For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Dylan Groenewegen.

Dylan Groenewegen

Dylan Groenewegen
Groenewegen (2022)
Personal information
Full nameDylan Groenewegen
Born (1993-06-21) 21 June 1993 (age 30)
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Height1.77 m (5 ft 9+12 in)[1]
Weight70 kg (154 lb; 11 st 0 lb)[2]
Team information
Current teamTeam Jayco–AlUla
DisciplineRoad
RoleRider
Rider typeSprinter
Professional teams
2012–2014Cycling Team De Rijke
2015Team Roompot
2016–2021LottoNL–Jumbo[3][4]
2022–Team BikeExchange–Jayco[5]
Major wins
Grand Tours
Tour de France
5 individual stages (2017, 2018, 2019, 2022)
1 TTT stage (2019)

One-day races and Classics

National Road Race Championships (2016)
Three Days of Bruges–De Panne (2019)
Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne (2018)
Brussels Cycling Classic (2015)
Rund um Köln (2016)

Dylan Groenewegen (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdɪlən ˈɣrunəˌʋeːɣən]; born 21 June 1993) is a Dutch professional road racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Jayco–AlUla.[5] He has won five individual Tour de France stages and one team time trial stage. He has also won the Dutch National Road Race Championships, five stages of the Tour of Norway, five stages of the Tour of Britain and three stages of Paris–Nice. In 2020, Groenewegen received considerable attention for causing a serious crash at the Tour de Pologne, which put Fabio Jakobsen in hospital, and for which Groenewegen received a nine-month ban from racing.

Early life

Groenewegen was born to a working-class family in Amsterdam. His grandfather, Ko Zieleman (1933–2021), assembled custom bike frames of which Groenewegen received his first bike at the age of seven. Zieleman owned a shop selling bike frames, a trade that his father had started in 1928, which Groenewegen's father, Gerrie, has continued. At the age of 17, Groenewegen went to a trade school in order to follow his previous three generations as a frame-builder.[6]

Career

Pre-World Tour

Groenewegen said in an interview that he had to choose between Team Roompot or BMC Racing Team to join in 2014. He chose the former as they gave him "a lot of confidence".[7]

LottoNL–Jumbo (2016–2021)

In October 2015, Groenewegen announced that he had signed with LottoNL–Jumbo,[8] on an initial three-year deal from 2016.[9]

2016

In June, Groenewegen won the Dutch National Road Race Championships after outsprinting Wouter Wippert.[10] During a review of Groenewegen's Bianchi Oltre XR4 bicycle, Simon Richardson of Global Cycling Network said he is "a very easy rider to work with" in respect to the mechanics.[11] Groenewegen won stage 4 of the Tour of Britain.[12][13]

2017

In the Dubai Tour, which ran from late January into early February, Groenewegen came second in the general classification,[14] having finished second in stages 1 and 2.[15][16] Despite narrowly missing out on victory in these areas, he did win the overall youth classification.[17] On 28 April, Groenewegen won the first stage of the Tour de Yorkshire. The stage, which was 174 kilometres (108 mi) long from Bridlington to Scarbrough, came down to a photo finish where he held off Australian sprinter Caleb Ewan.[18] He came fourth on the second stage which finished in Harrogate.[19] He continued this success when in May, he won two stages at the Tour of Norway.[20][21]

The Tour de France started well for Groenewegen when he came fifth on stage 2, the first flat stage.[a][23] He produced two more top-10 results in the first week, with sixth in stages 6 and 7.[24][25] After two mountain stages and a rest day in Dordogne,[26] he returned to finish third on stage 10 – a 178 kilometres (111 mi) route from Périgueux to Bergerac.[27][28] Groenewegen won the final stage of the race on the last stage on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.[29][30]

2018

In February, Groenewegen competed in the Dubai Tour and won stage 1.[31] Groenewegen held the general classification lead until the third stage when he was penalised 20 seconds after illegally drafting behind his team's car after suffering a mechanical fault. The blue jersey, given to the race leader, was lost to Elia Viviani who started the day two seconds behind Groenewegen, who dropped out of the top 10.[32][33] He expressed his anger, saying "I had problems with my bike, the mechanicals fucked it up for me. I actually think it was a good decision by the judges but it fucked it up for me" before placing the blame on his mechanics, saying that "it's the fault of my mechanics".[32]

In the Tour de France, Groenewegen won stage 7 after beating Fernando Gaviria and Peter Sagan, both of whom had won two stages to that point in the tour.[34] The stage was the longest in the tour at 231 km (143.5 mi) which started in Fougères and finished in Chartres, Northern France.[35] Groenewegen also won stage 8, beating Sagan and John Degenkolb in Amiens.[36][37] In an interview, Groenewegen said that the sprint was "a bit messy" but he said that he "surged ahead" and took advantage of the "good opportunity".[36]

2019

In March, Groenewegen won the first two stages of Paris–Nice. On the second stage, he found himself at the head of the race in a group of 23 riders about 30 km (18.6 mi) from the finish line, and ended up winning the stage after another split left just 7 riders contesting for the win.[38] Later in March, he won the Three Days of Bruges–De Panne, out sprinting Gaviria and Viviani after squeezing through a gap between Gaviria and the barrier in order to open up his sprint.[39]

Team Jumbo-Visma on their way to winning stage 2 of the Tour de France

Team Jumbo-Visma won the team time trial on stage 2 of the Tour de France, thus increasing the lead of Groenewegen's teammate, Mike Teunissen in the general classification.[40] Groenwegen went on to win stage 7 of the Tour de France, the longest stage in the tour at 230 km (142.9 mi) finishing in Chalon-sur-Saône. He beat Caleb Ewan and Sagan, giving him his fourth Tour de France stage win.[41][42] Groenewegen won stages 1, 3 and 5 of the Tour of Britain, beating Davide Cimolai, Mathieu van der Poel, and Matthew Walls on the respective stages.[43][44][45]

2020

Groenewegen's 2020 season started well, with victories on stages 1 and 3 as well as the points classification of the Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana.[46][47] Groenewegen had further success in the UAE Tour, winning stage 4 on 26 February. He beat Fernando Gaviria and Pascal Ackermann to the finish in Dubai after 173 km.[48]

Groenewegen celebrating a win on Stage 2, 2022 Tour of Slovenia

During stage 1 of the Tour de Pologne in Katowice, Poland on 5 August, Groenewegen pushed Fabio Jakobsen into the barriers surrounding the finish line causing a very serious crash that put his rival in hospital and eventually in a medically induced coma.[49] Groenewegen crashed as well and suffered a broken collarbone. More riders were involved in the crash; French sprinter Marc Sarreau had to abandon the race due to his injuries resulting from the crash. Groenewegen was disqualified from the race and fined CHF 500.[50] Jakobsen's directeur sportif Patrick Lefevere said at the time that his team were considering bringing criminal charges against Groenewegen.[51]

In November 2020, Groenewegen was handed a nine-month ban for causing the crash, backdated to the day of the incident, meaning the ban ended on 7 May 2021.[52] The previous month, Jakobsen had to undergo facial surgery where his jaw was reconstructed and bone was transplanted. Both Groenewegen and his team Jumbo-Visma apologized and took responsibility,[53][54] with Groenewegen saying he "deviated from [his] line" and also that he wanted to be a "fair sprinter".[55]

Team BikeExchange–Jayco (2022–present)

In December 2021, Groenewegen signed a three-year contract with Australian UCI WorldTeam Team BikeExchange–Jayco from 2022 season.[5] Early in the season he won stages in several smaller races including the Tour de Hongrie, the Tour of Slovenia as well as the 2022 Saudi Tour where he won two stages and the points classification. In the 2022 Tour de France he won stage 3, his first victory at the Tour since 2019.[56]

Personal life

As of 2017, Groenewegen lives in Rivierenbuurt, a district in Amsterdam.[6]

Major results

2011
1st Stage 1 Driedaagse van Axel
1st Stage 3 Liège–La Gleize
2nd Road race, National Junior Road Championships
2nd Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne Juniores
2012
3rd Münsterland Giro
4th Nationale Sluitingsprijs
9th Dutch Food Valley Classic
9th Omloop van het Houtland
2013
1st Kernen Omloop Echt-Susteren
1st Ronde van Noord-Holland
2nd Ronde van Vlaanderen Beloften
4th Dorpenomloop Rucphen
5th Overall Olympia's Tour
6th Nationale Sluitingsprijs
8th Zuid Oost Drenthe Classic I
9th Antwerpse Havenpijl
2014
1st Ronde van Vlaanderen Beloften
1st Stage 2 Tour de Normandie
3rd Trofeo Palma
3rd Zuid Oost Drenthe Classic I
10th Ronde van Overijssel
10th Gooikse Pijl
2015 (2 pro wins)
1st Arnhem–Veenendaal Classic
1st Brussels Cycling Classic
4th Road race, National Road Championships
5th Handzame Classic
7th Grote Prijs Stad Zottegem
2016 (11)
1st Road race, National Road Championships
1st Rund um Köln
1st Heistse Pijl
1st Tour de l'Eurométropole
1st Arnhem–Veenendaal Classic
Tour de Yorkshire
1st Points classification
1st Stage 1
Ster ZLM Toer
1st Points classification
1st Stage 3
Tour of Britain
1st Points classification
1st Stage 4
1st Stage 1 Eneco Tour
1st Stage 1 Driedaagse van West-Vlaanderen
1st Stage 3 Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana
2nd Handzame Classic
3rd Ronde van Drenthe
3rd Nokere Koerse
4th Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne
6th EuroEyes Cyclassics
6th Le Samyn
9th Scheldeprijs
2017 (8)
Ster ZLM Toer
1st Points classification
1st Stages 2 & 3
Tour of Norway
1st Stages 2 & 4
1st Stage 21 Tour de France
1st Stage 5 Tour of Guangxi
1st Stage 1 Tour de Yorkshire
1st Stage 7 Tour of Britain
2nd Overall Dubai Tour
1st Young rider classification
2nd Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
3rd Road race, National Road Championships
3rd EuroEyes Cyclassics
3rd Tacx Pro Classic
5th Dwars door Vlaanderen
5th Münsterland Giro
2018 (14)
1st Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
1st Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne
1st Arnhem–Veenendaal Classic
Tour of Norway
1st Stages 1, 3 & 4
Tour de France
1st Stages 7 & 8
Volta ao Algarve
1st Stages 1 & 4
1st Stage 2 Paris–Nice
1st Stage 1 Tour of Guangxi
1st Stage 1 Dubai Tour
1st Stage 2 Tour of Slovenia
7th Gooikse Pijl
2019 (15)
1st Three Days of Bruges–De Panne
1st Tacx Pro Classic
Four Days of Dunkirk
1st Stages 1, 2 & 3
Tour of Britain
1st Stages 1, 3 & 5
Tour de France
1st Stages 2 (TTT) & 7
Paris–Nice
1st Stages 1 & 2
1st Stage 4 Volta ao Algarve
1st Stage 5 Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana
3rd Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
4th Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne
4th Primus Classic
7th Overall ZLM Tour
1st Points classification
1st Stages 1 & 2
2020 (3)
Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana
1st Points classification
1st Stages 1 & 3
1st Stage 4 UAE Tour
2021 (3)
Tour de Wallonie
1st Points classification
1st Stages 1 & 4
1st Stage 1 Danmark Rundt
2nd Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
3rd Ronde van Drenthe
9th Binche–Chimay–Binche
10th Elfstedenronde
2022 (7)
1st Veenendaal–Veenendaal Classic
Saudi Tour
1st Points classification
1st Stages 3 & 5
1st Stage 3 Tour de France
1st Stage 2 Tour of Slovenia
1st Stage 2 Arctic Race of Norway
1st Stage 4 Tour de Hongrie
2nd Classic Brugge–De Panne
2nd Grand Prix de Fourmies
2nd Paris–Chauny
3rd Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
3rd Omloop van het Houtland
3rd Memorial Rik Van Steenbergen
4th Rund um Köln
5th Gooikse Pijl
7th Münsterland Giro
2023 (6)
1st Veenendaal–Veenendaal Classic
Tour of Slovenia
1st Stages 1 & 2
Saudi Tour
1st Points classification
1st Stage 1
1st Stage 5 UAE Tour
1st Stage 1 Tour de Hongrie
2nd Kampioenschap van Vlaanderen
2nd Omloop van het Houtland
3rd Gooikse Pijl
4th Scheldeprijs
10th Milano–Torino
2024 (2)
1st Ronde van Limburg
1st Clàssica Comunitat Valenciana 1969
2nd Bredene Koksijde Classic
3rd Scheldeprijs
3rd Veenendaal–Veenendaal
9th Gent–Wevelgem

Grand Tour general classification results timeline

Grand Tour 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
A pink jersey Giro d'Italia DNF
A yellow jersey Tour de France 160 156 DNF 145 117 137
A red jersey Vuelta a España

Classics results timeline

Monument 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024
Milan–San Remo 78
Tour of Flanders DNF
Paris–Roubaix 47 44 NH 81
Liège–Bastogne–Liège Has not contested during career
Giro di Lombardia
Classic 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024
Omloop Het Nieuwsblad 25
Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne DNF 4 18 1 4
Milano–Torino 10
Brugge–De Panne Previously a stage race 1 2 13 24
Gent–Wevelgem DSQ 80 93 DNF 44 9
Dwars door Vlaanderen 32 58 5 81 NH 107
Scheldeprijs 119 9 58 DSQ DNF 4 3
Cyclassics Hamburg 6 3 Not held 46 17
Paris–Tours 19 80

Major championships timeline

Event 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Olympic Games Road race NH Not held NH
World Championships Road race 37
National Championships Road race 4 1 3 31 11
Legend
Did not compete
DNF Did not finish
DSQ Disqualified
NH Not held
IP In progress

Notes

  1. ^ Stage 1 was an individual time trial.[22]

References

  1. ^ "Team Jumbo-Visma – Dylan Groenewegen". Archived from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  2. ^ "Dylan Groenwegen". ProCyclingStats. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Cheery Christmas for ambitious Team Jumbo-Visma". Team Jumbo–Visma. Team Oranje Road BV. 21 December 2018. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  4. ^ "Team Jumbo-Visma 2020 roster presented in Amsterdam". Bianchi. F.I.V. Edoardo Bianchi S.p.A. 20 December 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "Dylan Groenewegen set for Team BikeExchange". cyclingnews.com. 11 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  6. ^ a b Raschke, Erik (31 May 2017). "Dylan Groenewegen: Charging through the chaos while holding tightly to the past". Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Dylan Groenewegen: Focused on the Classics in 2015". caferoubaix.com. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  8. ^ "CyclingPub.com – Team Jumbo welcomes Visma as name sponsor from 2019". www.cyclingpub.com. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Transfer news: Rowney signs for Orica–AIS". cyclingnews.com. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  10. ^ "Groenewegen sprints to Dutch national road title". cyclingnews.com. 25 June 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  11. ^ Dylan Groenewegen's NEW Bianchi Oltre XR4 Tour De France 2016. Global Cycling Network. 23 July 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  12. ^ Henrys, Colin (7 September 2016). "Tour of Britain 2016: Dylan Groenewegen outsprints Dan McLay to win stage four". roadcyclinguk.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  13. ^ Fotheringham, William (7 September 2016). "Dylan Groenewegen confirms progress with Tour of Britain stage win". theguardian.com. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  14. ^ Robertshaw, Henry (4 February 2017). "Marcel Kittel wins final stage and overall of Dubai Tour as mechanical costs Mark Cavendish". cyclingweekly.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  15. ^ Robertshaw, Henry (31 January 2017). "Marcel Kittel powers to Dubai Tour stage one win with Mark Cavendish third". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  16. ^ "Kittel sprints to opening Dubai Tour win — on disc brakes". VeloNews. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  17. ^ "2017 Dubai Tour Final Classification Results". 4 February 2017. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Dylan Groenewegen sprints to victory on stage one of Tour de Yorkshire". theguardian.com. 28 April 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  19. ^ Dale, Tim (29 April 2017). "Tour de Yorkshire 2017: Stage two updates". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Groenewegen bags sprint win in Tour of Norway". Cyclingnews.com. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  21. ^ "Tour of Norway: Groenewegen sprints to stage 4 victory". Cyclingnews.com. 20 May 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  22. ^ "Valverde crashes out of Tour de France". cyclingnews.com. 1 July 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  23. ^ Burnton, Simon (21 February 2018). "Tour de France 2017: Marcel Kittel wins stage two, Thomas stays in yellow – as it happened". theguardian.com. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  24. ^ Ryan, Barry (6 July 2017). "Tour de France: Kittel wins sprint in Troyes". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  25. ^ Westemeyer, Susan; Weislo, Laura (7 July 2017). "Tour de France: Kittel makes it three in Nuits-Saint-Georges". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  26. ^ "Tour de France 2017: Route and Stages". July 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  27. ^ Cary, Tom (11 July 2017). "Tour de France 2017, stage 10: Marcel Kittel blows field away while Chris Froome ties with Jacques Anquetil on 50 yellow jerseys". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Tour de France 2017: Germany's Marcel Kittel sprints to stage 10 win". bbc.co.uk. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  29. ^ Fotheringham, William (23 July 2017). "Chris Froome wins fourth Tour de France after Champs-Élysées procession". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  30. ^ Cash, Dane (6 February 2018). "Groenewegen making his case as rising sprint star". velonews.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  31. ^ Lee, Aaron (6 February 2018). "Tour of Dubai: Dylan Groenewegen upsets stellar sprint field to claim Dubai Tour opener". Eurosport. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  32. ^ a b Pitt, Vern (8 February 2018). "Dylan Groenewegen blasts team mechanics after losing Dubai Tour lead through time penalty". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  33. ^ O'Shea, Sadhbh (8 February 2018). "Cavendish wins Dubai Tour stage 3". Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  34. ^ Paul Doyle; John Brewin (13 July 2018). "Tour de France 2018: Dylan Groenewegen wins stage seven – as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  35. ^ Fotheringham, William (5 July 2018). "Tour de France 2018: stage-by-stage guide". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  36. ^ a b Skelton, Jack (14 July 2018). "Tour de France 2018: Dylan Groenewegen takes stage eight for second straight win". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  37. ^ John MacLeary (14 July 2018). "Tour de France 2018, stage eight: Dylan Groenewegen claims second successive win as Fernando Gaviria and Andre Greipel are relegated". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  38. ^ "Paris-Nice 2019 – stage two results and standings: Dylan Groenewegen extends lead as Mark Cavendish faces set-back". telegraph.co.uk. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  39. ^ "Three Days of De Panne 2019 – full results and standings: Dylan Groenewegen strikes late to win". telegraph.co.uk. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  40. ^ "Tour de France 2019: Geraint Thomas puts time into rivals as Teunissen retains yellow". BBC. 7 July 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  41. ^ "Tour de France: Dylan Groenewegen wins stage seven as Giulio Ciccone retains yellow jersey". bbc.co.uk. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  42. ^ Parker, Ian (12 July 2019). "Tour de France 2019: Dylan Groenewegen wins stage seven as Giulio Ciccone retains yellow jersey". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Tour of Britain: Dutchman Dylan Groenewegen wins stage one". bbc.co.uk. 7 September 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  44. ^ "Tour of Britain: Dylan Groenewegen wins stage three from Mathieu van der Poel". bbc.co.uk. 9 September 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  45. ^ Farrand, Stephen (11 September 2019). "Tour of Britain: Groenewegen wins stage 5". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  46. ^ Ostanek, Daniel (5 February 2020). "Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana: Groenewegen wins stage 1". cyclingnews.com. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  47. ^ Fletcher, Patrick (7 February 2020). "Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana: Groenewegen comes back from crash to win stage 3". msn.com. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  48. ^ "UAE Tour 2020, stage four – full results and standings: Dylan Groenewegen sprints to victory as Adam Yates retains overall lead". telegraph.co.uk. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  49. ^ "Fabio Jakobsen in serious but stable condition following Tour de Pologne crash". cyclingnews.com. 5 August 2020.
  50. ^ "Dylan Groenewegen facing disciplinary action after Tour de Pologne crash". cyclingnews.com. 5 August 2020.
  51. ^ "Patrick Lefevere: It was a very dirty action by Groenewegen". cyclingnews.com. 6 August 2020.
  52. ^ "Dylan Groenewegen banned for nine months for causing Tour of Poland crash". BBC Sport. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  53. ^ "Geëmotioneerde Groenewegen: 'Ik heb spijt en hoop het beste voor Fabio'" [Emotional Groenewegen: 'I am sorry and hope the best for Fabio']. nos.nl (in Dutch). 7 August 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  54. ^ "Dylan Groenewegen apologises for Tour de Pologne stage 1 crash". cyclingnews.com. 6 August 2020.
  55. ^ Ramsay, George (11 November 2020). "Cyclist Dylan Groenewegen given nine-month suspension after Tour of Poland horror crash". CNN. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  56. ^ Snowball, Ben (7 July 2022). "TOUR DE FRANCE 2022: DYLAN GROENEWEGEN HAD 'MENTAL DEMONS' FROM FABIO JAKOBSEN CRASH, SAYS ROBBIE MCEWEN". Eurosport. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
Sporting positions Preceded byNiki Terpstra Dutch National Road RaceChampion 2016 Succeeded byRamon Sinkeldam
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Dylan Groenewegen
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?