For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Ewe language.

Ewe language

This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (January 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this message)
Ewe
Eʋegbe
Native toGhana, Togo, Benin
RegionSouthern Ghana east of the Volta River
Ethnicity3.9 million Ewe in Ghana (2021 census)[1]
Native speakers
5.0 million (2013–2019)[1]
Latin (Ewe alphabet)
Ewe Braille
Language codes
ISO 639-1ee
ISO 639-2ewe
ISO 639-3Variously:
ewe – Ewe
wci – Waci
kef – Kpesi
Glottologewee1241  Ewe
kpes1238  Kpessi
waci1239  Waci Gbe
ELPKpessi
Gbe languages. Ewe is in yellow.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
PersonEʋe
PeopleEʋeawó
LanguageEʋegbě
CountryEʋenyígbá

Ewe (Eʋe or Eʋegbe [ɛβɛɡ͡bɛ])[2] is a language spoken by approximately 5 million people in West Africa, mainly in Ghana and Togo.[1] Ewe is part of a group of related languages commonly called the Gbe languages. The other major Gbe language is Fon, which is mainly spoken in Benin. Like many African languages, Ewe is tonal as well as a possible member of the Niger-Congo family.

The German Africanist Diedrich Hermann Westermann published many dictionaries and grammars of Ewe and several other Gbe languages. Other linguists who have worked on Ewe and closely related languages include Gilbert Ansre (tone, syntax), Herbert Stahlke (morphology, tone), Nick Clements (tone, syntax), Roberto Pazzi (anthropology, lexicography), Felix K. Ameka (semantics, cognitive linguistics), Alan Stewart Duthie (semantics, phonetics), Hounkpati B. Capo (phonology, phonetics), Enoch Aboh (syntax), and Chris Collins (syntax).

Dialects

Some of the commonly named Ewe ('Vhe') dialects are Aŋlɔ, Tɔŋu (Tɔŋgu), Avenor, Agave people, Evedome, Awlan, Gbín, Pekí, Kpándo, Vhlin, Hó, Avɛ́no, Vo, Kpelen, Vɛ́, Danyi, Agu, Fodome, Wancé, Wací, Adángbe (Capo).

Ethnologue 16 considers Waci and Kpesi (Kpessi) to be distinct enough to be considered separate languages. They form a dialect continuum with Ewe and Gen (Mina), which share a mutual intelligibility level of 85%;[3] the Ewe varieties Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Kpesi, and Vhlin might be considered a third cluster of Western Gbe dialects between Ewe and Gen, but Kpesi is as close or closer to the Waci and Vo dialects, which remain in Ewe in that scenario. Waci intervenes geographically between Ewe proper and Gen; Kpesi forms a Gbe island in the Kabye area.

Ewe is itself a dialect cluster of the Gbe languages, which include Gen, Aja, and Xwla and are spoken from the southern part of Ghana to Togo, Benin and Western Nigeria. All Gbe languages share at least some intelligibility with one another. Some coastal and southern dialects of Ewe include Aŋlɔ, Tongu (Tɔŋu), Avenor, Dzodze, and Watsyi. Some inland dialects indigenously characterized as Ewedomegbe include: Ho, Kpedze, Hohoe, Peki, Kpando, Aveme, Liati, Fódome, Danyi, and Kpele. Though there are many classifications, distinct variations exist between towns that are just miles away from one another.[citation needed]

Phonology

Grace in Ewe (translation)

Consonants

Bilabial Labio
dental
Dental (Post-)
alveolar
Palatal Velar Labial-
velar
Glottal
Plosive voiceless p k k͡p
voiced m ~ b n ~ ɖ ŋ ~ ɡ ɡ͡b
Affricate voiceless t͡s
voiced d͡z
Fricative voiceless ɸ f s x
voiced β v z ɣ ~ ɰ ~ w ʁ ~ ʕ ~ ɦ
Approximant l ~ ɲ ~ j
Trill r
Tap (ɾ ~ ɾ̃)

H is a voiced fricative, which has also been described as uvular, [ʁ], pharyngeal, [ʕ], or glottal [ɦ].

/n/ is typically alveolar as [n̺], but can also be dental as [n̪].

The nasal consonants [m, n, ɲ, ŋ] are not distinctive since they appear before only nasal vowels; therefore, Ewe is sometimes said to have no nasal consonants. However, it is more economical to argue that nasal /m, n, ɲ, ŋ/ are the underlying form and so are denasalized before oral vowels.

[ɣ] occurs before unrounded (non-back) vowels and [w] before rounded (back) vowels.

Palatalization of alveolar consonants /t͡s, d͡z, s, z/ before a high-front vowel /i/ occur in the Southern dialect, and are heard as [t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, ʃ, ʒ].[4]

Ewe is one of the few languages known to contrast [f] vs. [ɸ] and [v] vs. [β]. The f and v are stronger than in most languages, [] and [], with the upper lip noticeably raised, and thus more distinctive from the rather weak [ɸ] and [β].[5]

/l/ may occur in consonant clusters. It becomes [ɾ] (or [ɾ̃]) after coronals.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i, ĩ u, ũ
Close-mid e, ə, ə̃ o, õ
Open-mid ɛ, ɛ̃ ɔ, ɔ̃
Open a, ã

The tilde (˜) marks nasal vowels, though the Peki dialect lacks /õ/. Many varieties of Ewe lack one or another of the front mid vowels, and some varieties in Ghana have the additional vowels /ə/ and /ə̃/.

Ewe does not have a nasal–oral contrast in consonants. It does, however, have a syllabic nasal, which varies as [m n ŋ], depending on the following consonant, and carries tone. Some authors treat it as a vowel, with the odd result that Ewe would have more nasal than oral vowels, and one of these vowels has no set place of articulation. If it is taken to be a consonant, there is the odd result of a single nasal consonant that cannot appear before vowels. If nasal consonants are taken to underlie [b ɖ ɡ], however, there is no such odd restriction, and the only difference from other consonants is that only nasal stops may be syllabic, a common pattern cross-linguistically.

Tones

Ewe is a tonal language. In a tonal language, pitch differences are used to distinguish one word from another. For example, in Ewe the following three words differ only by tone:

  • to ‘ ear’ (High tone)
  • to ‘report/gossip’(High tone)
  • to. ‘pound’ ( High tone)
  • tó 'mountain' (High tone)
  • tǒ 'mortar' (Rising tone)
  • tò 'buffalo' (Low tone)

Phonetically, there are three tone registers, High, Mid, and Low, and three rising and falling contour tones. However, most Ewe dialects have only two distinctive registers, High and Mid. These are depressed in nouns after voiced obstruents: High becomes Mid (or Rising), and Mid becomes Low. Mid is also realized as Low at the end of a phrase or utterance, as in the example 'buffalo' above.

In writing, tones are marked by acute accent, grave accent, caron, and circumflex. They may be used along with the tilde that marks nasal vowels.[6]

Pragmatics

Ewe has phrases of overt politeness, such as meɖekuku (meaning "please") and akpe (meaning "thank you").[7]

Orthography

The African Reference Alphabet is used when Ewe is represented orthographically, so the written version is somewhat like a combination of the Latin alphabet and the International Phonetic Alphabet.[6]

A a B b D d Ɖ ɖ Dz dz E e Ɛ ɛ F f Ƒ ƒ G g Gb gb Ɣ ɣ
/a/ /b/ /d/ /ɖ/ /d͡z/ /e/, /ə/ /ɛ/ /f/ /ɸ/ /ɡ/ /ɡ͡b/ /ɣ/
H h I i K k Kp kp L l M m N n Ny ny Ŋ ŋ O o Ɔ ɔ P p
/h/ /i/ /k/ /k͡p/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /p/
R r S s T t Ts ts U u V v Ʋ ʋ W w X x Y y Z z
/r/ /s/ /t/ /t͡s/ /u/ /v/ /β/ /w/ /x/ /j/ /z/

An "n" is placed after vowels to mark nasalization. Tone is generally unmarked, except in some common cases, which require disambiguation: the first person plural pronoun 'we' is marked high to distinguish it from the second person plural mi 'you', and the second person singular pronoun 'you' is marked low to distinguish it from the third person plural pronoun 'they/them'

  • ekpɔ wò [ɛ́k͡pɔ wò] — 'he saw you'
  • ekpɔ wo [ɛ́k͡pɔ wó] — 'he saw them'

Naming system

The Ewe use a system of giving the first name to a child, based on the day of the week that the child was born. That arises from a belief that the real name of a child can be determined only after the child has shown its character. However, as a child is a person, not an object, the child must be referred to by some name in the interim and so a name is provided based on the day of birth. A final name is given at a naming ceremony, seven days after the date of birth.

As a matter of pride in their heritage, especially since the 1970s, many educated Ewe, who were given Western names, have dropped those names formally/legally or informally and use their birthday name as their official name.

The Ewe birthday-naming system is as follows:

Day Male Name Female Name
Dzoɖagbe (Monday) Kɔdzo, Kwadzo (Kojo) Adzo, Adzowɔ
Braɖagbe, Blaɖagbe (Tuesday) Kɔmla, Kɔbla, Kwabla Abra, Abla, Brã
Kuɖagbe (Wednesday) Kɔku, Kwaku, Awuku Aku, Akuwɔ
Yawoɖagbe (Thursday) Yao, Yaw, Ayao, Kwawu Yawa, Awo, Yaa
Fiɖagbe (Friday) Kofi Afua, Afi, Afiwa, Afiwɔ
Memliɖagbe (Saturday) Kɔmi, Kwami Ama, Ami
Kɔsiɖagbe (Sunday) Kɔsi, Kwasi Akɔsia, Akɔsua, Esi, Awusi

Often, people are called by their birthday name most of the time; the given name being used only on formal documents. In such cases, children with the same birth name are delineated by suffixes: -gã meaning big, -vi meaning little. So for example, after the birth of another Kofi, the first child called Kofi becomes Kofigã, and the new child Kofi. A subsequent Kofi, would be Kofivi, or Kofitse, mostly among Wedome and Tɔngu Ewes. Sometimes, the renaming happens twice, as the second Kofi might have originally been called Kofivi, while the eldest retained Kofi, thereby necessitating that they both be renamed on the birth of a third Kofi.

Grammar

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2009)

Ewe is a subject–verb–object language.[4] The possessive precedes the head noun.[8] Adjectives, numerals, demonstratives and relative clauses follow the head noun. Ewe also has postpositions rather than prepositions.[2]

Ewe is well known as a language having logophoric pronouns. Such pronouns are used to refer to the source of a reported statement or thought in indirect discourse, and can disambiguate sentences that are ambiguous in most other languages. The following examples illustrate:

  • Kofi be e-dzo 'Kofi said he left' (he ≠ Kofi)
  • Kofi be yè-dzo 'Kofi said he left' (he = Kofi)

In the second sentence, yè is the logophoric pronoun.

Ewe also has a rich system of serial verb constructions.

There are also said to be tenses by Warburton (et al. 1968),[9] though most linguists stated that Ewe is an "aspect-prominent language".[10][11][12]

Status

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

Ewe is a national language in Togo and Ghana.[citation needed]

Literature

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2024)

Scholars have identified Amegbetoa alo Agbezuge fe nutinya by Sam J. Obianim as the first novel written in Ewe.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ewe at Ethnologue (27th ed., 2024) Closed access icon
    Waci at Ethnologue (27th ed., 2024) Closed access icon
    Kpesi at Ethnologue (27th ed., 2024) Closed access icon
  2. ^ a b Warburton, Irene; Kpotufe, Prosper; Glover, Roland Kori; Schneeberg, Nan (1968). Ewe Baisc Course (Revised ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: African Studies Program, Indiana University. p. 243.
  3. ^ N'buéké Adovi Goeh-Akué, 2009. Les états-nations face à l'intégration régionale en Afrique de l'ouest
  4. ^ a b Ameka, Felix K. (1991). Ewe: Its Grammatical Constructions and Illocutionary Devices. Australian National University: Sydney.
  5. ^ Venda also has the distinction, but in that case, [ɸ] and [β] are slightly rounded, rather than [f] and [v] being raised. (Hardcastle & Laver, The handbook of phonetic sciences, 1999:595)
  6. ^ a b Jim-Fugar, Kodzo Nusetor; Jim-Fugar, Nicholine (2017). Nuseline's Ewe-English Dictionary. Independently published. p. 5. ISBN 978-1521040188.
  7. ^ Translations of "please" and "thank you" from Omniglot.com
    Simon Ager (2015). "Useful Ewe phrases". Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  8. ^ Westermann, Diedrich. (1930). A study of the Ewe language. London: Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ Warburton, Irene; Kpotufe, Prosper; Glover, Roland Kori; Schneeberg, Nan (1968). Ewe Baisc Course (Revised ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: African Studies Program, Indiana University. pp. 56–86.
  10. ^ Gbegble, Nada; Nuyts, Jan (2012). The expression of epistemic modality in Ewe. Africana Linguistica.
  11. ^ Nurse, Derek. Ewe. pp. 3–5.
  12. ^ Ameka, Felix K. (2008). Aspect and modality in Ewe: a survey.
  13. ^ Amegbleame, Simon Agbeko (2007). "Amegbetoa alo Agbezuge le nutinya de sam obianim (éwé, 1949) : une quête exaltée de l'humain". L'effet roman: Arrivée du roman dans les langues d'Afrique (in French). Editions L'Harmattan. pp. 167–179. ISBN 9782296165021.

General sources

  • Ansre, Gilbert (1961) The Tonal Structure of Ewe. MA thesis, Kennedy School of Missions of Hartford Seminary Foundation.
  • Ameka, Felix Kofi (2001). "Ewe". In Garry and Rubino (eds.), Fact About the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present. New York/Dublin: The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 207–213.
  • Clements, George N. (1975). "The logophoric pronoun in Ewe: Its role in discourse". Journal of West African Languages. 10(2): 141–177.
  • Collins, Chris. (1993) Topics in Ewe Syntax. Doctoral Dissertation, MIT.
  • Capo, Hounkpati B. C. (1991). A Comparative Phonology of Gbe, Publications in African Languages and Linguistics, 14. Berlin/New York: Foris Publications & Garome, Bénin: Labo Gbe (Int).
  • Pasch, Helma (1995). Kurzgrammatik des Ewe. Köln: Köppe.
  • Westermann, Diedrich Hermann (1930). A Study of the Ewe Language. London: Oxford University Press.
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Ewe language
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?