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Fars province

Fars Province
استان فارس
Persepolis
Naqsh-e Rostam
Clockwise from top right: the Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae; Arg of Karim Khan in Shiraz; a canola field in Alamarvdasht; Bishapur valley; Naqsh-e Rostam; and Persepolis
Location of Fars province within Iran
Location of Fars province within Iran
Coordinates: 29°25′N 53°14′E / 29.417°N 53.233°E / 29.417; 53.233
CountryIran
RegionRegion 2
CapitalShiraz
Counties37
Government
 • Governor-generalMohammad-Hadi Imanieh
 • MPs of Assembly of Experts1 Ahmad Beheshti
2 Ali Akbar Kalantari
3 Assad-Allah Imani
4 Lotfollah Dezhkam
5 Seyed Ali Asghar Dastgheib
6 Mohammad Faghie
 • Representative of the Supreme LeaderLotfollah Dezhkam
Area
 • Total122,608 km2 (47,339 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total4,851,274
 • Estimate 
(2020)
5,051,000[1]
 • Density40/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
Area code071
ISO 3166 codeIR-07
Main language(s)
Fars Province Historical Population
YearPop.±%
20064,220,721—    
20114,596,658+8.9%
20164,851,274+5.5%

Fars Province (/fɑːrs/; Persian: استان فارس, Ostân-e Fârs, pronounced [ˈfɒː(ɾ)s]), also known as Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostân-e Pârs) as well as Persis (the origin of the name "Persia"),[5] is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. The province has an area of 122,400 km2 and is located in Iran's southwest, in Region 2. [6] Its administrative center and capital city is Shiraz. Fars neighbours Bushehr province to the west, Hormozgan province to the south, Kerman and Yazd provinces to the east, Isfahan province to the north, and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province to the northwest.

At the 2006 census, the province numbered 4,220,721 people in 1,014,690 households.[7] As of the following census in 2011, Fars had a population of 4,596,658 people in 1,250,135 households, of whom 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers (urban/suburbs), 32.1% villagers (small town/rural), and 0.3% nomad tribes.[8] The most recent census in 2016 counted 4,851,274 people in 1,443,027 households.[2]

Fars is the historical homeland of the Persian people.[9][10] It was the homeland of the Achaemenid and Sasanian Persian dynasties of Iran, who reigned on the throne by the time of the ancient Persian Empires. The ruins of the Achaemenid capitals Pasargadae and Persepolis, among others, demonstrate the ancient history of the region. Due to the historical importance of this region, the entire country has historically been also referred to as Persia in the West.[10][11] Prior to caliphate rule, this region was known as Pars.[12]

Etymology

The Persian word Fârs (فارس), derived from the earlier form Pârs (پارس), which is in turn derived from Pârsâ (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿), the Old Persian name for the Persis region. The names Parsa and Persia originate from this region.[13]

Administrative divisions

Fars Province Population History
Administrative Divisions 2006[7] 2011[8] 2016[2]
Abadeh County 87,203 98,188 100,831
Arsanjan County 40,916 41,476 42,725
Bakhtegan County1
Bavanat County 44,069 48,416 50,418
Beyza County2
Darab County 172,938 189,345 201,489
Eqlid County 99,003 93,975 93,763
Estahban County 66,391 66,172 68,850
Evaz County3
Farashband County 38,679 42,760 45,459
Fasa County 188,189 203,129 205,187
Firuzabad County 111,973 119,721 121,417
Gerash County3 47,055 53,907
Jahrom County 197,331 209,312 228,532
Juyom County3
Kavar County4 77,836 83,883
Kazerun County 258,097 254,704 266,217
Khafr County5
Kherameh County4 61,580 54,864
Khonj County 37,978 41,133 41,359
Khorrambid County 44,669 50,252 50,522
Kuhchenar County6
Lamerd County 76,971 83,916 91,782
Larestan County 223,235 226,879 213,920
Mamasani County 162,694 116,386 117,527
Marvdasht County 294,621 307,492 323,434
Mohr County 54,094 59,727 64,827
Neyriz County 105,241 113,750 113,291
Pasargad County 29,825 31,504 30,118
Qir and Karzin County 61,432 65,045 71,203
Rostam County7 46,851 44,386
Sarchehan County8
Sarvestan County4 40,531 38,114
Sepidan County 87,801 89,398 91,049
Shiraz County 1,676,927 1,700,687 1,869,001
Zarqan County4
Zarrin Dasht County 60,444 69,438 73,199
Total 4,220,721 4,596,658 4,851,274
1Separated from Neyriz County
2Separated from Sepidan County
3Separated from Larestan County
4Separated from Shiraz County
5Separated from Jahrom County
6Separated from Kazerun County
7Separated from Mamasani County
8Separated from Bavanat County

Cities

According to the 2016 census, 3,401,675 people (over 70% of the population of Fars province) live in the following cities: Abadeh 59,116, Abadeh Tashk 7,379, Ahel 3,179, Alamarvdasht 4,068, Ardakan 14,633, Arsanjan 17,706, Asir 3,042, Bab Anar 7,061, Baba Monir 1,379, Bahman 7,568, Baladeh 5,972, Banaruiyeh 9,077, Beyram 7,300, Beyza 7,252, Darab 70,232, Darian 10,037, Dehram 3,468, Dezhkord 3,924, Do Borji 2,907, Dobiran 13,809, Duzeh 1,348, Efzar 2,657, Emad Deh 4,235, Emam Shahr 5,803, Eqlid 44,341, Eshkanan 9,115, Estahban 36,410, Evaz 19,987, Fadami 4,097, Farashband 20,320, Fasa 110,825, Firuzabad 65,417, Galleh Dar 13,448, Gerash 34,469, Hajjiabad 21,675, Hamashahr 3,852, Hasanabad 2,045, Hesami 3,131, Ij 6,246, Izadkhast 5,910, Jahrom 141,634, Jannat Shahr 13,598, Juyom 8,010, Kamfiruz 3,713, Karzin 8,841, Kavar 31,711, Kazerun 96,683, Khaneh Zenyan 4,027, Khaniman 3,020, Khavaran 4,332, Kherameh 18,477, Khesht 9,599, Khonj 19,217, Khumeh Zar 6,220, Khur 7,338, Khuzi 3,245, Konartakhteh 6,081, Korehi 3,954, Kuhenjan 3,281, Kupon 3,237, Lamerd 29,380, Lapui 8,985, Lar 62,045, Latifi 7,300, Madar-e Soleyman 1,546, Marvdasht 148,858, Masiri 9,031, Mazayjan 3,567, Meshkan 4,617, Meymand 10,120, Miyan Deh 5,912, Mobarakabad 4,707, Mohr 7,784, Neyriz 49,850, Now Bandegan 2,410, Nowdan 2,892, Nujin 3,769, Nurabad 57,058, Qaderabad 14,973, Qaemiyeh 26,918, Qarah Bulaq 6,772, Qatruyeh 2,895, Qir 20,010, Qotbabad 7,476, Ramjerd 2,550, Runiz 5,760, Saadat Shahr 17,131, Safashahr 26,933, Sarvestan 18,187, Sedeh 6,747, Seyyedan 8,574, Shahr-e Pir 8,927, Shahr-e Sadra 91,863, Sheshdeh 5,960, Shiraz 1,565,572, Soghad 12,582, Soltanabad 1,928, Surian 9,776, Surmaq 3,050, Varavi 4,622, Zahedshahr 9,719, and Zarqan 32,261.[2]

Most populous cities

The following sorted table lists the most populous cities in Fars according to the 2016 census results announced by the Statistical Center of Iran.[2]

Most populous urban areas in Fars Province

Shiraz
Shiraz
Marvdasht
Marvdasht

Rank City County Population

Jahrom
Jahrom
Fasa
Fasa

1 Shiraz Shiraz 1,565,572
2 Marvdasht Marvdasht 148,858
3 Jahrom Jahrom 141,634
4 Fasa Fasa 110,825
5 Kazerun Kazerun 96,683
6 Sadra Shiraz 91,863
7 Darab Darab 70,232
8 Firuzabad Firuzabad 65,417
9 Lar Larestan 62,045
10 Abadeh Abadeh 59,116

Demographics

The main ethnic group in the province consists of Persians (including Larestani people and the Basseri), while Qashqai, Lurs, Arabs, Kurds, Georgians, and Circassians constitute minorities.

Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulf, Fars has long been a residing area for various peoples and rulers of Iran. However, the tribes of Fars including, Mamasani Lurs, Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iran attracting many tourists. Kurdish tribes include Uriad, Zangana, Chegini, Kordshuli and Kuruni.[14]

Among the hundreds of thousands of Georgians and Circassians that were transplanted to Persia under Shah Abbas I, his predecessors, and successors, a certain amount of them were to guard the main caravan routes; many were settled around Āspās and other villages along the old Isfahan-Shiraz road. By now the vast majority Caucasians that were settled in Fars have lost their cultural, linguistic, and religious identity, having mostly being assimilated into the population.[14]

History

Persis

The ruins of Persepolis
A Sassanid relief showing the investiture of Ardashir I
Sarvestan Palace in Sarvestan

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the mid 6th century BC, at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in its far east.[15] The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, incorporating most of their vast empire. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established. However, it never extended its power in Fars beyond the main trade routes, and by the reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins.[16]

The Seleucid Empire was subsequently defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC, but by 205 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state.[17]

Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Parthian Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur I managed to expand their power over all of Persis.

The subsequent events are unclear. Following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. The sources tell us that in 222, Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.[citation needed]

At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur, modern day Firouzabad).[18] After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I rapidly extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene.

Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdegan, where Artabanus IV was killed. Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, and starting the virtually equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire, over an even larger territory, once again making Persia a leading power in the known world, only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents (the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire); the Byzantine Empire.

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years, until the Muslim armies conquered the empire. Afterwards, the Persians started to convert to Islam, this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam.

Persis then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each of which has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province, Iran, and West Asia. The ruins of Bishapur, Persepolis, and Firouzabad are all reminders of this. The Arab invaders brought about an end to centuries Zoroastrian political and cultural dominance over the region; supplanted as the faith of the ruling class in the 7th century by Islam, which and over the next 200 years gradually expanded to include a majority of the population.

Climate and wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The third region located in the south and southeast has cold winters with hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C.[19]

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants; consequently, variation of wildlife has been formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year.[20] Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade. The main native animals of the province are gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds. In the past, like in Khuzestan Plain, the Persian lion had occurred here.[21][22]

The province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones. The most important protected zones are:

  • Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located at the end of Boanat region.
  • Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh;
  • Bamu National Park, which is located north-east of Shiraz;
  • Estahban Forest Park (Parke Jangaly), which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain;
  • Hermoodlar Protected Zone, which is located east to Larestan.[20]

Arjan Meadow 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi) and Lake Parishan 40 km2 (15 sq mi) are designated Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention.

Eram Garden

Economy

Agriculture is of great importance in Fars.[23] The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton. Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill. Tourism is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arzhan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve. Shiraz, provincial capital of Fars, is the namesake of Shirazi wine. A large number of wine factories existed in the city.

Transportation

Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Jahrom, Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran to southern Iran.[citation needed]

Higher education

The Fars Province is home to many higher education institutes and universities. The main universities of the province include Shiraz University, Shiraz University of Arts, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,[24] Shiraz University of Technology, Jahrom University, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz, and Islamic Azad University of Jahrom.

Notable people

Tomb of Hafez
Tomb of Saadi
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (January 2014)

References

  1. ^ Amar. "توجه: تفاوت در سرجمع به دليل گرد شدن ارقام به رقم هزار مي باشد. (in Persian)". Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 07. Archived from the original (Excel) on 6 April 2022. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  3. ^ "پرتال سازمان ميراث فرهنگي، صنایع دستی و گردشگري > استانها > فارس > آداب و رسوم". 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  4. ^ "Luz | ISO 639-3".
  5. ^ Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 5.
  6. ^ "استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند" [The Provinces of the Country Were Divided Into 5 Regions]. Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
  7. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 07. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 07. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  9. ^ Austin, Peter (1 January 2008). One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520255609 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ a b Xavier de Planhol (24 January 2012). "FĀRS i. Geography". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. IX. pp. ?–336. The name of Fārs is undoubtedly attested in Assyrian sources since the third millennium B.C.E. under the form Parahše. Originally, it was the "land of horses" of the Sumerians (Herzfeld, pp. 181-82, 184-86). The name was adopted by Iranian tribes which established themselves there in the 9th century B.C.E. in the west and southwest of Urmia lake. The Parsua (Pārsa) are mentioned there for the first time in 843 B.C.E., during the reign of Salmanassar III, and then, after they migrated to the southeast (Boehmer, pp. 193-97), the name was transferred, between 690 and 640, to a region previously called Anšan (q.v.) in Elamite sources (Herzfeld, pp. 169-71, 178-79, 186). From that moment the name acquired the connotation of an ethnic region, the land of the Persians, and the Persians soon thereafter founded the vast Achaemenid empire. A never-ending confusion thus set in between a narrow, limited, geographical usage of the term—Persia in the sense of the land where the aforesaid Persian tribes had shaped the core of their power—and a broader, more general usage of the term to designate the much larger area affected by the political and cultural radiance of the Achaemenids. The confusion between the two senses of the word was continuous, fueled by the Greeks who used the name Persai to designate the entire empire. It lasted through the centuries of Arab domination, as Fārs, the term used by Muslims, was merely the Arabicized version of the initial name.
  11. ^ M. A. Dandamaev (1989). A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. BRILL. pp. 4–6. ISBN 9004091726.
  12. ^ Zargaran, Arman. "The City of Shiraz and Fars Province, the root of medical sciences in the history." (2012): 103-104.
  13. ^ Zangiabadi, A., and M. Akbari. "Assessment and Analysis of Development Indicator in Township of Fars Province." (2011): 113-122.
  14. ^ a b P. Oberling, "FĀRS vii. Ethnography", Encyclopaedia Iranica>"FĀRS vii. Ethnography". 31 May 2014.
  15. ^ Sacks, David; Murray, Oswyn; Brody, Lisa R. (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1.
  16. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 299
  17. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 302
  18. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. pp. 176–9. ISBN 9781846031083.
  19. ^ کشور, پورتال سازمان هواشناسی. "اقلیم استان فارس". www.irimo.ir. Archived from the original on 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
  20. ^ a b "Iran fars-shiraz". www.irantour.org. Archived from the original on 2017-12-19. Retrieved 2007-09-01.
  21. ^ Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
  22. ^ Firouz, E. (2005). The complete fauna of Iran. I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–67. ISBN 978-1-85043-946-2.
  23. ^ "Farmers' participation in agricultural development: The case of Fars province, Iran". www.indjst.org.
  24. ^ Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2013 Edition. Scholarly Editions. 2013. pp. 139–40. ISBN 9781490109169.

Bibliography

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Fars province
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