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List of rulers of Mantua

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Coat of arms of the House of Gonzaga, the ruling family of Mantua for most of its history.

During its history as independent entity, Mantua had different rulers who governed on the city and the lands of Mantua from the Middle Ages to the early modern period.

From 970 to 1115, the Counts of Mantua were members of the House of Canossa. During its time as free commune and signoria ("lordship"), the Lords of Mantua were exponents of the Bonacolsi and Gonzaga families. From 1328, Mantua was informally led by Gonzagas until 1433, when Gianfrancesco Gonzaga assumed the noble title of Marquess of Mantua. In 1530, Federico II received the title of Duke of Mantua. In 1531, the family acquired the vacant Marquisate of Montferrat through marriage.

In 1627, Duke Vincent II deceased without heirs, ending the original line of Gonzagas. From 1628 to 1631, a succession war was fought between the Duke of Guastalla, supported by the Holy Roman Empire, and the Duke of Nevers, supported by France, for the control of the Duchy of Mantua. Finally, the Duke of Nevers was recognized as only Duke.

In 1708, Mantua was seized by the Habsburgs, ending Gonzaga rule. Montferrat's territories were ceded to the Duke of Savoy. The emperor compensated the Duke of Lorraine, heir in the female line of the Gonzaga, for the loss of Montferrat by ceding the Duchy of Teschen to the Lorraine. In 1745, Mantua was formally unified with the Duchy of Milan, until its dissolution in 1796.

Counts of Mantua (970–1115)

House of Canossa

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Adalbert Atto 970 13 February 988  • Son of Sigifred of Lucca[1] Hildegard of Supponids
4 children
Tebald 13 February 988 1007  • Son of Adalbert Atto Willa of Tuscany
2 children
Boniface 1007 6 May 1052  • Son of Tebald (1) Richelida Giselbertiner
Childless

(2) Beatrice of Lorraine
3 children

Matilda 6 May 1052 24 July 1115  • Daughter of Boniface (1) Godfrey of Lorraine
Childless

(2) Welf of Bavaria
Childless

Lords of Mantua (1272–1433)

  Ghibellines   Guelphs

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Pinamonte dei Bonacolsi 28 July 1272 9 September 1291  • None Rector
Bardellone dei Bonacolsi 9 September 1291 2 July 1299  • Son of Pinamonte Perpetual Rector
Guido dei Bonacolsi 2 July 1299 21 January 1309  • Nephew of Bardellone General Captain
Rinaldo dei Bonacolsi 21 January 1309 16 August 1328  • Brother of Guido General Captain
Ludovico Gonzaga 16 August 1328 18 January 1360  • None; supported by Cangrande of Verona Captain of the People
Guido Gonzaga 18 January 1360 22 September 1369  • Son of Ludovico Captain of the People
Ludovico II Gonzaga 22 September 1369 4 October 1382  • Son of Guido Captain of the People
Francesco Gonzaga 4 October 1382 7 March 1407  • Son of Ludovico II Captain of the People
Gianfrancesco Gonzaga 7 March 1407 22 September 1433  • Son of Francesco Captain of the People

Marquesses of Mantua (1433–1530)

House of Gonzaga

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
John Francis I
(Gianfrancesco I)
22 September 1433 25 September 1444  • Son of Francesco

 • Purchased the title from Emperor Sigismund

Paola Malatesta
6 children
Louis III
(Ludovico III)
25 September 1444 11 June 1478  • Son of John Francis I Barbara of Brandenburg
11 children
Frederick I
(Federico I)
11 June 1478 14 July 1484  • Son of Lewis III Margaret of Bavaria
6 children
Francis II
(Francesco II)
14 July 1484 29 March 1519  • Son of Frederick I Isabella d'Este
9 children
Frederick II
(Federico II)
29 March 1519 8 April 1530  • Son of Francis II Margaret Paleologa
7 children

Dukes of Mantua (1530–1708)

House of Gonzaga

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Frederick II
(Federico II)
8 April 1530 28 June 1540  • Son of Francis II

(Title obtained by Emperor Charles V)

Margaret Paleologa
7 children
Francis III
(Francesco III)
28 June 1540 21 February 1550  • Son of Frederick II Catherine of Austria
Childless
William
(Guglielmo)
21 February 1550 14 August 1587  • Son of Frederick II Eleanor of Austria
3 children
Vincent I
(Vincenzo I)
14 August 1587 18 February 1612  • Son of William (1) Margherita Farnese (nullified)
Childless

(2) Eleanor de' Medici
6 children

Francis IV
(Francesco IV)
18 February 1612 22 December 1612  • Son of Vincent I Margaret of Savoy
3 children
Ferdinand
(Ferdinando)
22 December 1612 29 October 1626  • Son of Vincent I

 • Brother of Francis IV

Caterina de' Medici
Childless
Vincent II
(Vincenzo II)
29 October 1626 25 December 1627  • Son of Vincent I

 • Brother of Ferdinand and Francis IV

Isabella Gonzaga
Childless

House of Gonzaga-Nevers

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
Charles I
(Carlo I)
17 January 1628 22 September 1637  • Grandson of Frederick II Catherine of Lorraine
6 children
Charles II
(Carlo II)
22 September 1637 14 August 1665  • Grandson of Charles I Isabella Clara of Austria
1 children
Ferdinand Charles
(Ferdinando Carlo)
14 August 1665 5 July 1708  • Son of Charles II (1) Anna Isabella Gonzaga
Childless

(2) Suzanne Henriette of Lorraine
Childless

References

  1. ^ Federigo Amadei, Cronaca universale della città di Mantova, Volume I, p.159, Mantova, 1954
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List of rulers of Mantua
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