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Ferrol, Spain

Ferrol
Municipality
Ferrol Port
Ferrol Port
Flag of Ferrol
Coat of arms of Ferrol
Map
Location of Ferrol
Ferrol is located in Galicia
Ferrol
Ferrol
Ferrol is located in Spain
Ferrol
Ferrol
Coordinates: 43°29′04″N 08°13′58″W / 43.48444°N 8.23278°W / 43.48444; -8.23278
Country Spain
Autonomous community Galicia
ProvinceA Coruña
ComarcaFerrol
Fishing Village1st century BC
Christian Outpost8th century
Royal Arsenal16th century
Royal Dockyard18th century
ParishesBrión, A Cabana, Covas, Doniños, Esmelle, Ferrol, A Graña, Leixa, Mandiá, Marmancón, A Mariña, Trasancos, Serantes
Government
 • TypeElected city council that chooses a mayor amongst their members.
 • BodyConcello de Ferrol
 • MayorÁngel Mato Escalona (PSdeG-PSOE)
Area
 • Total81.9 km2 (31.6 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total66,799
 • Density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)ferrolan (m), ferrolana (f)
Time zoneCET (GMT +1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (GMT +2)
Postcode
15401–15406
Area code+34 981
Websitehttp://www.ferrol.gal/

Ferrol (Galician: [feˈrɔl] , Spanish: [feˈrol] ) is a city in the province of A Coruña[2] in Galicia, Spain. It is located in the Rías Altas, in the vicinity of Strabo's Cape Nerium (modern day Cape Prior).[3][4][2][5] According to the 2021 census, the city has a population of 64,785, making it the seventh largest settlement in Galicia. With Eume to the south and Ortegal the north, Ferrol forms the comarca of Ferrolterra, and together with A Coruña forms the second largest conurbation in Galicia, with a total population of 640,000 in 2016.

The harbour, for depth, capacity and safety, has few equals in Europe. The entrance is very narrow,[6] commanded by forts, and may even be shut by a boom.[7][8][9]

The city has been a major naval shipbuilding centre for most of its history, being the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the North since the time of the early Bourbons.[6] Before that, in the 17th century,[10][11][12][13] Ferrol had the largest arsenal[2][14][15] in Europe. Today, the city contains some of the major shipbuilding yards of the Navantia Group.

Ferrol was the birthplace of the dictator Francisco Franco in 1892. The municipality was officially named after him as "El Ferrol del Caudillo" from September 1938 to December 1982.[16] It was also the birthplace of the founder of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Pablo Iglesias, in 1850.

The city is one of the starting points of the English Way[17] path of the Camino de Santiago.[18] Because of the modern requirement that pilgrims must travel 100 km by foot in order to be officially recognized, Ferrol is the preferred starting point for pilgrims traversing the English Way.

Toponym and etymology

The first historical mention of this settlement, then called Burum[19][20][21] or Arotebrarum Portum,[22] appears in the history of Pomponius Mela,[22] a Roman historian who in the year AD 43 detailing a description of the Portus Magnus Artabrorum,[23][24] the "great port of the Artabri". The current toponym Ferrol, though, can only be traced back to the Middle Ages; a document from 1087[25] mentions sancto Iuliano de Ferrol, near the monastery of San Martín de Jubia (12th century, in Romanesque style), where Ferrol is probably the local evolution of the genitive form of the Latin name Ferreolus; Ferrol was probably, in origin, the estate of one Ferreolus.[26] In 1982 the government of Spain officially adopted the name Ferrol in accordance with its long history and tradition.[27][28]

Another theory about the etymology of the name Ferrol posits some relation to the Latin word ferro (iron), as the area has long been rich in metals, especially iron and tin, but also gold and silver. It is possible, since the bay of Ferrol was such a well guarded port, that the old fishing village was named after the metal by traders[29] reaching the enclave.

Alternatively, the name may derive from the legend of a Breton saint, Ferreol, who supposedly arrived there on a ship amid a chorus of seven sirens.[citation needed] Another tradition says that Ferrol comes from farol, alluding to the heraldic figure that appears on the coat of arms of the city.[30] However, according to experts, the coat of arms of Ferrol dates back only to the eighteenth century.[31]

History

Ferrol city hall

The existence of prehistoric human settlements in the area that would later become Ferrol is suggested by the abundance of burial chambers and megalithic monuments, as well as petroglyphs and other archaeological findings.[32] The Phoenicians[33][29][34] established in this area several dried and salted cod stations and their presence, together with that of the Ancient Greeks, is well documented by such classical historians as Herodotus, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, and Ptolemy.[35] In Roman times, in the 1st century BC, a fishing port existed which also traded in metals (like silver,[36] gold,[37][38] tin[39] and iron [40]), and wild horses.[39] Near Ferrol[41] there is a place called Naraío [42] (famous for its medieval castle), whose name bears a phonetic resemblance Strabo's Nerium,[32] modern day Cape Prior.[41] In ancient Hispania, these parts of the Iberia were dominated by the Artabri[43] (or Arrotrebae[44][45]), who gave their name to the Portus Magnus Artabrorum ("Great Port of the Artabri"),[41] formed not only by the bay of Ferrol but the three rias of Ferrol, Betanzos and A Coruña. Ferrol was then, as it is today, a first class natural harbour in the treacherous waters[33] of the Atlantic, and very well guarded. Historically, it has often been described as the best natural port in Europe.[46]

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire[47] the whole Iberian Peninsula, including Ferrol, was raided by the Vandals and incorporated in 411 to the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia;[48] their kingdom was incorporated in 584 by Leovigild to the Visigothic Kingdom.[49]

Following the collapse of the Suebic-Visigothic state, these Christian parts of Iberia saw very little change in comparison with other parts of the peninsula, becoming part of the Kingdom of Asturias[2] as early as 750AD.[50][51] Over time, the Kingdom of Asturias[52] would split into further Christian kingdoms, causing the area to change hands several times between Galicia, Leon, and finally Castile.

The castle of San Felipe at the entrance of the harbour

Ferrol served as a strategic safe port[53] during the Hundred Years' War[54] and sided with the House of Trastamara during the Castilian Civil War. As a personal reward to Fernan Perez de Andrade, in 1371, Henry II[55] gave the town to the powerful Andrade family.[56]

In 1568[57][58] a fire reduced the old medieval town to rubble;[59] in the same period some parts of the existing fortifications at the entrance of the estuary were built.[60] The town was considered more important as a royal arsenal at this time than as a harbour.[61][62]

With the arrival of the Bourbons in the 18th century, Ferrol became a leading naval centre.[63] Ferrol was made capital of the Maritime Department of the North, formed under Ferdinand VI and Charles III for the defence of the Spanish Colonial Empire in America.[64] Rapid improvements followed, notably under the leadership of the Marquis of Ensenada, and the position of Ferrol was made almost unassailable from the sea, the difficulties of disembarking troops on its precipitous coast being strengthened by a renewed line of fortresses and newly built castles, including that of San Carlos.

Neoclassical church Igrexa Castrense de San Francisco
Co-Cathedral of Ferrol[65]

The Royal Dockyards of A Graña and Ferrol, built between 1726–1783,[66][67] produced ships protected with copper sheets from the rolling mills of Xubia. In 1772, The Spanish Royal Academy of Naval Engineers of Ferrol, the first such academy in Spain, was created. For the most laborious work, six hundred galley slaves were employed in the harbour.[68][69]

Ferrol is famous[70] in the history of the struggle between the Spanish Empire and the British for being one of the only enclaves in the world, together with Cartagena de Indias, that always resisted occupation successfully; Ferrol was virtually impossible to blockade in the age of sail, as strong westerly winds would take any blockading force away along the treacherous north coast of Spain towards the Costa da Morte (Coast of Death), where they had no safe haven. The geography of Ferrol meant that an entire Spanish fleet could slip out on a single tide. By the time the British were able to resume the blockade, the Spanish would be safely away and out to sea. Despite these advantages, a decline set in during the reign of Charles IV, and in 1800, during the Ferrol Expedition, after the defences had been reduced, a British fleet of 109 vessels landed troops on the beach of Doniños to take the Castle of San Felipe. Although only equipped with meagre artillery, the castle's small defence force under the command Count Donadio, together with a sizable number of volunteer citizens of Ferrol, successfully resisted the attack and the fleet withdrew. The alliance with the United Kingdom during the Peninsular War of 1808–1814 failed to prevent the deterioration in the town's fortunes. The arsenals and fortresses were abandoned and they were easily occupied by the French in 1809.[71]

When the war with Napoleonic France was over, many of the South American colonies[72] chose to pursue independence from Spain and the shipyards of Ferrol went into a serious decline, losing most of their civilian, clergy and military population. By 1824, Ferrol had a population of just 10,000 civilians and about 6,000 military personnel (stationed locally, if not permanently, at least during most of the year). Its mathematical school for marine artillerists, the pilot school, and the Spanish Royal Academy of Naval Engineers[73] were almost completely empty, in stark contrast to the glorious years of abundance[74][75] before the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.[76]

Aerial view of the city (2009)

Ferrol built only two ships of the line between 1794 and 1845,[77][78] although nine frigates and a considerable number of smaller warships were also constructed in this period. After half a century of decreased activity, it lost its title of capital under Ferdinand VII. However, there was a massive renovation during the leadership of Cardinal Alberoni and in just a few years fourteen great line-of-battle-ships were launched. New activities sprang up and Ferrol was employing 2,000 workmen[79] in its foundries, now in full operation. A School of Naval Engineers[78] was established where 40 students were taught the scientific principles of their profession by competent instructors educated in England and France. So successful in bringing the world's most advanced technologies was the administration of the Marquis de Molina,[80] the Spanish Minister for Naval affairs, that by 1858 the Royal Dockyards of Ferrol were launching Spain's first steam propelled ship, which was also its first iron-hulled sailing ship.

The second half of the 19th century brought to the Royal Dockyards of Ferrol not only employment, but also concomitant social and political tensions,[81][82] which culminated in the failed republican uprising of 1872.[83][84] Steamers between Ferrol and the port of Havana in Spanish Cuba were in frequent operation at the time, such that shipyard workers who got into trouble with the local authorities in Ferrol often fled to the Spanish Main.[85][86]

Art Nouveau building in Ferrol, designed by Rodolfo Ucha

From the days of the Armada to the present, the Bay of Ferrol has attracted numerous ships seeking repairs or refuge after meeting with disaster[87][88] or rough waters trying to cross the Bay of Biscay in bad weather. Such was the case of Cleopatra, carrying one of the two Cleopatra Needles,[89][90] which stands today on the Thames Embankment in London, UK. It arrived in Ferrol on 19 October 1877 after almost sinking off the west coast of France five days earlier. A plaque commemorating the event and those who died can be seen at the base of the Needle in London.

Ten years after the Spanish–American War of 1898,[91][92][93] in which Spain lost Cuba[94] and the Philippines, the Antonio Maura government, in an attempt to restore the Spanish Navy and Spanish shipbuilding industry, hired the Spanish Society for Naval Construction,[95] whose major investors were a British-Spanish conglomerate[59] taking contracts In the following proportions: 40% Vickers Sons and Maxim,[96] 30% Marquis of Comillas of the Spanish Transatlantic Company, and 30% Biscay Furnace Company.[97] All the previously state-owned shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks at Ferrol were handed over to the technical expertise of some of finest British shipbuilders; John Brown, Vickers[98][96] and Armstrong[99] were now in charge of building the new Spanish fleet.[100]

For a period of sixteen years, the technicians were exclusively British, and the situation was not altered till 1925, when management was taken over by Spanish engineers. This was one of the new policies introduced by the newly-installed government of the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera[101] (1923–1930). The arrival of the British coincided with the construction of a local tram system (1924–1961).[102]

In view of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, and due to the fear of social unrest in the naval station, the Foreign Office in London[103][104] organized a ship to repatriate all the remaining British citizens. On 22 July 1936, HMS Witch[105] left Ferrol bound for Britain. At the beginning of the war, the shipbuilding yards, workshops, foundries and dry docks in Ferrol were taken over by the state. They were fully nationalized in 1945 under the name "Bazán", later renamed "IZAR", and, from January 2005, Navantia. The town was the birthplace of Francisco Franco, after whom the city was officially known as El Ferrol del Caudillo from 1938 to 1982. The end of the Spanish State and the arrival of democracy in 1978 did little to arrest Ferrol's economic decline,[106][107] and from 1982 to the early 1990s, the city faced numerous problems due to the waning of the naval sector. The beginning of the new millennium, however, has been a time of economic expansion and prosperity in general.[108] A new motorway and an outer-port[109] have been built, as have numerous arcades and shopping centres, mostly in the outskirts of the city between Ferrol and Naron. Young shoppers and their families frequent the stores and enjoy weekend days out with amenities like bowling, cafeterias, fast food outlets, cinemas and sports facilities.

The Spanish Navy Spanish Squadron [110][111] still takes part in naval demonstrations and in June 2008 Ferrol hosted the large NATO Maritime Exercise Loyal Mariner (RN).[112]

The Ferrol Terminus railway station, connecting Lugo to Ferrol, branching off from the line from Madrid to nearby A Coruña, was sanctioned by the Cortes in Madrid as early as 1865 but was not finally inaugurated until 1904. A century later, the High Speed AVE Railway suffered similar delays, eventually opening in 2013[113]

In September 2017,[114] a new local railway branch serving the outer port of Ferrol (known as the Canelinas-Ferrol container port), the inside of the bay docks and the Ferrol Terminus railway station was given the green light to begin construction, and aims to move large numbers modern containers in and out of Ferrol, distributing goods throughout Galicia and the rest of Spain and Europe. A small railway local branch operated here in the early years of the 20th century. At that time, Ferrol itself and its ports were intended solely for the Royal Navy and its shipyards,[69] and hence were not open to the general commerce per se. Historically, however, there have been many exceptions, with local businesses including PEMSA (timber), PYSBE (dried and salted cod) and HISPANIA (pencils), in addition to manufacturers of hats, paper and leather, plus naval and hardware stores. Items such as corn, wine, brandy, vinegar, pilchards and herrings (and other produce from Ferrol's own fisheries) have also been exported.[115]

Climate

Like much of Galicia, Ferrol has a humid oceanic climate, characterised by year-long mild temperatures, rainy winters, and relatively dry summers, although it is slightly wetter than the typical Spanish Mediterranean climate during the summer season.

Climate data for Ferrol, Galicia (Spain) (2002–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.1
(57.4)
15.8
(60.4)
17.2
(63.0)
18.9
(66.0)
22.1
(71.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.4
(74.1)
19.8
(67.6)
15.8
(60.4)
13.9
(57.0)
18.4
(65.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
10.2
(50.4)
11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.8
(58.6)
17.9
(64.2)
19.0
(66.2)
19.7
(67.5)
18.4
(65.1)
15.7
(60.3)
12.5
(54.5)
10.3
(50.5)
14.5
(58.1)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 7.3
(45.1)
7.0
(44.6)
8.4
(47.1)
9.4
(48.9)
11.2
(52.2)
14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
16.4
(61.5)
14.8
(58.6)
12.4
(54.3)
9.6
(49.3)
7.3
(45.1)
11.1
(52.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 140
(5.5)
97
(3.8)
102
(4.0)
97
(3.8)
75
(3.0)
57
(2.2)
51
(2.0)
38
(1.5)
50
(2.0)
183
(7.2)
208
(8.2)
157
(6.2)
1,257
(49.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 17 11 13 11 11 7 7 6 6 14 17 15 137
Mean monthly sunshine hours 79 124 158 194 218 238 261 248 217 139 95 90 2,060
Source: MeteoGalicia[116]

Demography

Histogram of population evolution of Ferrol from 1877. (From: Censos de población INE [1])

Economy

  1. Primary IndustriesAgriculture (Horse Breeding), Aquaculture (Fish Farming), Fishing (Specializing in the Atlantic Shoals), Important Mines (ENDESA), NTFPs (Forestry), Quarries and Timber.
  2. Secondary IndustriesShipbuilding, Ship Engines, Turbines (Wind Mills and Ships), Electrical Equipment, Ironworks, Fashion (Textiles), Food (Canned Fish) and Wood-Made Products.
  3. Tertiary IndustriesMercantile, Fishing and Military Ports, Restaurants, News Media (Ferrol TV/Diario de Ferrol), Hotels (Barceló Almirante/Pazo Libunca), Leisure and Tourism (World Surf Competitions, Popular Transatlantic Steamships Stop), Consulting, Health Care/Hospitals (Arquitecto Marcide Hospital Complex), Education (Schools, Colleges/ESENGRA and Universities/UNED/PERITOS) and Public Utilities, Franchises (main brand names and designer label's shops), Wholesale (Navy Suppliers/Anton-Martin) and Retail Industries (El Corte Inglés/Alcampo).
  4. Quaternary Sector IndustriesNaval, Electrical and Mechanical Equipment together with New Technologies.

Festivals

Event Name Translation into (in Spanish) Event Date
The Three Kings Parade Desfile de los Reges Magos 6 January
Saint Julian's Day[117] Día de San Julián 7 January
Carnival Festival[118] Festival de Carnaval February or March
Saint Josephine's Night[119] Noche de las Pepitas 18 March
Holy Week Celebration[120] Semana Santa March or April
Chamorro's Day[121] Día de Chamorro March or April
Horse Riding Competitions[122] Competiciones de Hípica April
Galician Literature Day Día de las Letras Gallegas 17 May
Corpus Christi Celebrations[123] Corpus Christi May or June
St. John's Eve[124] Víspera de San Juan 23 June
Our Lady of Mount Carmel's Day[125] Día del Carmen 16 July
Celtic Music Festival Festival de Música Celta 29 July
Traditional Horse Events[126] Festivales Equinos Tradicionales August
Surf Championships Competiciones de Surf August
Ferrol Summer Festival[127] Fiestas de Verano de Ferrol August
Battle of Mount Brion[128] Batalla del Monte de Brión 25-26 August
Saint Raymond's Day[129] Día de San Ramón 31 August

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Ferrol is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  2. ^ a b c d Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ferrol" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 289.
  3. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo, Vol.2. pp. 7–8, 69.
  4. ^ Ptolemaeus, Claudius (100–170). "Atlas - Claudius Ptolemaeus Geographia - Ancient Geography - EuropaeIiTab.hispania". archive.org. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  5. ^ Prévost, abbé; Gmelin, Johann Georg (1746). Histoire générale des voyages, ou nouvelle collection de toutes les relations de voyages par mer et par terre, qui ont été publiées jusqu'à present dans les différentes langues de toutes les nations connues ... Tome premier [-vingtième]. John Carter Brown Library. A Paris, : chez Didot ... p. 36.
  6. ^ a b Tofiño de San Miguel, Vicente; Mengs, Anton Raphael; Salvador Carmona, Manuel; Ballester, Joaquín; Vázquez, Bartolomé; Valdés, Antonio; Asensio, Josef (1789). Atlas marítimo de España [Material cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Madrid: [s.n.] p. 35.
  7. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C. (Richard Cary); Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven :Printed and published by S. Converse. p. 256.
  8. ^ Edinburgh encyclopaedia. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Edinburgh, Blackwood. 1830. p. 308.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 524.
  10. ^ Noticias ordinarias del Norte, Italia, Africa, y España : con la noticia plausible de todas, del dichosissimo arribo de la reyna nuestra señora al Puerto de Ferrol en Galicia à 26 del passado : publicadas à 4 de abril 1690. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. [En Madrid] : por Sebastian de Armendariz, librero. 1690. pp. 109–110.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ Stanhope, Alexander (1844). Spain Under Charles the Second; Or, Extracts from the Correspondence of the Hon. Alexander Stanhope, British Minister at Madrid. 1690–1699. J. Murray. pp. 3.
  12. ^ Gallucci, Giovanni Paolo; Pérez, Miguel (1614). Theatro del mundo, y del tiempo : en el qual no solo se descriuen sus partes, y se da regla en el medirlas, mas con ingeniosas y acomodadas demostraciones y figuras, se representan ante los lectores ... : cõ index. Getty Research Institute. Impresso en Granada : Por Sebastian Muñoz, a costa de Iulio Castellon. pp. 127–128.
  13. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 11.
  14. ^ "Burlington weekly free press. (Burlington, Vt.) 1866–1928, July 21, 1898, Image 15". Burlington Weekly Free Press. 21 July 1898. ISSN 2166-2037. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  15. ^ First Edition, 1771 Encyclopaedia Britannica; Or, A Dictionary Of Arts And Sciences, Compiled Upon A New Plan ... by National Library of Scotland. 1771. p. 588.
  16. ^ Rego, Paco (30 September 2018). "El Ferrol y el 'caudillo'". El Mundo.
  17. ^ Camino, Follow the. "Camino Ingles - English Way • Follow the Camino". FollowtheCamino.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  18. ^ "The English Way to Santiago de Compostela | Camino Walk Spain". www.utracks.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  19. ^ Clericus, Joannes (1679–1705). "Atlas Antiquus, Sacer, Ecclesiaticus Et Profanus - Joannes Clericus - HispaniaeAntiquaeTabula". Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  20. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Germanus, Nicolaus; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle. pp. 155–156.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Germanus, Nicolaus; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle. pp. 151–152.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ a b Mela, Pomponius; Vadianus, Joachim; Camers, Joannes (1522). Pomponii Melae De orbis situ libri tres, : accuratissime emendati. John Carter Brown Library. Basileae, : apud Andream Cratandrum. pp. 162–163.
  23. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Germanus, Nicolaus; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm : Lienhart Holle.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Wilkinson, Robert (1823). "Wilkinson's Atlas Classica - HispaniaAntiquaAnteaIberia". archive.org/. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  25. ^ "En el siglo XI Ferrol ya se llamaba así". La Voz de Galicia (in European Spanish). 17 November 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  26. ^ Cf. Cabeza Quiles, Fernando (2008). Toponimia de Galicia. Vigo: Galaxia. p. 275. ISBN 978-84-9865-092-1.
  27. ^ García de Salazar, Lope. Libro de las Bienandanzas e Fortunas. Parnaseo-Lemir: Universidad de Valencia. pp. 1471–1476.
  28. ^ Primera continuacion de los obsequios y festejos, que se hizieron à ... Doña Maria Ana, en su real jornada desde el puerto del Ferrol à esta Catolica Corte ... : publicase à 9 de Mayo 1690. [S.l.] : Sebastian de Armendariz. 1690. pp. 1–12.
  29. ^ a b William of Malmesbury; Henry of Huntingdon; Roger of Hoveden; Ethelwerd; Ingulf; Savile, Henry; Bishop, George; Newbery, Ralph; Barker, Robert (1596). Rervm anglicarvm scriptores post Bedam praecipvi. Londoni: excudebant G. Bishop, R. Nyberie, & R. Barker. pp. 172.
  30. ^ "General Guide to the City" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2012. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. ^ de Aracil, Carlos. El Escudo de Armas de Ferrol de la Ilustración. Ferrol, Spain: Ferrol Análisis.
  32. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 7–8.
  33. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 157–159.
  34. ^ Montanus, Arnoldus; Ogilby, John; Middleton, John; Underwood, John (1671). America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the Nevv VVorld; : containing the original of the inhabitants, and the remarkable voyages thither. The conquest of the vast empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large provinces and territories, with the several European plantations in those parts. Also their cities, fortresses, towns, temples, mountains, and rivers. Their habits, customs, manners, and religions. Their plants, beasts, birds, and serpents. With an appendix, containing, besides several other considerable additions, a brief survey of what hath been discover'd of the unknown South-Land and the Arctick region. pp. 18–19.
  35. ^ Ptolemy, 2nd cent; D'Angelo, Jacopo; Germanus, Nicolaus; Schnitzer, Johann; Hol, Lienhart (1482). Cosmographia. Boston Public Library. Ulm: Lienhart Holle.((cite book)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  36. ^ Young, Otis E. (1965). "The Spanish Tradition in Gold and Silver Mining". Arizona and the West. 7 (4): 299–314. JSTOR 40167137.
  37. ^ Spiering, E.D; Pevida, L.R; Maldonado, C.; González, S.; Garcia, J.; Varela, A.; Arias, D.; Martı́n-Izard, A. (1 November 2000). "The gold belts of western Asturias and Galicia (NW Spain)". Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 71 (2): 89–101. doi:10.1016/S0375-6742(00)00147-3. ISSN 0375-6742.
  38. ^ Bitong, Anna. "In Spain, a beach made of gold?". Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  39. ^ a b Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2.
  40. ^ Jones, Horace Leonard (1949). The Geography Of Strabo Vol.2. pp. 45–46.
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  49. ^ (Britoniensis ecclesiae episcopus) Mailoc or Maeloc was the bishop of Britonia who participated in the Second Council of Braga (572)
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  56. ^ Ferrol Naval 1750 Ferrol Historia - Interesting document showing the royals of Spain from 1492 till 1805: Spanish Empire
  57. ^ "History of Ferrol" El Ferrolano Newspaper, 10 February 1846, no.1, Front Cover: Ferrol
  58. ^ Blaeu, Joan (1659). Geographia Blauiana [Mapas]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Amsterdam : Juan Blaeu. p. 524.
  59. ^ a b Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Methuen. pp. 315.
  60. ^ World Heritage List: El Ferrol (Submission Papers) UNESCO, 27 April 2007
  61. ^ Primera continuacion de los obsequios y festejos, que se hizieron à ... Doña Maria Ana, en su real jornada desde el puerto del Ferrol à esta Catolica Corte ... : publicase à 9 de Mayo 1690. [S.l.] : Sebastian de Armendariz. 1690. pp. 1–12.
  62. ^ Noticias ordinarias del Norte, Italia, Africa, y España : con la noticia plausible de todas, del dichosissimo arribo de la reyna nuestra señora al Puerto de Ferrol en Galicia à 26 del passado : publicadas à 4 de abril 1690. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. [En Madrid] : por Sebastian de Armendariz, librero. 1690. pp. 109–110.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  63. ^ The City and Naval Station of El Ferrol during the Reign of Charles III of Spain by the Dutch pilot Hugh Debbieg (1731–1810)
  64. ^ de Bry, Theodor; de Bry, Johann Theodor; de Bry, Johann Israel; Merian, Matthaeus; de Espejo, Antonio; Heyn, Piet; l'Hermite, Jacques l'; Smith, John (1630). Vierzehender Theil Americanischer Historien, : inhaltend, erstlich, warhafftige Beschreibung etlicher West-Indianischer Landen in dem Theil Americae gegen Mitternacht hinder Nova Hispania gelegen, alss New Mexico, Cibola, Cinaloa, Quiuira, vnd anderer, deren bissher in vnserm West-Indianischen Werck Theils gar nicht, theils sehr wenig gedacht worden, sampt Denckwürdigen Geschichten vnd Wunderwercken der Natur in Jucatan, Guatimala, Fonduras, vnd Panama, wie auch vom Zustandt etlicher Englischen Colonien, wie sich die in lauffendem 1630. Jahr befinden. Zum andern, eine Schiffart der Holländer vnder dem Admiral Jacob Eremiten vmb die gantze Welt, vnd was ihm auff dieser sehr langen vnd gefährlichen Reyse begegnet, alles in Form eines Jurnals oder Tagregisters fleissig verzeichnet. Zum dritten, historische Erzehlung, welcher gestalt die sehr reiche Spanische Silberflotta durch Peter Hein, General der Holländischen Armada in dem Hafen Matanza der Insul Cuba im September dess Jahrs 1628. ertapt vnd heim gebracht worden. Zum Vierdten, was massen die Statt Olinda de Fernambucco in Brasilien, sampt dem Meerport vnd dabey Ligenden Castellan, durch die Holländer vnder dem General Heinrich Cornelis Lunck erobert worden, im Monat Februario dess Jahrs 1630. Alles mit zugehörigen Tafeln vnd Kupfferstücken gezieret, verlegt vnd an Tag gegeben. Gedruckt zu Hanaw: Bey David Aubri. pp. 20–21.
  65. ^ Flórez, Enrique (1747). España sagrada, theatro geographico-historico de la Iglesia de España : origen... de todas sus provincias, antiguedad, traslaciones y estado antiguo y presente de sus sillas en todos los dominios de España y Portugal ... . T. I, Contiene una clave geographica, y geographia eclesiastica de los Patriarcados [Material Cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. En Madrid : por Don Miguel Francisco Rodriguez. pp. 12.
  66. ^ "Ferrol" Britannica.com, 2009
  67. ^ Tofiño de San Miguel, Vicente; Mengs, Anton Raphael; Salvador Carmona, Manuel; Ballester, Joaquín; Vázquez, Bartolomé; Valdés, Antonio; Asensio, Josef (1789). Atlas marítimo de España [Material cartográfico]. Biblioteca de la Universidad de Sevilla. Madrid: [s.n.] p. 21.
  68. ^ McCulloch, J. R.; Martin, Frederick (1866). A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical : of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world. London: Longmans, Green. p. 338.
  69. ^ a b Edinburgh encyclopaedia. Gerstein - University of Toronto. Edinburgh, Blackwood. 1830. p. 309.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  70. ^ "Horatio Hornblower | Age Of Sail | Page 2". ageofsail.wordpress.com. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  71. ^ Napier, W. F. P. (1814). History Of The War In The Peninsula. pp. 76.
  72. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C.; Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven :Printed and published by S. Converse. pp. 730–731.
  73. ^ Morse, Jedidiah; Morse, Richard C.; Converse, Sherman (1823). A new universal gazetteer, or Geographical dictionary : containing a description of the various countries, provinces, cities, towns, seas, lakes, rivers, mountains, capes, &c. in the known world. With an appendix ... accompanied with an atlas. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library. New-Haven: Printed and published by S. Converse. p. 256.
  74. ^ Laborde, Alexandre Louis Joseph (1809). A view of Spain; comprising a descriptive itinerary, of each province, and a general statistical account of the country. Robarts - University of Toronto. London Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. p. 440.
  75. ^ Laborde, Alexandre Louis Joseph (1809). A view of Spain; comprising a descriptive itinerary, of each province, and a general statistical account of the country. Robarts - University of Toronto. London Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. p. 487.
  76. ^ Busk, M. M. (1833). The history of Spain and Portugal, from B.C. 1000 to A.D. 1814. Robarts - University of Toronto. London, Baldwin. p. 258.
  77. ^ The 80-gun ships Neptuno (1795) and Argonauta (1796), see Enrique Garcia-Torralba Pérez, Navios de la Real Armada 1700-1860.
  78. ^ a b "The Armies of Europe - Spain as a War-making Power". The New York Times. 6 February 1858.
  79. ^ "The Armies of Europe - Spain as a War- making Power". The New York Times. 6 February 1858.
  80. ^ "The Armies of Europe, Spain as a War Making Power" New York Times, 6 February 1858, Page 4
  81. ^ "Labour Riot in Spain". South Wales Daily News. 25 September 1899. Retrieved 8 March 2018 – via newspapers.library.wales.
  82. ^ Lay, E.J.S. (1933). Citizenship. pp. 125–133.
  83. ^ "Entrance into Ferrol of the Government Troops" New York Times, 16 October 1872, Page 1
  84. ^ "Strike in Spain". Evening Express. 1 October 1910. Retrieved 8 March 2018 – via newspapers.library.wales.
  85. ^ "CUBA.; Ferrol Insurgents Arrived A Coolie Ship The Spanish Army Reinforced by Blood-Hounds". The New York Times. 5 December 1872. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  86. ^ "TELEGRAMS.; The Revolt in Ferrol, Spain, Virtually Suppressed. Disheartened and Hemmed In, the Rebels Begin to Desert. Probable Murder of a Wealthy Bank Director in Boston. Partial Destruction of Iron-Works in Johnstown, Penn. Conversion of an Indian Chief to Christianity. SPAIN. The Ferrol Insurrection Almost Strangled Troops Arriving The Mass of the Population Taking No Part in the Movement. Discussion on Cuba and Porto Rico-Reforms in the Cortes". The New York Times. 14 October 1872. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  87. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online THE LOSS OF THE". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  88. ^ del Castillo Sotomayor, Juan; García, Lorenzo (1690). Aclamacion panegyrica y gratulatoria al misterio incomprehensible de la Encarnacion del Verbo, en la Nave Real de Maria Santissima y al Arribo felicissimo de la Reyna nuestra Señora Doña Mariana de Neoburg, el mismo dia de la Encarnacion, en el Puerto dichosissimo de el Ferrol... : predicado en el Real Convento de las Señoras Descalças de esta Corte, el dia tres de Abril de este presente año. Sevilla. pp. 12.
  89. ^ "Cleopatras Needle, The Embankment, London". Historic UK. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
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  91. ^ "Great Activity at Ferrol" New York Times, 11 June 1898, Page 1
  92. ^ The launch of "Cardenal Cisneros" the first "Pre-dreadnought battleship" built in Ferrol, Spain (1897) "The Ferrol and the Galician-rias commercial-role with North, South and Central America":El Correo Gallego (Spanish Newspaper) 19 March 1897 by Jose R. de Trujillo, Spanish Royal Navy Commander (in Spanish)
  93. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online THE WAR.'|1898-04-30|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  94. ^ Peydró, Vicente; Caballero y Martínez, Ricardo (1896). España en Cuba : episodio lírico-dramática en un acto, original y en verso. Ferrol: Impr. de R. Pita.
  95. ^ Meakin, Annette M. B. (1909). Galicia, the Switzerland of Spain. Robarts - University of Toronto. london: London, Methuen. pp. 22.
  96. ^ a b "Vickers, Sons and Maxim". www.gracesguide.co.uk. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  97. ^ Glas, Eduardo Jorge (1997). Bilbao's Modern Business Elite. University of Nevada Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-87417-269-0.
  98. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online I BRITAIN AND SPAIN'S NAVY.I|1908-05-25|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  99. ^ "SPANISH NAVY: Huge Contract in British Hands" Manchester Guardian, 1 February 1909, Page 12
  100. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online SPAIN'S NEW NAVYII|1909-05-26|Evening Express - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  101. ^ "SPAIN TO START WORK ON 3 NAVY BASES SOON; Ferrol, Cartagena and Mahon Will Be Fortified With Guns of the Longest Range". The New York Times. 20 February 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  102. ^ Vistas y curiosidades sobre la historia de El Ferrol y España Amazing Charley Inc.
  103. ^ "British Vice-Consulate at Ferrol" General Correspondence FO 63/1041, The National Archives
  104. ^ "British Vice-Consulate at Ferrol" General Correspondence FO 72/1689, The National Archives
  105. ^ "British Sending Troops" New York Times, 22 July 1936, Page 3
  106. ^ Shipbuilding Ferrol Historia - Shipbuilding crisis aftefr the arrival of democracy in Spain
  107. ^ Spanish shipyard resists that sinking feeling[permanent dead link] Financial Times, 19 October 1984
  108. ^ Fridtjof Nansen class frigates during one of the final stages for completion in Ferrol Ferrol Historia
  109. ^ Views of the new outer-port of Ferrol, an intermodal freight transport port design to suit the new needs Ferrol Historis
  110. ^ "Welsh Newspapers Online SPANISH NAVAL DEMONSTRATION, I|1895-08-07|South Wales Echo - Welsh Newspapers Online". newspapers.library.wales. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  111. ^ "DYNAMIC MONARCH 17". Flickr. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  112. ^ NATO Maritime Exercise Loyal Mariner (RN) Archived 23 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  113. ^ "Renfe duplica su oferta diurna a Galicia y estrena un Alvia Ferrol-Lugo-Madrid - Galicia Ártabra Digital". Galicia Ártabra Digital (in European Spanish). Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  114. ^ "La obra del tren a Caneliñas se pone en marcha". La Voz de Galicia (in European Spanish). 22 September 2017. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  115. ^ McCulloch, J. R.; Martin, Frederick (1866). A dictionary, geographical, statistical, and historical : of the various countries, places, and principal natural objects in the world. London: Longmans, Green. p. 338.
  116. ^ "CIS Ferrol". Archived from the original on 24 June 2013.
  117. ^ This is a very special day because Saint Julian[dubious ] is the patron saint of Ferrol. On this day all the locals enjoy having a gorgeous traditional sweet rice pudding following a local recipe as they have been doing for so long that nobody can tell for sure when this ancient tradition really started.
  118. ^ Also known as "O'Antroido" in Galician.
  119. ^ On Saint Josephine's Night all the men of Ferrol take to the streets with their guitars and other musical instruments, wearing traditional gear design for purpose, to sing beautiful songs to every woman young and old, particularly those with the name Josephine or “Peppa” (which means Josephine in Spanish, hence “Noche de la Pepitas”, literally “Night of the young Peppas”).
  120. ^ The Holy Week celebrations of Ferrol were declared of National Interest by Spanish Government in 1996. (in Spanish) Official website of one of the organisers “Cofradias de Dolores”
  121. ^ Every year at the end of the Holy Week the city of Ferrol celebrates a bank holiday devoted to the Holy Virgin Mary at mount Chamorro where a shrine was built by the Andrade family about a century earlier than the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
  122. ^ The best known one is organised by FIMO and is known as "Equiocio" (in English) Official website of Turgalicia about EQUIOCIO
  123. ^ For "Corpus Christi" Ares and other localities of Ferrolterra, following an ancient Christian tradition, celebrate and rejoice plentiful in style, covering the main streets of their city centres with colourful flowery carpets.
  124. ^ St. John's Eve (or Bonfire Night) is celebrated in all the parishes of Ferrolterra with the lighting of bonfires.
  125. ^ This special day is celebrated in different ways throughout the different parishes of Ferrolterra; while some of them enjoy preparing beautiful floral offerings dedicated to the Virgin Mary pretty much in the “Corpus Christi” carpets fashion, others are more inclined to organize a small sea or land procession if not a food party.
  126. ^ In different parts of Ferrolterra, particularly in the Sierra da Capelada where horse breeding is an important industry, there is an interesting celebration of Celtic roots involving food, music and horses. This is a “Rapa das Bestas” where the newly born horses are marked and have their hair cut as the major part of the event. Of course, the whole event and festivity is open to all visitors.
  127. ^ Usually involves different activities like theatrical performances, rock concerts, fireworks and all sorts of organized entertainment.
  128. ^ Literally, a re-enactment of the battle which took place in Ferrol between the British and the local Spaniards in the year 1800 where the British, the belligerent force, were driven out from their attempt to capture the most important naval station of Spain in northern Iberia. There were well founded reasons for the British to believe that the Spaniards were going to take side with Napoléon a few years later. And this was exactly what happened. (in Spanish) Website of the voluntaries from Madrid 1808–1814
  129. ^ Also known as the fireworks of the Marquis of Amboage.
  130. ^ "Ata da reunião número 5/18 do executivorealizada no dia 6 de março de 2018" (PDF). cm-agueda.pt (in Portuguese). Águeda. 28 February 2018. p. 3. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  131. ^ "Ferrol y Mondoñedo harán oficial su hermanamiento el 18 de octubre" (in Spanish). La Voz de Galicia. 4 August 2004. Retrieved 24 January 2024.
  132. ^ "Los alcaldes de Ferrol y Lugo ven en 2015 un año de oportunidades para el naval" (in Spanish). Diario de Ferrol. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  133. ^ "Geminações". cm-viladoconde.pt (in Portuguese). Vila do Conde. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
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Ferrol, Spain
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