For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Eritrean–Ethiopian War.

Eritrean–Ethiopian War

Eritrean–Ethiopian War
Part of the Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict

Map of the disputed territories on the Eritrea–Ethiopia border where vast majority of the fighting took place
Date6 May 1998 – 18 June 2000
(2 years, 1 month, 1 week and 5 days)

Ethiopian military victory[1][2][3][4]
Eritrean diplomatic victory[5][6][7]

Final and binding border delimitation by the International Court of Arbitration[11]
 Eritrea  Ethiopia
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
Eritrea 200,000–
Ethiopia 300,000–350,000[17]
Casualties and losses

19,000[18]–67,000 killed[19]
2,600 captured[20]
4 MiG-29s[21][22]
1 Aermacchi MB-339[23]

Other estimates:
150,000 killed[24][25]

34,000[19]–60,000 killed[26]
1,100 captured[27]
3 MiG-21s
1 MiG-23
1 Su-25
2+ Mi-35s[28]

Other estimates:
123,000 killed[29][30]

The Eritrean–Ethiopian War,[a] also known as the Badme War,[b] was a major armed conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea that took place from May 1998 to June 2000.

After Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia in 1993, relations were initially friendly. However, disagreements about where the newly created international border should be caused relations to deteriorate significantly, eventually leading to full-scale war.[10][34] According to a 2005 ruling by an international commission, Eritrea broke international law and triggered the war by invading Ethiopia.[35] By 2000, Ethiopia held all of the disputed territory and had advanced into Eritrea.[36] The war officially came to an end with the signing of the Algiers Agreement on 12 December 2000;[37] however, the ensuing border conflict would continue on for nearly two decades.

Eritrea and Ethiopia both spent considerable amount of their revenue and wealth on the armament ahead of the war, and reportedly suffered between 70,000–300,000 deaths combined as a direct consequence thereof, excluding an indeterminate number of refugees.[32][38][39][17] The conflict ultimately led to minor border changes through final binding border delimitation overseen by the Permanent Court of Arbitration.

After the war ended, the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission, a body established by the Algiers Agreement, concluded that Badme, the disputed territory at the heart of the conflict, belongs to Eritrea.[40] On 5 June 2018, the ruling coalition of Ethiopia, headed by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed, agreed to fully implement the peace treaty signed with Eritrea in 2000,[41] with peace declared by both parties in July 2018, twenty years after the initial confrontation.[10]


From 1961 until 1991, Eritrea fought a long war of independence against Ethiopia; during this period, the Ethiopian Civil War also began on 12 September 1974, when the Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie. Both conflicts lasted until 1991 when the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) – a coalition of rebel groups led by the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) – overthrew the Derg government, and installed a transitional government in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa. During the civil war, the groups fighting the Derg government had a common enemy, so the TPLF allied itself with the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF).[42]

In 1991, as part of the United Nations-facilitated transition of power, it was agreed that the EPLF should set up an autonomous transitional government in Eritrea and organize a referendum. This referendum was held in April 1993, and the vote was overwhelmingly in favour of independence, leading to the establishment of a new state joining the United Nations.[12][43][44] Also in 1991, the transitional government of Eritrea and the TPLF-led transitional government of Ethiopia agreed to set up a commission, to look into any problems that arose between the two former wartime allies over the foreseen independence of Eritrea.[45] This commission was not successful, and during the following years relations between the governments of the two sovereign states deteriorated.[43] Eritrea soon began a practice of forcibly expelling Ethiopians from its territory. As early as 1991, about 30,000 wives and children of Ethiopian soldiers stationed in Eritrea were bused by Eritrean forces across the border, and crowded into camps in Adigrat, Adwa and Axum, with the EPLF telling relief officials to expect 150,000 more Ethiopian civilians. Reportedly, many of the deportees were people who were being dismissed from their jobs, some of them longtime residents of Eritrea.[46]

Determining the border between the two states also became a major source of conflict. In November 1997, a committee was set up to try to resolve it. Before Eritrean independence, the border had been of minor importance, as it was only a demarcation line between federated provinces, and initially, the two governments tacitly agreed that the border should remain as it had been immediately before independence. Upon independence, however, the border became an international frontier, and the two governments could not agree on where, specifically, the border should be demarcated;[43] they looked back to colonial-era treaties between the Italian Empire and Ethiopia as a basis for the precise boundaries between the states. Problems then arose, because they could not agree on the interpretation of those agreements and treaties,[47] and it was not clear, under international law, how binding colonial treaties were on the two states.[48][49]


Writing after the war had finished, Jon Abbink postulated that President Isaias Afewerki of Eritrea realised that his influence over the government in Ethiopia was slipping, and "in the absence of a concrete border being marked," calculated that Eritrea could annex Badme.[50][51] If successful, this acquisition could have been used to enhance his reputation and help maintain Eritrea's privileged economic relationship with Ethiopia. However, because Badme was in Tigray Province – the region from which many of the members of the Ethiopian government originated (including Meles Zenawi, the Ethiopian prime minister) – the Ethiopian government came under political pressure from within the EPRDF, as well as from the wider Ethiopian public, to meet force with force.[50]



6 May 1998 – 22 February 1999

After a series of armed incidents in which several Eritrean officials were killed near Badme,[52] on 6 May 1998,[53] a large Eritrean mechanized force entered the Badme region along the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia's northern Tigray Region, resulting in a firefight between the Eritrean soldiers and a Tigrayan militia and Ethiopian police they encountered.[52][54][55] On 13 May 1998, Ethiopia, in what Eritrean radio described as a "total war" policy, mobilized its forces for a full assault against Eritrea.[56] The Claims Commission found that this was, in essence, an affirmation of the existence of a state of war between belligerents, not a declaration of war, and that Ethiopia also notified the United Nations Security Council, as required under Article 51 of the UN Charter.[57]

The fighting quickly escalated to exchanges of artillery and tank fire, leading to four weeks of intense fighting. Ground troops fought on three fronts. On 5 June 1998, the Eritrean Air Force attacked an elementary school in Mekelle that killed 49 of the students and their parents and the neighbors that came to help immediately.[58] Four more people died after reaching hospital. The victims ranged from a three-month-old baby to a 65-year-old man.[58] The Ethiopian Air Force launched air attacks on the airport in Asmara as a retaliation. Eritreans also attacked the airport of Mekele. These raids caused civilian casualties and deaths on both sides of the border.[59][60][61] The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1177 condemning the use of force and welcomed statements from both sides to end the air strikes.

There was then a lull as both sides mobilized huge forces along their common border and dug extensive trenches.[62] Both countries spent several hundred million dollars on new military equipment.[63] This was despite the peace mediation efforts by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and a US/Rwanda peace plan that was in the works. The US/Rwanda proposal was a four-point peace plan that called for withdrawal of both forces to pre-June 1998 positions. Eritrea refused, and instead demanded the demilitarization of all disputed areas along the common border, to be overseen by a neutral monitoring force, and direct talks.[64][65]

A small Eritrean village in the 2000s.

22 February 1999 – 12 May 2000

With Eritrea's refusal to accept the US/Rwanda peace plan, on 22 February 1999, Ethiopia launched a massive military offensive to recapture Badme. Tension had been high since 6 February 1999, when Ethiopia claimed that Eritrea had violated the moratorium on air raids by bombing Adigrat, a claim it later withdrew.[66][unreliable source?] Surveying the extensive trenches the Eritreans had constructed, Ethiopian General Samora Yunis observed, "The Eritreans are good at digging trenches and we are good at converting trenches into graves. They, too, know this. We know each other very well".[67]

Ethiopia's offensive, codenamed Operation Sunset, began with an air attack on Assab airport by four Ethiopian fighter jets, followed by a massive artillery barrage against Eritrean positions on the Tsorona front, which was meant as a diversion to make the Eritreans prepare for an Ethiopian offensive against eastern or southern Eritrea. The following day, the Ethiopian ground attack began. Three Ethiopian divisions broke through the Eritrean defenses in the Biyukundi area and then advanced toward Dukambiya, 20 kilometers southeast of Barentu, before turning east and hitting an Eritrean division north of Badme in the flank, taking the Eritreans by surprise. The Eritrean division was almost totally destroyed and the Ethiopians continued their advance toward Dukambiya. Realizing that they were about to be cut off, the remaining Eritrean units deployed in the Badme area hastily retreated, abandoning nearly 100 kilometers of fortifications and most of their heavy weapons. Ethiopian helicopter gunships attacked the fleeing Eritreans with rockets.[68]

After five days of heavy fighting, Ethiopian forces were 10 kilometers (six miles) deep into Eritrean territory. Eritrea accepted the OAU peace plan on 27 February 1999.[69][70] While both states said that they accepted the OAU peace plan, Ethiopia did not immediately stop its advance, because it demanded that peace talks be contingent on an Eritrean withdrawal from territory occupied since the first outbreak of fighting.[71] The widespread use of trench warfare by both sides resulted in comparisons of the conflict to the trench warfare of World War I.[62] According to some reports, trench warfare led to the loss of "thousands of young lives in human-wave assaults on Eritrea's positions".[72]

On 16 May, the BBC reported that, after a lull of two weeks, the Ethiopians had attacked at Velessa on the Tsorona front-line, south of Eritrea's capital Asmara and that after two days of heavy fighting, the Eritreans had beaten back the attack, claiming to have destroyed more than 45 Ethiopian tanks; although not able to verify the claim, which the Ethiopian Government dismissed as ridiculous, a BBC reporter did see more than 300 dead Ethiopians and more than 20 destroyed Ethiopian tanks.[73] In June 1999, the fighting continued with both sides in entrenched positions.[74]

12 May – 18 June 2000

Proximity talks broke down in early May 2000, with Ethiopia accusing Eritrea of imposing "unacceptable conditions."[75][76] On 12 May, Ethiopia launched a massive combined arms offensive on multiple fronts involving four armored divisions and 22 infantry divisions, extensive artillery and close air support. The Ethiopians used pack animals such as donkeys for logistical support for their infantry, and, due to their cumbersome logistical chain, primarily relied on infantry assaults to capture Eritrean positions. They held their tanks in reserve, then brought them forward to secure positions captured by the infantry. Ethiopian forces initially struggled to exploit the gaps they had torn in the Eritrean positions, often at great cost in frontal assaults against Eritrean trenches.[77][78] The Ethiopians broke through the Eritrean lines between Shambuko and Mendefera, crossed the Mareb River, and cut the road between Barentu and Mendefera, the main supply line for Eritrean troops on the western front of the fighting.[79][80]

Ethiopian sources stated that on 16 May, Ethiopian aircraft attacked targets between Areza and Maidema, and between Barentu and Omhajer, and that all aircraft returned to base, while heavy ground fighting continued in the Da'se and Barentu area and in Maidema. The next day, Ethiopian ground forces (with air support) captured Da'se. Barentu was taken in a surprise Ethiopian pincer movement on the Western front. The Ethiopians attacked a mined but lightly defended mountain, resulting in the capture of Barentu and an Eritrean retreat.[78] Fighting also continued in Maidema.[81] Also on 17 May, due to the continuing hostilities, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1298 imposing an arms embargo on both countries.[82]

By 23 May, Ethiopia claimed that its "troops had seized vital command posts in the heavily defended Zalambessa area, about 100 km (60 mi) south of the Eritrean capital, Asmara".[76] But the Eritreans claimed they withdrew from the disputed border town of Zalambessa and other disputed areas on the central front as a "'goodwill' gesture to revive peace talks"[83] and claimed it was a 'tactical retreat' to take away one of Ethiopia's last remaining excuses for continuing the war;[84] a report from Chatham House observes, "the scale of Eritrean defeat was apparent when Eritrea unexpectedly accepted the OAU peace framework."[85] Having recaptured most of the contested territories – and having learned that the Eritrean government would withdraw from any other territories it occupied at the start of the conflict, in accordance with a request from the OAU – Ethiopia declared the war was over on 25 May 2000.[3][86][87]

Cessation of hostilities

On 18 June 2000, the parties agreed to a comprehensive peace agreement and binding arbitration of their disputes under the Algiers Agreement. On 31 July 2000, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1312 and a 25-kilometer-wide Temporary Security Zone (TSZ) was established within Eritrea, patrolled by the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) from over 60 countries. On 12 December 2000 a peace agreement was signed by the two governments.[37]


Destroyed BM-21 Grad on the Dahlak Archipelago


Eritrea officially claimed that 19,000 Eritrean soldiers were killed during the conflict;[88] Ethiopia claims to have lost between 34,000–60,000 and killed up to 67,000 Eritrean soldiers.[19][26] Meanwhile, Voice of the Democratic Path of Ethiopian Unity, a clandestine political opposition group, alleged that 123,000 Ethiopians were killed,[29] while other reports place the number of Eritrean deaths at around 150,000.[17] Most international reports put the total war casualties from both sides as being around 70,000,[89] but some analysts within the region suggested that the overall death toll may have been as high as 300,000.[17] All these figures have been contested, and other news reports simply state that "tens of thousands" or "as many as 100,000" were killed in the war.[33][39]

War conduct

Eritrea accused Ethiopia of using "human waves" to defeat Eritrean trenches. But according to a report by The Independent, there were no "human waves" because Ethiopian troops instead outmanoeuvred and overpowered the Eritrean trenches.[90]

War crimes

Displacement, abuse and torture

The fighting led to massive internal displacement in both countries as civilians fled the war zone – by the end of May 2000, Ethiopia occupied about a quarter of Eritrea's territory, displacing 650,000 people, and destroying key components of Eritrea's infrastructure.[91]

The Eritrean government forcibly expelled an estimated 70,000 Ethiopians according to the report by Human rights Watch.[92] Ethiopia expelled 77,000 Eritreans and Ethiopians of Eritrean origin it deemed a security risk, thus compounding Eritrea's refugee problem.[93][94][95] The majority of those were considered well off by the Ethiopian standard of living. They were deported after their belongings had been confiscated.[96] Ethiopians living in Eritrea were interned, and thousands of others were deported. After the retaliatory bombings of Asmara Airport by Ethiopia on 5 and 6 June 1998, many Ethiopians working in Eritrean towns were sacked, apparently as a reprisal, and subsequently lost their rented housing through losing their means of income or, in some cases, by being evicted for being Ethiopian. Many Ethiopians were forced to sleep on the streets outside the Ethiopian embassy in Asmara, in church compounds or elsewhere according to a report by Amnesty International. In July 1998, Ethiopia alleged that up to 60 Ethiopians had died in Assab after being locked in a shipping container by the Eritrean police in daytime temperatures of over 40C.[97] According to Human Rights Watch, detainees on both sides were subject in some cases to torture, rape, or other degrading treatment.[98] This was believed to be a continuation of the 1991–93 expulsions of 125,000 Ethiopians from Eritrean territory.[99]

Use of child soldiers

According to the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, there were "credible reports" that the Ethiopian armed forces used thousands of children during the war:

Testimonies of former child soldiers, NGOs and journalists provide evidence of child deployment on the front lines and in massive waves across mine fields... Recruitment reportedly focused on Oromos and Somalis... and on grades 9 to 12 of secondary schools.[100]

Children were also forcibly recruited in groups from public places. The lack of a functioning birth registration system has made it difficult to estimate the number of children affected, but it is clear that the use of children was widespread; for example, most Ethiopian prisoners of war in one large POW camp in Eritrea were estimated to be aged 14–18.[101]

Economic disruption

The economies of both countries were already weak as a result of decades of cold-war politics, colonialism, civil war and drought. The war exacerbated these problems, resulting in food shortages. Prior to the war, much of Eritrea's trade was with Ethiopia, and much of Ethiopia's foreign trade relied on Eritrean roads and ports.[102] According to former Eritrean official Fathi Osman, Eritrea attempted to alleviate its money problems by issuing war bonds to the Eritrean diaspora, as they lacked other means to fund their military operations.[103]

Ethiopia engaged in a 6-year long disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme for the over 148,000 veterans who fought in the war. In total, the programme cost $174 million; the Ethiopian government could only pay around $3.1 million themselves, and had to pay the rest back with a $170 million loan from the World Bank.[104][105]

Regional destabilization

The fighting also spread to Somalia as both governments tried to outflank one another. The Eritrean government began supporting the Oromo Liberation Front,[93] a rebel group seeking independence of Oromia from Ethiopia that was based in a part of Somalia controlled by Mohamed Farrah Aidid.[106] Ethiopia retaliated by supporting groups in southern Somalia who were opposed to Aidid, and by renewing relations with the Islamic regime in Sudan—which is accused of supporting the Eritrean Islamic Salvation, a Sudan-based group that had launched attacks in the Eritrea–Sudan border region—while also lending support to various Eritrean rebel groups including a group known as the Eritrean Islamic Jihad.[107][108]


Continued tensions

On 14 April 2002, the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission that was established under the Algiers Agreement in collaboration with Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague agreed upon a "final and binding" verdict. The ruling awarded some territory to each side, but Badme (the flash point of the conflict) was awarded to Eritrea.[109][110] Martin Pratt writes:

"However, as it became clear that the boundary identified by the commission placed the village of Badme inside Eritrea, satisfaction gave way to triumphalism within Eritrea and dismay within Ethiopia. Despite its tiny size and lack of any apparent strategic or economic value, Badme—the location of the spark that ignited the conflagration—had taken on great symbolic significance over the course of the war; previous research (Hensel and Mitchell, 2005) indicates that symbolically valued territory may be especially prone to violent conflict. For many people in both countries, Badme's fate became the primary indicator of whether the enormous loss of life during the fighting had been justified."[111]

See also


  1. ^ Tigrinya: ውግእ ኤርትራ ኢትዮጵያ
    Amharic: የኤርትራ የኢትዮጵያ ጦርነት
  2. ^ Tigrinya: ውግእ ባድመ
    Amharic: የባድሜ ጦርነት


  1. ^ Maasho, Aaron (6 June 2018). "Ethiopia's PM says ending war, expanding economic links with Eritrea key for regional stability". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  2. ^ Solomon, Salem (8 June 2018). "Ethiopia's Move to End Border Stalemate Could Bring Change in Eritrea". VOA. Voice of America. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b BBC staff (31 May 2000). "Ethiopia says 'war is over'". BBC.
  4. ^ Adar, Korwa; Schraeder, Peter (2007), Globalization and Emerging Trends in African Foreign Policy: A Comparative Perspective of Eastern Africa, University Press of America, p. 62
  5. ^ Abbink 2003.
  6. ^ Zewde, Bahru (2011). "History and conflict in Africa: The experience of Ethiopia-Eritrea and Rwanda". Rassegna di Studi Etiopici. 3 (46): 27–39. JSTOR 23622762.
  7. ^ Lata, Leenco (2003). "The Ethiopia-Eritrea War". Review of African Political Economy. 30 (97): 369–388. doi:10.1080/03056244.2003.9659772. JSTOR 4006982. S2CID 219713933.
  8. ^ Abbink 2003, pp. 221–231.
  9. ^ "Ethiopia and Eritrea - UNMEE - Background". United Nations. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Elwazer, Schams; Busari, Stephanie (9 July 2018). "Former sworn enemies Ethiopia and Eritrea have declared end of war". CNN. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Decision regarding delimitation of the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia" (PDF). Un - Reports of International Arbitral Awards. XXV: 83–195. 13 April 2002.
  12. ^ a b c Abbink 2003, p. 221.
  13. ^ David Hamilton Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. The Scarecrow Press, inc.: Lanham, Maryland; Toronto; Oxford, 2004, pp. 387–8.
  14. ^ Fantahun, Arefaynie (7 June 2018). "Seare Mekonnen Named Ethiopian Military's Chief of Staff". Ethiopia Observer. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  15. ^ Giorgis, Andebrhan Welde (2014). Eritrea at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope. Strategic Book Publishing & Rights Agency, LLC. p. 526. ISBN 978-1628573312. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  16. ^ [13][14][15]
  17. ^ a b c d e f "Former U.S. Ambassador: Eritrea and Ethiopia Unlikely To Resume War". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  18. ^ Claimed by President Isaias Afeworki, 2001. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p.149
  19. ^ a b c Claimed by Chief of Staffs Tsadkan Gebretensae. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149.
  20. ^ Murphy, Sean D. Litigating War: Mass Civil Injury and the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission. p. 840.
  21. ^ Rozin, Igor (14 January 2022). "How Flankers fought Fulcrums in the skies over Africa". Russia Beyond. Archived from the original on 16 January 2022.
  22. ^ "MiG-29 vs. Su-27: The Soviet Union's Two Top Fighters Went Head to Head in an East African Air War". Military Watch. 5 February 2022. Archived from the original on 26 August 2022.
  23. ^ "Air War between Ethiopia and Eritrea, 1998-2000". Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  24. ^ "Former U.S. Ambassador: Eritrea and Ethiopia Unlikely To Resume War". Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013. Eritrea, which initiated the war with around 300000 troops, suffered several defeats as Ethiopia captured Barentu and a third of Eritrean territory. Accordingly, some claim Eritrea might have lost up to 150,000 troops as its remaining forces were cornered near the capital city Asmara
  25. ^ Banks, Arthur; Muller, Thomas; and Overstreet, William, ed. Political Handbook of the World 2005–6 (A Division of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.: Washington, D.C., 2005), p.366. 156802952-7
  26. ^ a b Claimed by Major General Samora Yunis. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149.
  27. ^ Murphy, Sean D. Litigating War: Mass Civil Injury and the Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission. p. 877.
  28. ^ "That time Flankers fought Fulcrums over Africa". 4 February 2020.
  29. ^ a b Claimed on 8 April 2002 by the Voice of the Democratic Path of Ethiopian Unity, an Ethiopian clandestine opposition group operating from Germany. The claim also stated that each family that lost a member in the war would receive $350 in indemnity, but this number has not been verified, although it has been often cited by other groups (see Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000 Archived 25 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine – internet news message; and Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine audio button Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine), and no indemnities have been paid as of 2007. Shinn, Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, p. 149
  30. ^ "Ethiopia: Number of war dead soldiers reportedly 123,000" (in Amharic). Wonchif. 10 April 2001.
  31. ^ "UCDP - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  32. ^ a b Gebreselassie, Elias (9 July 2019). "Between peace and uncertainty after Ethiopia-Eritrea deal". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 August 2022. It was the start of a two-year war between Ethiopia and Eritrea that killed an estimated 70,000 people from both sides.
  33. ^ a b "Ethiopia: Nation on verge of war with Eritrea, report says". Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
  34. ^ Winfield, Nicole (13 May 2000). "UN hints at sanctions if Eritrea and Ethiopia do not end fighting". The Independent. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009.
  35. ^ "International commission: Eritrea triggered the border war with Ethiopia". BBC News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  36. ^ England, Andrew (18 May 2000). "500,000 flee as Ethiopian troops storm Eritrea". The Independent. Associated Press.[dead link]
  37. ^ a b "Horn peace deal: Full text". BBC News. 11 December 2000. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2021.((cite news)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  38. ^ "Ethiopia rejects war criticism". BBC News. 14 April 2000. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  39. ^ a b Tens of thousands Eritrea: Final deal with Ethiopia BBC 4 December 2000
  40. ^ "Report of the Secretary-General on Ethiopia and Eritrea". United Nations. 2005. Annex I. Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission – Sixteenth report on the work of the Commission, p. 5 § 20. S/2005/142. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  41. ^ Schemm, Paul (5 June 2018). "Ethiopia says it is ready to implement Eritrea peace deal and privatize parts of the economy". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  42. ^ Valentino, Benjamin A. (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press. p. 196. ISBN 0801472733.
  43. ^ a b c Briggs, Philip; Blatt, Brian (2009). Ethiopia. Bradt Guides (5, illustrated ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 28, 29. ISBN 978-1-84162-284-2.
  44. ^ "Eritrea profile: A chronology of key events". BBC. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  45. ^ Tesfai, Alemseged. "The Cause of the Eritrean–Ethiopian Border Conflict". Retrieved 2 August 2006.
  46. ^ Perlez, Jane (22 July 1991). "Ethiopia Troops Battle to Survive Misery of Peace". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  47. ^ Mussie, Tesfagiorgis G. (2010). "Eritrean colonial boundaries". Eritrea. Africa in Focus (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-59884-231-9.
  48. ^ Shapland, Greg (1997). Rivers of discord: international water disputes in the Middle East. C. Hurst & Co. p. 71. ISBN 1-85065-214-7.
  49. ^ Degefu, Gebre Tsadik (2003). The Nile: Historical, Legal and Developmental Perspectives (illustrated ed.). Trafford Publishing. pp. 94–99. ISBN 1-4120-0056-4.
  50. ^ a b Abbink 2003, p. 221,226.
  51. ^ "Issaias believed that Meles was weak and that war would result in his overthrow. He was wrong." (Dowden, Richard (2 June 2000). "There are no winners in this insane and destructive war". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.)
  52. ^ a b Connell, Dan (2 October 2005). Woods, Emira (ed.). "Eritrea/Ethiopia War Looms". Foreign Policy in Focus.
  53. ^ Hans van der Splinter. "Border conflict with Ethiopia". Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  54. ^ Dowden, Richard (2 June 2000). "There are no winners in this insane and destructive war". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008.
  55. ^ The Eritreans describe the start of the war thus: "after a series of armed incidents during which several Eritrean officials were murdered near the disputed village of Badme, Ethiopia declared total war as on 13 May and mobilized its armed forces for a full-scale assault on Eritrea." (Staff. "history". Embassy of the State of Eritrea, New Delhi, India. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015.)
  56. ^ BBC staff (6 June 1998). "World: Africa Eritrea: 'Ethiopia pursues total war'". BBC Monitoring service.
  57. ^ "A commentary on Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission findings". Archived from the original on 9 October 2007.
  58. ^ a b Vick, Karl (8 June 1998). "SCHOOL ATTACK SHOCKS ETHIOPIANS". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
  59. ^ Ethiopia's War on Eritrea. Asmara: Sabur Printing Services. 1999.[page needed]
  60. ^ "Lords Hansard text for 30 Nov 1999 (191130-16)". Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  61. ^ Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission. "PARTIAL AWARD Central Front - Ethiopia's Claim 2". "J. Aerial Bombardment of Mekele" Paragraphs 101–113. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014.
  62. ^ a b Biles, Peter (20 May 2000). "Ethiopia's push north". BBC.
  63. ^ "Will arms ban slow war?". BBC News. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  64. ^ IRIN. "Ethiopia-Eritrea: New peace efforts amid claims of civilian abuses". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  65. ^ "HRW World Report 1999: Ethiopia: The Role of the International Community". Archived from the original on 14 November 2008.
  66. ^ Visafric (7 February 1999). "Ethiopian Leader admits allegation of Eritrean air strike based 'on wrong information'". Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  67. ^ Tareke, Gebru (2009). The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa. New Haven: Yale University. p. 345. ISBN 978-0-300-14163-4.
  68. ^ Cooper, Tom; Fontanellaz, Adrien (31 July 2018). Ethiopian-Eritrean Wars. Volume 2: Eritrean War of Independence, 1988-1991 & Badme War, 1998-2001. Helion and Company. ISBN 9781913118358.
  69. ^ BBC staff (1 March 1999). "Ethiopia declares victory". BBC.
  70. ^ "Eritrea accepts peace deal after Ethiopian incursion". CNN. 27 February 1999. Archived from the original on 26 January 2005.
  71. ^ BBC staff (15 July 1999). "World: Africa Ethiopian-Eritrean war of words continues". BBC World Service.
  72. ^ Fisher, Ian (23 August 1999). "Peace Deal May Be Near for Ethiopia and Eritrea". New York Times.
  73. ^ Last, Alex (16 March 1999). "World: Africa Hundreds killed in Horn". BBC.
  74. ^ Laeke, Mariam Demassie (23 July 1999). "Touring the Ethiopian front". BBC.
  75. ^ Pearce, Justin (12 May 2000). "Diplomats fail to bridge the gap". BBC News.
  76. ^ a b BBC staff (23 May 2000). "Ethiopia says war nearly over". BBC.
  77. ^ Lyall, Jason (11 February 2020). Divided Armies: Inequality and Battlefield Performance in Modern War. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691194158.
  78. ^ a b Bond, Catherine (22 May 2000). "Eritrean independence celebrations muted as Ethiopian troops advance". Contributions from the Associated Press and Reuters. CNN. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008.
  79. ^ Gilkes, Patrick (19 May 2000). "Ethiopia's war strategy". BBC.
  80. ^ Lortan, Fiona (2000). "The Ethiopia-Eritrea Conflict: A Fragile Peace". African Security Review. 9 (4). Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
  81. ^ "Ethiopia and Eritrea Border Conflict". London: Embassy of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
  82. ^ "UN SC Resolution 1298". United Nations. 17 May 2000. S/RES/1298(2000). Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  83. ^ Hannan, Lucy (27 May 2000). "Stubborn Eritrea denies defeat but seeks peace". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 February 2001.
  84. ^ Last, Alex (26 May 2000). "Eritrea's 'tactical retreat'". BBC.
  85. ^ Plaut, Martin; Gilkes, Patrick (31 March 1999). "Conflict in the Horn: Why Eritrea and Ethiopia are at War". ReliefWeb. Chatham House.
  86. ^ BBC staff (1 June 2000). "Ethiopia's victory statement". BBC world monitoring service.
  87. ^ Tran, Mark (25 May 2000). "Ethiopia declares victory over Eritrea". he Guardian Unlimited.
  88. ^ Eritrean KIA
  89. ^
  90. ^ "Eritrean disaster looms as a million flee from rapidly advancing". The Independent. 19 May 2000. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  91. ^ "Eritrean, Ethiopian exchange of POWs begins". Contributions from Reuters. CNN. 23 December 2000. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009.((cite news)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  92. ^ "The Horn of Africa War: Mass Expulsions and the Nationality Issue". 29 January 2003.
  93. ^ a b "Human Rights Watch World Report 2001: Ethiopia - Human Rights Developments". Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  94. ^ "HRW World Report 1999: Ethiopia". Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  95. ^ "A critical look into the Ethiopian elections". Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2007.
  96. ^ Natalie S. Klein. "MASS EXPULSION FROM ETHIOPIA, Report on the Deportation of Eritreans and Ethiopians of Eritrean origin from Ethiopia, June – August, 1998". Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  97. ^ Memorandum by the government of Ethiopia, 16 July 1998, Eritrean Aggression against Ethiopia and continued gross violations of the human rights of Ethiopians in Eritrea.
  98. ^ "Eritrea expels over 800 Ethiopians home – official". Sudan Tribune. 29 October 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
  99. ^ Tronvoll, Kjetil (1 January 2000). Brothers at War: Making Sense of the Eritrean-Ethiopian War. James Currey. pp. 46, 48. ISBN 978-0852558546.
  100. ^ Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2001). "Child Soldiers Global Report: 2001". p. 165. Archived from the original on 2 April 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  101. ^ Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers (2001). "Global Report on Child Soldiers". Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  102. ^ Tadesse, Zenbeworke. "The Ethiopian-Eritrean Conflict" (PDF). Calx Proclivia. pp. 109–110. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  103. ^ "Stop Eritrea's 'war-funding diaspora tax', say MPs and lords". The Guardian. 4 November 2022. Archived from the original on 4 November 2022. [The government] doesn't have other revenues, what can they do? I remember with the war with Ethiopia in 1998, they issued bonds and let Eritreans living abroad buy them so they could fund the war.
  104. ^ Muggah, Robert (10 July 2008). "Comparing DDR and durable solutions: some lessons from Ethiopia". Humanitarian Practice Network. Article 6 (39).
  105. ^ Sharif, Sally (18 November 2022). "Analysis | Ethiopia's peace may depend on post-conflict plans for Tigray soldiers". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286.
  106. ^ "UN & Conflict Monitor, Summer 1999: Africa E-S". Archived from the original on 8 November 2022. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  107. ^ "BBC NEWS | Special Report | 1999 | 07/99 | Battle in the Horn | The Somali connection". Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  108. ^ Angel Rabasa, et al., Beyond al-Qaeda: Part 2, The Outer Rings of the Terrorist Universe RAND Project AIR FORCE RAND Corporation pp. 82–85 online pp. 44–47 hardcopy
  109. ^ "Ethiopia regrets Badme ruling". 3 April 2003. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  110. ^ "Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission website". Archived from the original on 23 October 2006.
  111. ^ Pratt, Martin (2006). "A Terminal Crisis? Examining the Breakdown of the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Dispute Resolution Process". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 23 (4): 329–341. doi:10.1080/07388940600972669. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275139. S2CID 153507924. Retrieved 16 March 2021.


Further reading



15°N 39°E / 15°N 39°E / 15; 39

Post–Cold War conflicts in Africa
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Eritrean–Ethiopian War
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!

Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.


Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?