War". The Guardian. 22 January 2003. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2007.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Afghan News Network". Afghannews.net. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  7. ^ "Search – Global Edition – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  8. ^ Aims of German development policy Archived 10 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development 10 April 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  9. ^ Table: Net Official Development Assistance 2009 Archived 26 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine OECD
  10. ^ "Security Council Reform: Where It Stands | Germany". Deutsche Welle. 18 June 2005. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  11. ^ "122 countries adopt 'historic' UN treaty to ban nuclear weapons". CBC News. 7 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Länder" (in German). Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  13. ^ Scholler, Heinrich (2007). 100 Jahre deutsch-äthiopische diplomatische Beziehungen: von der traditionellen Monarchie zum modernen Staat. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 28.
  14. ^ Völkerrechtliche Praxis der Bundesrepublik. Deutschland im Jahre 1980 (PDF) (in German). p. 538.
  15. ^ "Establishment of diplomatic relations with the Federal Republic of Germany". 19 December 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  16. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Algerien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). 22 March 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Angola". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). 20 February 2019. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Botswana". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  19. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Burundi". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Cabo Verde". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kamerun". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  22. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Zentralafrikanische Republik". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tschad". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Komoren". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kongo (Demokratische Republik Kongo)". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kongo (Republik Kongo)". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  27. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ägypten". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  28. ^ "Vertretungen Eritreas in Deutschland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 17 December 2022.
  29. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Äthiopien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  30. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Gabun". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  31. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ghana". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  32. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kenia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Liberia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  34. ^ "Speech by Foreign Minister Heiko Maas at the re-opening of the German Embassy Tripoli".
  35. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Madagaskar". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Mali". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  37. ^ Mechthild Lindemann, Michael Mayer (2013). Akten zur Auswärtigen Politik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1962 (in German). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 676–677. ISBN 978-3-486-71830-0. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  38. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Mauretanien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  39. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Marokko". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  40. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Namibia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  41. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Niger". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  42. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Nigeria". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  43. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ruanda". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  44. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Sao Tome and Principe". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  45. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Senegal". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  46. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Sierra Leone". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  47. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Somalia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  48. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Südafrika". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  49. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Südsudan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  50. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tansania". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  51. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Togo". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  52. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tunesien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  53. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Uganda". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  54. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Sambia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  55. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Simbabwe". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  56. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Antigua und Barbuda". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  57. ^ "Embajada de la República Argentina en República Federal de Alemania". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  58. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Argentinien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  59. ^ "Embajada de Alemania Buenos Aires – Página principal". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  60. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bahamas". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  61. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Barbados". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  62. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Belize". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  63. ^ "Embajada de Alemania Guatemala – General Information for BELIZE". guatemala.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  64. ^ "Germany and Bolivia – Protocol for the Resumption of diplomatic relations, signed at La Paz, July 20, 1921 [1922] LNTSer 76; 10 LNTS 301". worldlii.org. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  65. ^ Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 10, pp. 302–303.
  66. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bolivien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  67. ^ Embassy of Brazil in Berlin (in German and Portuguese)
  68. ^ "Representações da República Federal da Alemanha no Brasil – Página Inicial". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  69. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Kanada". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  70. ^ "Consulados en Alemania". echile.de. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  71. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Chile". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  72. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kolumbien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  73. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Costa Rica". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  74. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kuba". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  75. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Dominica". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  76. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Dominikanische Republik". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  77. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ecuador". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  78. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – El Salvador". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  79. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Grenada". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  80. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Guatemala". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  81. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Guyana". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  82. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Haiti". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  83. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Honduras". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  84. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Jamaika". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  85. ^ "Embajada de México en Alemania". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  86. ^ "Embajada Alemana Ciudad de México – Página principal". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  87. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Nicaragua". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  88. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Panama". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  89. ^ "Germany embassy in Asuncion (in German and Spanish only)" (in Spanish). Asuncion.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  90. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Paraguay". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  91. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Peru". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  92. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – St. Kitts und Nevis". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  93. ^ Amt, Auswärtiges. "Auswärtiges Amt". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  94. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – St. Vincent und die Grenadinen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  95. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Suriname". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  96. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Trinidad und Tobago". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  97. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – USA". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  98. ^ "German Missions in the United States: German Embassy". Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  99. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Uruguay". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  100. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Venezuela". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  101. ^ Amin Saikal, Ravan Farhadi, Kirill Nourzhanov. Modern Afghanistan: a history of struggle and survival. I.B.Tauris, 2006. ISBN 1-84511-316-0, ISBN 978-1-84511-316-2. Pg 64
  102. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Afghanistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  103. ^ Tom Lansford. A bitter harvest: US foreign policy and Afghanistan. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003 ISBN 0-7546-3615-1, ISBN 978-0-7546-3615-1. Pg 2
  104. ^ Armenian, German leaders discuss bilateral relations Archived 31 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine from Mediamax news agency, Yerevan, archived on US Embassy site
  105. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Armenien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  106. ^ "Azerbaijani embassy in Berlin". Azembassy.de. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  107. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Aserbaidschan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  108. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bahrain". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  109. ^ "E. Germany Recognizes Bangladesh". Ocala Star-Banner. Ocala, Florida, USA. Associated Press. 11 January 1972.
  110. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bangladesch". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  111. ^ Amt, Auswärtiges. "Germany and Bhutan: Bilateral Relations". German Federal Foreign Office. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  112. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Brunei Darussalam". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  113. ^ "Brunei-Germany Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Brunei). Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  114. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kambodscha". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  115. ^ "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019.
  116. ^ "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang". The Guardian. 11 July 2019.
  117. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – China". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  118. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Hong Kong". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  119. ^ "What is India?". Meghalayatimes.info. 21 September 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  120. ^ "Welcome to Embassy of India, Berlin – Germany". indianembassy.de. Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  121. ^ "Welcome to Consulate General of India, Frankfurt, Germany". cgifrankfurt.de. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  122. ^ "Welcome to Consulate General of India, Munich(Germany)". cgimunich.com. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  123. ^ "Welcome to Consulate General of India, Hamburg (Germany)". cgihamburg.de. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  124. ^ "German Missions in India – Home". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  125. ^ "German Missions in India – The Embassy". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  126. ^ "German Missions in India – Bengaluru Consulate General". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  127. ^ "German Missions in India – Chennai Consulate General". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  128. ^ "German Missions in India – Kolkata Consulate General". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  129. ^ "German Missions in India – Mumbai Consulate General". india.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  130. ^ "Indonesia, Political relations". Federal Foreign Office of Germany. March 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  131. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Indonesien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  132. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Iran". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  133. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Irak". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  134. ^ Israel's foreign relations. The Israel-German special relationship Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Britain Israel Communications and Research Centre (BICOM), 23 November 2005. Retrieved 18 August 2006.
  135. ^ "German Embassy. Background Papers. Germany and Israel". Germany.info. 3 October 1990. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  136. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Israel". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  137. ^ "Japanese–German Cooperation and Coordination in the Assistance for Reconstruction of Iraq". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  138. ^ "Japanese–German Cooperation and Coordination in the Assistance for Reconstruction of Afghanistan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  139. ^ "Japanese–German Economic Exchanges". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  140. ^ "Japanese German Youth / Sports Exchange". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  141. ^ "Japanese–German Science, Technology and Academic Cooperation and Exchanges". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  142. ^ "Economic relations". Federal Foreign Office Germany. April 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
  143. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Japan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  144. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Jordanien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  145. ^ "Kazakhstan embassy in Berlin".
  146. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Kasachstan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  147. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kuwait". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  148. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kirgisistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  149. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Laos". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  150. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Libanon". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  151. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Malaysia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  152. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Malediven". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  153. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Mongolei". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  154. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Nepal". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  155. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Korea (Demokratische Volksrepublik, Nordkorea)". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  156. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Oman". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  157. ^ "statestimes.com". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  158. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Pakistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  159. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Palästinensische Gebiete". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  160. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Philippinen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  161. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Katar". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  162. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Saudi-Arabien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  163. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Singapur". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  164. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bilateral relations". Auswärtiges Amt. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  165. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Korea (Republik Korea, Südkorea)". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  166. ^ "Deutsche Botschaft Seoul – Startseite". seoul.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  167. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Sri Lanka". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  168. ^ Auswärtiges Amt. "Syrien" (in German). Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  169. ^ Auswärtiges Amt. "Deutsche Vertretungen in Syrien" (in German). Retrieved 14 October 2022.
  170. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tadschikistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  171. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Thailand". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  172. ^ Spooner, Andrew (13 May 2007). "Berlin: Shish And Sauerkraut To Go". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  173. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Türkei". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  174. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Turkmenistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  175. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Vereinigte Arabische Emirate". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  176. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Usbekistan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  177. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Vietnam". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  178. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Jemen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  179. ^ Crawford, Beverly (1996). "Explaining Defection from International Cooperation: Germany's Unilateral Recognition of Croatia". World Politics. 48 (4): 482–521.
  180. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Albanien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  181. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Andorra". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  182. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Österreich". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  183. ^ "Belarusian embassy in Berlin(in German and Russian only)". Belarus-botschaft.de. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  184. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Belarus". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  185. ^ "embassy in Minsk (in German and Russian only)" (in Russian). Minsk.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  186. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Belgien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  187. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bosnien und Herzegovina". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  188. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Bulgarien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  189. ^ "Croatian embassy in Berlin (in croat and German only)". De.mfa.hr. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  190. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Kroatien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  191. ^ "Cyprus embassy in Berlin". mfa.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  192. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Zypern". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  193. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tschechien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  194. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Dänemark". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  195. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Estonia". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  196. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Finnland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  197. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2006.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  198. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Frankreich". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  199. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Griechenland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  200. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Georgien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  201. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Heiliger Stuhl / Vatikan". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  202. ^ "Hungarian embassy in Berlin (in German and Hungarian only)". Mfa.gov.hu. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  203. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ungarn". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  204. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Island". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  205. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Irland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  206. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Italien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  207. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kosovo". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 21 April 2024.
  208. ^ "July 2008-kosovogeberkonferenz__en.html". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  209. ^ Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 2, pp. 92–99
  210. ^ "Latvian embassy in Berlin (in German and Latvian only)". Mfa.gov.lv. 25 September 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  211. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Lettland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  212. ^ "German embassy in Riga (in German and Latvian only)" (in Latvian). Riga.diplo.de. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  213. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Liechtenstein". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  214. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Litauen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  215. ^ deutschebotschaft-wilna.lt. "German embassy in Vilnius (in German and Lithuanian only)". Deutschebotschaft-wilna.lt. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  216. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Luxemburg". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  217. ^ "Maltese embassy in Berlin" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  218. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Malta". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  219. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Republik Moldau". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  220. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Monaco". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  221. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Montenegro". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  222. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Niederlande". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  223. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Nordmazedonien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  224. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Norwegen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  225. ^ (in Polish) Informacje o Polsce – informacje ogólne Archived 25 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
  226. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Polen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  227. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Portugal". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  228. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Rumänien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  229. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Russische Föderation". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  230. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – San Marino". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  231. ^ "Serbian embassy in Berlin (in German and Serbian only)". Embassy of Serbia, Berlin. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  232. ^ "Serbian general consulates in Germany (in German and Serbian only)". Konzulati-rs.de. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  233. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Serbien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  234. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Slowakei". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  235. ^ "Germany embassy in Bratislava (in German and Slovakian only)" (in Slovak). Pressburg.diplo.de. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  236. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Slowenien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  237. ^ "Official Visit of the German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel, for the opening of diplomatic relations between Germany and the Order of Malta". Orderofmalta.int. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  238. ^ "Diplomatische Beziehungen zum Malteserorden (in German only)". Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Holy See. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  239. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Spanien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  240. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Schweden". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  241. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Schweiz". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  242. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Ukraine". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  243. ^ a b "Auswärtiges Amt – Großbritannien / Vereinigtes Königreich". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  244. ^ "Worldwide organisations". Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  245. ^ "British Embassy Berlin – GOV.UK". ukingermany.fco.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  246. ^ "Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London – How to find us". Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  247. ^ "Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London – Consulates in the UK". Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  248. ^ "Post-Brexit UK investments drive FDI in Germany to record level". 22 May 2023.
  249. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Australien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  250. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Fidschi". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  251. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Kiribati". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  252. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Marshallinseln". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  253. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Mikronesien". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  254. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Nauru". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  255. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Neuseeland". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  256. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Palau". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  257. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Papua-Neuguinea". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  258. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Samoa". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  259. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Salomonen". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  260. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tonga". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  261. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Tuvalu". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  262. ^ "Auswärtiges Amt – Vanuatu". Auswärtiges Amt (in German). Retrieved 28 March 2019.

Further reading

German diplomacy

  • Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany. Vol. 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945–1963. Vol. 2: Democracy and Its Discontents, 1963–1991 (1993), the standard scholarly history
  • Blumenau, Bernhard, 'German Foreign Policy and the 'German Problem' During and After the Cold War: Changes and Continuities'. in: B Blumenau, J Hanhimäki & B Zanchetta (eds), New Perspectives on the End of the Cold War: Unexpected Transformations? Ch. 5. London: Routledge, 2018. ISBN 9781138731349 .
  • Brandenburg, Erich. From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870-1914 (1927) online.
  • Buse, Dieter K., and Juergen C. Doerr, eds. Modern Germany: an encyclopedia of history, people and culture, 1871-1990 (2 vol. Garland, 1998).
  • Clark, Claudia. Dear Barack: The Extraordinary Partnership of Barack Obama and Angela Merkel (2021)
  • Cole, Alistair. Franco-German Relations (2000)
  • Feldman, Lily Gardner. Germany's Foreign Policy of Reconciliation: From Enmity to Amity (Rowman & Littlefield; 2012) 393 pages; on German relations with France, Israel, Poland, and Czechoslovakia/the Czech Republic. excerpt
  • Forsberg, Tuomas. "From Ostpolitik to ‘frostpolitik’? Merkel, Putin and German foreign policy towards Russia." International Affairs 92.1 (2016): 21-42. online
  • Gaskarth, Jamie, and Kai Oppermann. "Clashing traditions: German foreign policy in a New Era." International Studies Perspectives 22.1 (2021): 84-105. online
  • Geiss, Imanuel. German foreign policy, 1871–1914 (1976)
  • Haftendorn, Helga. German Foreign Policy Since 1945 (2006), 441pp
  • Hanrieder, Wolfram F. Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy (1991)
  • Heuser, Beatrice. NATO, Britain, France & the FRG: Nuclear Strategies & Forces for Europe, 1949-2000 (1997) 256pp
  • Hewitson, Mark. "Germany and France before the First World War: a reassessment of Wilhelmine foreign policy." English Historical Review 115.462 (2000): 570–606. in JSTOR
  • Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945–1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2
  • Kefferputz, Roderick and Jeremy Stern. "The United States, Germany, and World Order: New Priorities for a Changing Alliance." Atlantic Council: Issue Brief (2021) online
  • Kimmich, Christoph. German Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials (2nd ed. Scholarly Resources, 1991) 264 pp.
  • Leitz, Christian. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War (2004)
  • Maulucci Jr., Thomas W. Adenauer's Foreign Office: West German Diplomacy in the Shadow of the Third Reich (2012) excerpt
  • Oppermann, Kai. "National role conceptions, domestic constraints and the new 'normalcy' in German foreign policy: the Eurozone crisis, Libya and beyond." German Politics; 21.4 (2012): 502-519.
  • Paterson, William E. "Foreign Policy in the Grand Coalition." German politics 19.3-4 (2010): 497-514.
  • Papayoanou, Paul A. "Interdependence, institutions, and the balance of power: Britain, Germany, and World War I." International Security 20.4 (1996): 42–76.
  • Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) excerpt and text search vol 2.
  • Schmitt, Bernadotte E. "Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, 1902-1914." American Historical Review 29.3 (1924): 449–473. in JSTOR
  • Sontag, Raymond James. Germany and England: Background of Conflict, 1848-1898 (1938)
  • Spang, Christian W. and Rolf-Harald Wippich, eds. Japanese-German Relations, 1895-1945: War, Diplomacy and Public Opinion (2006)
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany (2 vol, 1970–80).
  • Wright, Jonathan. Germany and the Origins of the Second World War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) 223pp. online review
  • Young, William. German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945: The Wilhelmstrasse and the Formulation of Foreign Policy (2006); how the foreign ministry shaped policy

World/European diplomatic context

  • Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; a basic introduction that gives context to Germany's roles
  • Kaiser, David E. Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War: Germany, Britain, France, and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939 (Princeton UP, 2015).
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1989) excerpt and text search; very wide-ranging, with much on economic power
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline
  • Langer, William. European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (2nd ed. 1950); advanced coverage of Bismarckian system
  • Langer, William L. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (2 vol, 1935)
  • Macmillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 (2013) cover 1890s to 1914; see esp. ch 3–5, 8,
  • Mowat, R. B. A History of European Diplomacy 1815-1914 (1922), basic introduction
  • Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848 (1996)
  • Steiner, Zara. The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933 (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Steiner, Zara. The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933-1939 (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Taylor, A. J. P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848–1918 (1957) excerpt and text search, advanced coverage of all major powers