Fakr al-Din Shaddad b. Mahmud spent most of his reign in attempts to fend off the resurgent Georgians. To this end, he sought to forge a marital alliance with the Saltukids of Erzurum and even tried to sell them Ani, but he eventually defected the Saltukids to King Demetrius I of Georgia. A revolt in Ani forced Fakr al-Din Shaddad into exile in the Ayyubid state in Syria. He spent his last years, living near Ani, but without entertaining power. His successor was his brother, Fadl V.
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