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Cepaea nemoralis
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Heterobranchia
Subcohort: Panpulmonata
Superorder: Eupulmonata
Haszprunar & Huber, 1990

clade Systellommatophora
clade Stylommatophora

Eupulmonata is a taxonomic clade of air-breathing gastropod molluscs. The great majority of this group are land snails and slugs, but some are intertidal or inhabit coastal saltmarshes and mangroves.

Possible synapomorphy of the group are globineurons (small cells) in the procerebrum.[1]

Eyes positioned on the tips of the tentacles were considered a synapomorphy of a clade named Geophila (Stylommatophora + Systellommatophora), but a 1972 phylogenomic study found strong support for a clade uniting Ellobioidea (eyes at the base of tentacles) and Systelommatopohra (eyes on the tentacle tips). Stalked eyes thus likely evolved twice independently.[1]




  1. ^ a b c Krug, Patrick J.; Caplins, Serena A.; Algoso, Krisha; Thomas, Kanique; Valdés, Ángel A.; Wade, Rachael; Wong, Nur Leena W. S.; Eernisse, Douglas J.; Kocot, Kevin M. (2022-04-13). "Phylogenomic resolution of the root of Panpulmonata, a hyperdiverse radiation of gastropods: new insight into the evolution of air breathing". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 289 (1972). doi:10.1098/rspb.2021.1855. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 8984808. PMID 35382597.
  2. ^ Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Kaim, Andrzej; Kano, Yasunori; Nützel, Alexander; Parkhaev, Pavel; Schrödl, Michael; Strong, Ellen E. (2017). "Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families". Malacologia. 61 (1–2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201. ISSN 0076-2997. S2CID 91051256.
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