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Foreign relations of Belgium

Belgium is a country in Europe and member of major international organizations like the European Union and NATO which are both headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.

As a federal state, the Communities and Regions have their own foreign relations and are able to conclude treaties themselves.

Initial neutrality

Because of its location at the crossroads of Western Europe, Belgium has historically been the route of invading armies from its larger neighbours. With virtually defenceless borders, Belgium has traditionally sought to avoid domination by the more powerful nations which surround it through a policy of mediation. The Concert of Europe sanctioned the creation of Belgium in 1831 on the condition that the country remain strictly neutral.

This policy of neutrality ended after the experience of German occupation during World War I. In the years preceding World War II, Belgium tried to return to a policy of neutrality, but once again, Germany invaded the country. In 1948, Belgium signed the Treaty of Brussels with the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and one year later became one of the founding members of the Atlantic Alliance.

Belgium's federalism and international relations

A peculiar feature of Belgian federalism is the fact that the country's Communities and Regions maintain their own international relations, including the conclusion of treaties. Thus, there are a number of bilateral Dutch-Flemish international institutions, such as the Dutch Language Union or the institutions for the control of the river Scheldt, in which only Flanders takes part. Likewise, only the French Community of Belgium takes part in La Francophonie. For instance, UNV's Online Volunteering service received a financial contribution from the Federal Public Service (FPS) Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation of the Kingdom of Belgium for the years 2013 and 2014 to support the outreach to the francophone world and the promotion of volunteerism.[1]

International disputes

Belgium has resorted several times to international dispute settlement, notably in cases at both the International Court of Justice and the Permanent Court of Arbitration with the Netherlands concerning the diversion of water from the Meuse (1937) the frontier at the enclave of Baarle-Hertog (1959) and the revitalisation of the so-called Iron Rhine railroad (2005). There have been other points of contention with the Netherlands, such as the deepening of the river Scheldt or the route for the high-speed rail link between Brussels and Amsterdam. This does however not influence the overall amicable character of Belgo-Dutch relationship.

Other former cases at international courts between Belgium and other countries are — in chronological order — the Oscar Chinn Case of 1934 (with the United Kingdom, the Borghgrave Case of 1937 (with Spain), the cases of the electricity company of Sofia of 1939 (with Bulgaria), the case of the "société commerciale de Belgique" of 1939 (with Greece), the case concerning the Barcelona Traction Company of 1970 (with Spain), the arrest warrant case of 2002 (with the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the case concerning legality of use of force of 2004 (with Serbia and Montenegro).

The arrest warrant case of 2002 was caused by the application of Belgium's so called genocide law, providing for universal jurisdiction over the gravest international crimes. The same law stirred relations with, amongst others, Israel and the United States, since complaints were filed against high-ranking politicians and officials of both countries. The law was therefore repealed in 2003.

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Belgium maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date
1  Mexico 15 June 1827[2]
2  United Kingdom 1 December 1830[3]
3  France August 1831[4]
4  United States 6 January 1832[5]
 Holy See 17 July 1834[6]
5  Brazil 22 September 1834[7]
6  Portugal July 1834[8]
7  Sweden 23 February 1837[9]
8  Denmark 25 February 1837[10]
9  Greece 30 November 1838[11]
10  Netherlands 3 August 1839[12]
11  Guatemala 1841[13]
12   Switzerland 30 September 1845[14]
13  Peru 16 May 1850[15]
14  Bolivia 27 September 1850[16]
15  Italy 24 February 1851[17]
16  Uruguay 16 September 1853[18]
17  Russia 1853[19]
18  Honduras 27 March 1858[20]
19  Nicaragua 18 May 1858[21]
20  Costa Rica 26 July 1858[22]
21  Chile 31 August 1858[23]
22  Argentina 3 March 1860[24]
23  Japan 1 August 1866[25]
24  Liberia 5 June 1867[26]
25  Colombia 1873[27]
26  Bulgaria 11 December 1879[28]
27  Romania 29 March 1880[29]
28  Venezuela 21 April 1880[30]
29  Thailand 21 July 1883[31]
30  Serbia 15 March 1886[32]
31  El Salvador 1 July 1890[33]
32  Dominican Republic 10 April 1891[34]
33  Luxembourg 18 April 1892[35]
34  Paraguay 15 February 1894[36]
35  Iran 18 November 1889[37]
36  Haiti 15 January 1902[38]
37  Cuba 18 August 1902[39]
38  Norway 14 November 1905[40]
39  Panama 15 February 1908[41]
40  Poland 6 March 1919[42]
41  Finland 9 July 1919[43]
42  Czech Republic 21 September 1919[44]
43  Spain 21 January 1921[45]
44  Hungary 20 February 1922[46]
45  Egypt 10 May 1922[47]
46  Afghanistan 26 February 1923[48]
47  Ethiopia 25 March 1923[49]
48  Turkey 1 January 1924[50]
49  Monaco 2 October 1931[51]
50  Ireland 7 September 1932[52]
51  South Africa 28 August 1933[53]
52  Canada 3 January 1939[54]
53  Lebanon 25 November 1944[55]
54  Iceland 9 November 1945[56]
55  Syria 20 March 1946[57]
56  Philippines 4 July 1946[58]
57  Iraq 5 December 1946[59]
58  Austria 17 April 1947[60]
59  Jordan 4 May 1947[61]
60  India 20 September 1947[62]
61  Australia 10 October 1947[63]
62  New Zealand 27 November 1947[64]
63  Pakistan 20 February 1948[65]
64  Indonesia 3 October 1949[66]
65  Israel 15 January 1950[67]
66  Germany 27 June 1951[68]
67  Sri Lanka 27 July 1953[69]
68  Myanmar 19 September 1953[70]
69  Saudi Arabia 10 April 1955[71]
70  Libya 15 May 1956[72]
71  Morocco 30 July 1956[73]
72  Sudan 23 July 1956[74]
73  Malaysia 1957[75]
74  Ghana 2 October 1959[76]
75  Guinea 28 January 1960[77]
76  Democratic Republic of the Congo 2 July 1960[78]
77  Somalia 5 July 1960[79]
78  Gabon 3 October 1960[38]
79  Cyprus 1960[80]
80  Benin 3 January 1961[81]
81  Senegal 1 February 1961[82]
82  Nigeria 4 February 1961[83]
83  Ivory Coast 15 March 1961[84]
84  Mauritania 13 April 1961[85]
85  South Korea 2 May 1961[86]
86  Chad 27 June 1961[87]
87  Sierra Leone 12 July 1961[88]
88  Niger 22 September 1961[89]
89  Burkina Faso 17 October 1961[90]
90  Republic of the Congo 20 February 1962[91]
91  Cameroon 14 March 1962[92]
92  Burundi 18 July 1962[93]
93  Rwanda 18 July 1962[94]
94  Tanzania 21 August 1962[95]
95  Algeria 11 December 1962[96]
96  Tunisia 1962[97]
97  Central African Republic 13 June 1963[98]
98  Mali 1 August 1963[99]
99    Nepal 19 August 1963[100]
100  Kuwait 8 April 1964[101]
101  Kenya 29 April 1964[102]
102  Madagascar 15 July 1964[103]
103  Zambia 6 December 1964[104]
104  Uganda 1964[105]
105  Malta June 1965[106]
106  Togo 29 November 1965[107]
107  Malawi 28 January 1966[108]
108  Gambia 7 February 1966[109]
109  Singapore 10 October 1966[110]
110  Jamaica 25 July 1967[111]
111  Botswana 24 August 1967[112]
112  Lesotho 24 August 1967[112]
113  Cambodia 19 October 1967[113]
114  Laos 12 December 1967[114]
115  Mauritius 1968[115]
116  Eswatini 14 November 1969[116]
117  Trinidad and Tobago 10 May 1970[117]
118  Barbados 30 October 1970[118]
119  Albania 13 November 1970[119]
120  Guyana 10 June 1971[120]
121  Mongolia 8 July 1971[121]
122  Tonga 16 August 1971[122]
123  China 25 October 1971[123]
124  United Arab Emirates 8 December 1971[124]
125  Fiji September 1972[125]
126  Vietnam 22 March 1973[126]
127  Bangladesh 15 May 1973[127]
128  Samoa May 1973[128]
129  Qatar 21 November 1973[129]
130  Bahamas 12 December 1973[130]
131  Oman 22 May 1974[131]
132  Nauru 4 July 1975[132]
133  Mozambique 5 December 1975[133]
134  Seychelles 1 July 1976[134]
135  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1976[135]
136  Suriname 1 October 1976[136]
137  Angola 15 October 1976[137]
138  Comoros 15 November 1976[138]
139  Cape Verde 12 July 1977[139]
140  Guinea-Bissau 2 August 1977[140]
141  Maldives 3 October 1977[141]
142  Djibouti 19 June 1978[142]
143  Solomon Islands 28 February 1979[143]
144  Zimbabwe 24 April 1980[144]
145  Bahrain 2 December 1980[145]
146  Dominica 1980[146]
147  Saint Lucia 1980[147]
148  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1980[148]
149  Vanuatu 10 June 1981[149]
150  Belize 1982[150]
151  Brunei 3 May 1984[151]
152  San Marino 26 March 1985[152]
153  Antigua and Barbuda 30 October 1985[150]
154  São Tomé and Príncipe 1986[153]
155  Namibia 21 September 1990[154]
156  Estonia 5 September 1991[155]
157  Latvia 5 September 1991[156]
158  Lithuania 5 September 1991[157]
159  Slovenia 5 March 1992[158]
160  Armenia 10 March 1992[159]
161  Belarus 10 March 1992[160]
162  Ukraine 10 March 1992[161]
163  Uzbekistan 10 March 1992[162]
164  Moldova 11 March 1992[163]
165  Kyrgyzstan 25 March 1992[164]
166  Tajikistan 29 April 1992[165]
167  Georgia 5 June 1992[166]
168  Azerbaijan 17 June 1992[167]
169  Kazakhstan 18 August 1992[168]
170  Croatia 25 September 1992[169]
171  Slovakia 1 January 1993[170]
172  Turkmenistan 1 February 1993[171]
173  North Macedonia 14 February 1994[172]
174  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 March 1994[173]
175  Eritrea 31 March 1994[174]
176  Andorra 15 December 1994[175]
177  Marshall Islands 29 May 1996[176]
178  Liechtenstein 25 September 1996[177]
179  Federated States of Micronesia 28 October 1996[178]
180  North Korea 23 December 2000[179]
181  East Timor 3 February 2003[180]
 Cook Islands 6 April 2005[181]
182  Montenegro 25 June 2006[182]
 Kosovo 10 April 2008[183]
183  Bhutan 21 January 2009[184]
184  Saint Kitts and Nevis 5 August 2009[185]
185  Palau 18 May 2010[186]
186  South Sudan 14 October 2011[187]
187  Ecuador Unknown
188  Equatorial Guinea Unknown
189  Grenada Unknown
190  Kiribati Unknown
191  Tuvalu Unknown
192  Yemen Unknown

Relationship with countries

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Congo-Kinshasa 2 July 1960 See Belgium–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 2 July 1960 when establishment of the Belgian diplomatic mission in Leopoldville and Jean Van den Bosch becomes the Belgian ambassador.[188]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Kinshasa and a consulate-general in Lubumbashi.
  • Congo-Kinshasa has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate-general in Antwerp.
 Eritrea
  • Belgium recognised Eritrea as an independent country on 14 June 1993.[189]
 South Sudan 14 October 2011 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 October 2011.[190]
  • Belgium recognised South Sudan as an independent country on 1 December 2011.[191]

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada 3 January 1939 See Belgium–Canada relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 3 January 1939.[192]

 Cuba 18 August 1902

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 August 1902.[193]

In 1837, Belgian negotiating sale right ownership of Cuba from Spanish government.[194]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Havana.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Brussels.
 Mexico 19 November 1839 See Belgium–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 19 November 1839.[15]

In 1836, Belgium—itself newly independent—recognized the independence of Mexico.[195] In 1919, the Belgian chamber of commerce of Mexico was established.[195] Belgium opened its embassy in Mexico on 5 June 1954.[196]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico has an embassy in Brussels.
 Peru 16 May 1850 Diplomatic relations were established on 16 May 1850.[15]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Brussels.
 United States 9 February 1832 See Belgium–United States relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 9 February 1832 when has been accredited Minister Resident of Belgium to United States with residence in Washington baron D. Behr.[197]

The United States and Belgium are good friends and allies, despite occasional disagreements on a limited number of foreign policy issues. Good will and affection for Americans continues as a result of the U.S. role during and after the two World Wars, which was exhibited in 2004 during the 60th anniversary commemorations of the Battle of the Bulge and the liberation of Belgium. Continuing to celebrate cooperative U.S. and Belgian relations, 2007 marks the 175th anniversary of the nations' relationship.

 Uruguay 26 September 1852 See Belgium–Uruguay relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 26 September 1852 when M. Joseph Lannoy has been appointed as Minister Resident of Belgium to Uruguay with Residence in Rio-de-Janeiro.[198]

  • Belgium is accredited to Uruguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Brussels.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 10 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 March 1992.[199]
  • Belgium recognised Armenia as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
  • Armenia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia and maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Belgium has recognized the Armenian genocide in 1998.
 Azerbaijan 17 June 1992 See Azerbaijan–Belgium relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 17 June 1992.[201]

 China 25 October 1971 See Belgium–China relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 25 October 1971.[202]

 Georgia 5 June 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 5 June 1992.[203]
  • Belgium recognised Georgia as an independent country on 23 March 1992.[204]
  • Belgium is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Baku, Azerbaijan
  • Georgia has an embassy in Brussels
 India 20 September 1947 See Belgium–India relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 20 September 1947 when Prince Eugene de Ligne presented his credentials as the Ambassador of the Kingdom of Belgium to India.[205]

  • Belgium has an embassy in New Delhi and consualates-general in Chennai and Mumbai.
  • India has an embassy in Brussels.
 Indonesia 14 June 1950 See Belgium–Indonesia relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 14 June 1950 when Consulate General of Belgium in Jakarta has been elevated to rang Legation and M. P. Vanderstichelen appointed as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to Indonesia.[206]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Israel See Belgium–Israel relations
  • On 29 November 1947, Belgium voted in favour of UN resolution 181.
  • Belgium recognised Israel on 15 January 1950.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Brussels.
  • There are approximately 31,200 Jews living in Belgium.
 Japan 1 August 1866 See Belgium–Japan relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 1 August 1866.[207]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Brussels.
 Kazakhstan 25 August 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 August 1992.[208]
  • Belgium recognised Kazakhstan as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Astana.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Brussels.
 Kyrgyzstan 25 March 1992 See Belgium–Turkey relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 25 March 1992.[209]

  • Belgium recognised Kyrgyzstan as an independent country effective from 20 januari 1992.[200]
 Malaysia 12 December 1957 See Belgium–Malaysia relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 12 December 1957.[210]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has an embassy in Brussels.
 Pakistan 20 February 1948 See Belgium–Pakistan relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 20 February 1948.[211]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Islamabad.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Brussels.

Former Pakistani president, Pervez Musharraf, has also previously extended a visit to Belgium during his tour of Europe in early 2008, which also included visits to the United Kingdom, France and Sweden. During his stay in Brussels, he met the then-Prime Minister of Belgium, Guy Verhofstadt, and the two leaders held significant talks on trade and defence co-operation. [citation needed]

 Philippines 18 May 1949 See Belgium–Philippines relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 May 1949.[212]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Manila.
  • Philippines has an embassy in Brussels.
 South Korea 2 May 1961 See Belgium–South Korea relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 2 May 1961.[213]

 Turkey 4 April 1838 See Belgium–Turkey relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 4 April 1838 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to Turkey baron O'Sullivan de Grass.[217]

 Turkmenistan 1 February 1993 See Belgium–Turkey relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 1 February 1993.[218]

  • Belgium recognised Turkmenistan as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
 Uzbekistan 10 March 1992 See Belgium–Turkey relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 10 March 1992.[219]

  • Belgium recognised Uzbekistan as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Andorra 15 December 1994 Diplomatic relations were established on 15 December 1994.[220]
  • Belgium has recognised Andorra as an independent country on 2 December 1993, effective from 28 July 1993.[204]
  • Andorra has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is accredited to Andorra from its embassy in Madrid, Spain.
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union.
 Belarus 10 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 March 1992.[221]
  • Belgium recognised Belarus as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 March 1994 Diplomatic relations were established on 3 March 1994.[222]
  • Belgium recognised Bosnia as an independent country on 10 April 1992.[204]
 Bulgaria 11 December 1879 Diplomatic relations were established on 11 December 1879.[223]
 Croatia 10 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 March 1992.[226]
  • Belgium recognised Croatia as an independent country effective from 15 January 1992.[200]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Czech Republic 3 June 1919 Belgium and Czechoslovakia established diplomatic relations on 3 June 1919.[227]
  • Belgium recognised the independence of Czechia on 16 February 1993, effective from 1 January 1993.[228]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Denmark 25 February 1837 See Belgium–Denmark relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 25 February 1837 when has been accredited chargé d'affaires of Belgium to Denmark baron T. van der Straten-Ponthoz[229][230]

 Estonia 26 January 1921 Diplomatic relations were established first time on 21 January 1921. Diplomatic relations re-established on 5 September 1991.[231]
 Finland 9 July 1919 Diplomatic relations were established on 9 July 1919.[232]
  • Belgium recognised Finland's independence on 10 June 1919.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 France 8 March 1831 See Belgium–France relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 8 March 1831 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to France Comte C. Le Hon.[12]

 Germany See Belgium–Germany relations

They are both members of the European Union and NATO. Also, the majority of the people in East Belgium speak German.

  • Belgium has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has one embassy in Brussels.
 Greece 30 November 1838 See Belgium–Greece relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 30 November 1838 when has been accredited Chargé d'Affaires of Belgium to Greece M. Benjamin Mary.[12]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Athens.
  • Since 1945, Greece has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO, of the European Union.
  • There are between 15,000 and 26,000 Greeks who live in Belgium.
 Holy See 21 July 1832 Diplomatic relations were established on 21 July 1832 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to Roman states and Italian states (Holy See) Viscount Vilain XIIII.[233]
  • Belgium has an embassy to the Holy See based in Rome.
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Brussels.
 Iceland 9 November 1945 Diplomatic relations were established on 9 November 1945.[234]
  • Belgium is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Oslo, Norway.
  • Iceland has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Ireland 7 September 1932 Diplomatic relations were established on 7 September 1932 when has been established Legation of Ireland in Belgium (Brussels). It was raised into an embassy 9 January 1959.[235]
 Italy 24 February 1851 Diplomatic relations were established on 24 February 1851 when has been appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Italy to Belgium Alberto Lupi Di Montalto.[236]
 Kosovo 23 April 2008 See Belgium–Kosovo relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 23 April 2008.[237]

 Latvia 26 January 1921 Diplomatic relations were established on 26 January 1921.[240] Diplomatic relations re-established on 5 September 1991.[241]
 Lithuania 27 December 1922 Diplomatic relations were established first time on 27 December 1922.Diplomatic relations re-established on 5 September 1991.[242]
 Luxembourg 9 July 1892 See Belgium–Luxembourg relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 9 July 1892.[243]

 Malta June 1965 Diplomatic relations were established in June 1965.[244]
  • Belgium is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  • Malta has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and of the Council of Europe.
 Moldova 11 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 11 March 1992.[245]
  • Belgium recognised Moldova as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
  • Moldova has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
 Monaco 2 October 1931 Diplomatic relations were established on 2 October 1931.[246]
  • Belgium is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco has an embassy in Brussels.
 Montenegro 25 July 2006 Diplomatic relations were established on 25 July 2006.[247]
  • Belgium recognised Montenegro as an independent country on 23 June 2006.[248]
  • Belgium is accredited to Montenegro from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and NATO.
  • Belgium is an EU member and Montenegro is an EU candidate.
 Netherlands 3 August 1839 See Belgium–Netherlands relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 3 August 1839 when has been accredited Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Belgium to the Netherlands Prince J. De Chimay.[12]

  • Belgium has an embassy in The Hague.
  • Netherlands has an embassy in Brussels and a consulate-general in Antwerp.
  • Both nations are members of the European Union and NATO.
 North Macedonia 14 February 1994 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 February 1994.[249]
  • Belgium recognised North Macedonia as an independent country on 12 October 1993.[250]
 Norway 14 November 1905 Diplomatic relations were established on 14 November 1905.[251]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
 Poland 6 March 1919 Diplomatic relations were established on 6 March 1919.[252]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Portugal 20 February 1834 Diplomatic relations were established on 20 February 1834 when has been accredited chargé d'affaires of Belgium to Portugal C. Serruys.[253]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Romania 29 March 1880 Diplomatic relations were established on 29 March 1880.[254]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Russia 11 April 1853 See Belgium–Russia relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 11 April 1853.[255]

 Serbia 15 March 1886
 Slovakia 1 January 1993 Diplomatic relations were established on 1 January 1993.[257]
  • Belgium recognised Slovakia as an independent country on 16 February 1993, effectvie from 1 January 1993.[228]
  • Belgium is accredited to Slovakia from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Slovenia 5 March 1992 Diplomatic relations were established on 5 March 1992.[258]

Belgium recognised Slovenia as an independent country effective from 15 January 1992.[200]

  • Belgium is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Vienna, Austria.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union.
 Spain 18 September 1832 See Belgium–Spain relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 18 September 1832 when has been accredited chargé d'affaires of Belgium to Spain J.-B. Kaufmann.[259]

  • Belgium has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of the European Union and NATO.
 Sweden 23 February 1837 Diplomatic relations were established on 23 February 1837 when has been accredited Chargé d'Affaires of Belgium to Sweden baron T. Vander Straten Ponthoz.[260]
 Ukraine 10 March 1992 See Belgium–Ukraine relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 10 March 1992.[261]

Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately US$1 billion.[262]

  • Belgium recognised Ukraine as an independent country effective from 31 December 1991.[200]
  • Belgium has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels.
 United Kingdom 1 December 1830 See Belgium–United Kingdom relations

Diplomatic relations were established on 1 December 1830 when John Ponsonby has been appointed as special mission to provisional government.[263]

Historically, the two countries have trading links going back to the 10th century, especially wool trade from England to the County of Flanders. In the early years of the Hundred Years' War, Edward III allied with the nobles of the Low Countries and the burghers of Flanders against France.

  • Belgium has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 10 October 1947 Diplomatic relations were established on 10 October 1947.[264]

Protocol

The kingdom of Belgium recognises 4 types of incoming visits in Belgium. They are ranked in precedence and protocol.[265]

  1. The State Visit, formal invitations by the King of the Belgians.
  2. The Official Visit, invitation by the Belgian Prime minister.
  3. The Working Visit, invitation by an ambassador, the cost is not paid by the Belgian state.
    1. Cordial visits.
    2. Visits of courtoisie
    3. Visits to international Organisations
  4. The Private Visit, at own initiative, Belgian authorities only provide security if requested.

See also

References

  1. ^ UNV Online Volunteering service, Partners
  2. ^ Estudios monográficos. Dirección General de Documentación e Informe Presidencial. 1973. p. 130.
  3. ^ Haydn, Joseph Timothy (1851). Beatson's Political index modernised. The book of dignities; containing rolls of the official personages of the British empire, together with the sovereigns of Europe, the peerage of England and of Great Britain; and numerous other lists. pp. 76–79.
  4. ^ Annuaire diplomatique et consulaire de la République Française, 15 (in French). Imprimerie Nationale. 1893. p. 343.
  5. ^ "All Countries". Office of the Historian. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  6. ^ "Nunciature to Belgium". Retrieved 7 January 2024.
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Foreign relations of Belgium
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