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Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones

National Communications Entity
Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones

ENACOM offices in Buenos Aires
Agency overview
Formed5 January 2016; 8 years ago (2016-01-05)
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionGovernment of Argentina
HeadquartersCalle Perú 103, Buenos Aires, Argentina
34°35′42″S 58°22′47″W / 34.59500°S 58.37972°W / -34.59500; -58.37972
Employees360 (2018)
Annual budgetAR$ 5.15 billion (2019)[1]
Agency executives
  • Claudio Ambrosini [2], President
  • Gustavo F. López [2], Vice-president
Websiteenacom.gob.ar

The National Communications Entity (Spanish: Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones, mostly known by its acronym ENACOM) is the national communications and media regulator of Argentina.[3] It was created by a presidential decree in 2016 and combines the former Federal Authority for Audiovisual Communication Services (AFSCA) and the Federal Authority for Information and Communication Technologies.

ENACOM is an agency under the Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers.

History

Creation

Press conference held by Oscar Aguad, Marcos Peña y Miguel De Godoy, announcing the creation of ENACOM on 30 December 2015

On 23 December 2015, President Mauricio Macri issued Necessity and Urgency Decree (DNU) 243, intervening in the operations of AFSCA and AFTIC. Luis Arias, an administrative law judge in La Plata, had granted a motion seeking to prevent the intervention, but the government moved forward with the changes.[4][5]

By Decree 267/2015, issued by President Macri on 29 December, AFSCA and AFTIC were combined under the name Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones (ENACOM).[6] The new agency would be placed under the new Ministry of Communications.[7] All active communications licenses were extended for an additional 10 years, limits on how many licenses one group may hold were relaxed, and license transfers were also permitted.[8]

The creation of ENACOM was met with outrage from the opposition, particularly over the use of a DNU to modify a law passed by Congress, which was in recess during January.[9][10] Martín Sabbatella, who was the president of AFSCA until its intervention, called the decree "brutal, illegal, and anticonstitutional", highlighting that its creation violated a court order.[8] Cinthia Ottaviano, the Public Defender for Audiovisual Communications Services, demanded an urgent meeting of the Organization of American States and an intervention from the Inter-American Human Rights Commission, claiming that the merger "infringed international standards for autonomy, independence, and diversity".[8]

ENACOM under Miguel de Godoy and Silvana Giudici

By Decree 7/2016, Miguel de Godoy} was officially named as the agency's president, and President Macri named its three directors: Heber Martínez, Alejandro Pereyra and Agustín Garzón.[11][12] Garzón, former intervenor of AFSCA, was a placeholder until Silvana Myriam Giudici could resign from the Buenos Aires legislature.[13]

In May 2018, Miguel de Godoy presented his resignation, effective 1 June.[14] Giudici was tapped to replace him[15][16] and remained in the position until the Macri government ended on 10 December 2019.

Spectrum reorganization

During the Macri government, 195 FM radio stations that had previously operated under provisional permits (Permisos Precarios y Provisorios, PPP) received definitive licenses to operate.[17]

However, some stations were closed. ENACOM resolutions 2064-E/2017 and 9435, which were published on 31 March 2017, gave the agency the right to order "the closure, sequester, warning, fine or seizure of radio stations that are unauthorized or in violation, using force if necessary".[18] A number of stations, including community broadcasters, were soon met with closure notices:

The National Alternative Media Network declared the program an attempt to "silence alternative, community and popular voices", criticizing the discretion given to ENACOM to act on "dissident voices".[30] The Union of Audiovisual Communicators of La Matanza decried the move by the government to "cut off, silence and do away with public media".[31]

4G licenses

In 2016, ENACOM authorized Nextel Argentina, a subsidiary of Grupo Clarín, to provide 4G services without a public bid or a payment for the spectrum. This prompted the Communications and Freedom of Expression Commission of the Senate to ask ENACOM officials for an explanation and competitor Telefónica to announce legal action for "discriminatory treatment", as it had to pay for its 4G spectrum in a 2014 auction.[32]

Correo Argentino fine

At the same time that ENACOM was created, state-owned satellite company Argentina Soluciones Satelitales S.A. (ARSAT) y Correo Argentino (CORASA) were transferred to the Ministry of Communications, with ENACOM gaining oversight functions over the two agencies.[6]

In 2017, opposition federal deputy Rodolfo Tailhade claimed that ENACOM had failed to fine Grupo Macri, the president's private businesses, a fine of 300,000 pesos that it had incurred when it owned Correo Argentino and which was upheld in a 2015 court ruling.[33][34][35]

ENACOM under Claudio Ambrosini

Claudio Ambrosini, who had previously been one of the congressionally appointed directors, was named by incoming president Alberto Fernández to head ENACOM in December 2019, with his appointment being formalized on 16 January 2020.[36]

Board of directors

The ENACOM has seven directors, three of which (alongside the president) are named by the executive branch and three from the National Congress of Argentina, by way of a bicameral commission; the seats are allocated to the three largest groups in the legislature.[37] There are currently several vacancies.

Decree 267/2015, which established ENACOM, provides that the directors serve four-year terms, which may be renewed once. The executive branch has the power to remove directors "directly and without cause".[6][11][12]

  • Designated by the president:
    • Claudio Ambrosini, President(designado por el Poder Ejecutivo)
    • Raúl Quilodran Llamas (designado por el Poder Ejecutivo)
    • Maria Florencia Pacheco (designado por el Poder Ejecutivo)
    • Gustavo López
  • Designated by the Congress:
    • Miguel Ángel Giubergia

References

  1. ^ "Presupuesto 2019" [Budget 2019]. Finance Ministry, Government of Argentina (in Spanish). 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. ^ a b Autoridades at ENACOM, 20 Jul 2020
  3. ^ Cohen, Ariel (6 February 2020). "Enacom: las prioridades, conectividad e impulsar ventajas competitivas" [ENACOM: the priorities, connectivity and promoting competitive advantages]. El Cronista (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  4. ^ "El Gobierno disolvió la Afsca y creó un nuevo organismo pese al fallo del juez Luis Arias" [The Government dissolved AFSCA and created a new agency despite the ruling from judge Luis Arias]. Infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Un juez de La Plata anuló las medidas del Gobierno sobre la Afsca" [A La Plata judge nullifies the measures of the Government over AFSCA]. Infobae. 30 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b c "Decreto 267/2015". Información Legislativa - Ministerio de Hacienda y Finanzas Públicas. 29 December 2015.
  7. ^ "El Gobierno fusionó la Afsca y la Aftic: creó el Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones" [The Government merges AFSCA and AFTIC into the Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones]. Infobae. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Werner Pertot (5 January 2016). "Para que los medios queden en pocas manos" [So that the media remain in fewer hands]. Página/12.
  9. ^ "Escándalo institucional: Macri modifica con un DNU la Ley de Medios" [Institutional scandal: Macri modifies the Media Law with a DNU]. El Destape. 30 December 2015.
  10. ^ ""La modificación de una ley por decreto está prohibida por la Constitución", dijo el juez que frenó los cambios en la Afsca" ["The modification of a law by decree is prohibited by the Constitution", says the judge who stopped the changes at AFSCA]. La Nación (Argentina). 30 December 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Decreto 7/2016". Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina. 4 January 2016.
  12. ^ a b "Miguel de Godoy fue oficializado por decreto al frente del Enacom" [Miguel de Godoy was officially named by decree to lead ENACOM]. La Nación. 5 January 2016.
  13. ^ "Con De Godoy al frente, hoy se pone en marcha el nuevo Enacom" [With De Godoy leading, today the new ENACOM gets going]. La Nación. 5 January 2016.
  14. ^ "Enacom: renuncia Miguel de Godoy y asume Silvana Giudici" [ENACOM: Miguel de Godoy resigns and Silvana Giudici takes over]. Gaceta Mercantil. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  15. ^ "Renunció De Godoy al Enacom y asume Giudici" [De Godoy resigned from Enacom and Giudici takes over]. El País Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Renunció De Godoy a la ENACOM y será reemplazado por Silvana Giudici". ambito.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  17. ^ "Balance de Enacom. Licencias de radio definitivas, más 4G e impulso audiovisual" [Review of ENACOM: definitive radio licenses, more 4G and support for broadcasting]. www.lanacion.com.ar (in Spanish). 28 November 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  18. ^ "ENACOM: novedad en la potestad de cerrar y decomisar emisoras" [ENACOM: new power to close and seize stations]. Centro de Producciones Radiofónicas (in Spanish). 6 April 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Gravísimo: el gobierno nacional autorizó el cierre de radios "con la fuerza pública"" [Grave: the national government authorized the closure of radio stations "with public force"]. Noticia Uno. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  20. ^ "La ENACOM, junto a Gendarmería, inspeccionan radios y secuestran equipos en la capital" [ENACOM, with the Gendarmerie, inspects radio stations and seizes equipment in the capital]. Noticias Formosa (in European Spanish). 16 February 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  21. ^ "ENACOM Argentina decomisó a FM POPULAR" [ENACOM Argentina seized FM Popular]. Radio La Voz. 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  22. ^ a b "El ENACOM secuestró equipos de radios FM en la capital formoseña" [ENACOM seized equipment of FM radio stations in the Formosan capital]. Notas (in European Spanish). 17 February 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  23. ^ Montiel, Gustavo (28 April 2017). "Fuerte respaldo a las radios comunitarias perseguidas" [Strong support to persecuted community radio stations]. Tiempo Argentino. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  24. ^ "ENACOM decomisa equipos y detiene periodistas" [ENACOM seizes equipment and detains journalists]. Noticias Córdoba. 26 April 2017. Archived from the original on 31 December 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  25. ^ "ENACOM impulsa multas, secuestros, decomiso y cierres de radios" [ENACOM spurs fines, sequesters, seizures and closures of radio stations]. La Tinta. 7 April 2017.
  26. ^ "Preocupante: El ENACOM decomisó dos radios y detuvo a uno de sus directores" [Worrisome: ENACOM seized two radio stations and detained one of their directors]. PODER Ciudadano. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  27. ^ Lag, Nahuel (9 May 2017). "Menos voces: El Gobierno cesa emisiones de radios comunitarias" [Fewer voices: The Government shutters emissions of community radio stations]. PAGINA12 (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  28. ^ a b c "Bajo sospecha: medios y comunicación" [Under suspicion: media and communication]. PAGINA12 (in Spanish). 12 April 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  29. ^ "ENACOM contra una radio comunitaria" [ENACOM against a community radio station]. Red ECO (in European Spanish). 16 June 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  30. ^ "ENACOM impulsa multas, secuestros, decomiso y cierres de radios". La tinta (in European Spanish). 7 April 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  31. ^ "El Gobierno cerró y decomisó a la fuerza dos radios comunitarias" [The Government closed and forcibly seized two community radio stations]. Política Argentina. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  32. ^ "¿Macri le regaló al Grupo Clarín u$s 500 millones en el negocio del 4G?" [Did Macri gift Grupo Clarin US$500 million in the 4G business?]. Diario Jornada. 2 December 2016. Archived from the original on 30 October 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  33. ^ Abrevaya, Sebastian (22 February 2017). "Otro favor de Macri al Grupo Macri" [Another favor by Macri to Grupo Macri]. Pagina 12.
  34. ^ "El FpV denunció otra condonación de deuda del Gobierno al Correo" [The FpV reported another forgiveness of debt by the Government to Correo]. Letra P (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  35. ^ "Denuncian otra maniobra para condonar una deuda de Macri con el Estado" [Another maneuver reported to forgive a debt of Macri to the State]. Portal de Noticias (in European Spanish). 22 February 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  36. ^ "Formalizan la designación de Ambrosini como presidente del Enacom" [Formalized the designation of Ambrosini as Enacom president]. Télam. 16 January 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  37. ^ "Directorio" [Board of Directors]. www.enacom.gob.ar. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
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Ente Nacional de Comunicaciones
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