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Democratic Party (Indonesia)

Democratic Party
Partai Demokrat
General ChairmanAgus Harimurti Yudhoyono
Secretary-GeneralTeuku Riefky Harsya
Founded9 September 2001; 22 years ago (2001-09-09)
HeadquartersJakarta
Youth wingGenerasi Muda Demokrat (Democratic Young Generation)
Women's wingSrikandi Demokrat (Democratic Srikandi)
Membership (2022)345,359[1]
IdeologyPancasila[2]
Populism
Indonesian nationalism[3]
Political positionCentre[4] to centre-right[5]
National affiliationAdvanced Indonesia Coalition
AnthemMars Partai Demokrat
(Democratic Party March)
Ballot number14
DPR seats
54 / 575
DPRD I seats
219 / 2,232
DPRD II seats
1,584 / 17,340
Website
www.demokrat.or.id

The Democratic Party (Indonesian: Partai Demokrat, lit.'Democrats' Party') is a centre to centre-right religious-nationalist political party in Indonesia. Currently, it holds 54 seats in the House of Representatives (DPR). The party is led by Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (AHY), the son of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY), who served as the President of Indonesia from 2004 to 2014.

Founded in September 2001 as the political vehicle of SBY, the party gained its initial parliamentary representation following the 2004 legislative election, and SBY was elected as the president. It then became one of the major parties in SBY's governing coalition. In 2009, the party assumed power by winning the majority of votes in the legislative election and became the ruling and largest party in the DPR, with SBY re-elected for his second term. In 2014, the party performed poorly in the legislative election, losing half of its seats in the DPR and subsequently served as the opposition to the Joko Widodo (Jokowi) administration. In the 2020 party congress, AHY was elected as the chairman.

History

Origins

The 2001 Special Session of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) resulted in Megawati Sukarnoputri's election as Indonesia's president, creating a vice president vacancy. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY), a candidate, lost to Hamzah Haz. Yudhoyono's popularity, evident in his vice presidential bid, prompted supporter Vence Rumangkang to propose forming a party for the 2004 elections. Yudhoyono approved and delegated party formation to Rumangkang.

From August 12 to 19, 2001, Rumangkang, with Yudhoyono's input, finalized the party's outline. On September 9, 2001 (Yudhoyono's 52nd birthday), the Democratic Party was declared, registered at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights on September 10, 2001, and Subur Budhisantoso was elected party chairman.

2004–2014: The Yudhoyono administration and largest party status

The party won 7.5% share of votes and won 57 out of 560 seats in the People's Representative Council (DPR) in the 2004 legislative election and finished in fifth place overall. The party nominated Yudhoyono as its presidential candidate, with Jusuf Kalla as the vice presidential candidate. In this, they were also supported by the Crescent Star Party and Indonesian Justice and Unity Party. Yudhoyono and Kalla won the first round of elections in July 2004 with 33.6% of the votes and would go on to win 60.1% in the run-offs, thereby securing Yudhoyono's election as president. In May 2005, the party held its first party congress, during which Hadi Utomo was elected as chairman. Nevertheless, the highest authority in the Party remained with Yudhoyono, who was elected was chairman of the Advisory Board (Dewan Pembina).

The party came first in the 2009 legislative election with 20.9 percent of the votes, making it the largest party in the DPR, with 148 seats, just over one quarter of the total.[6] Yudhoyono won the election, with former governor of Bank Indonesia, Boediono, as vice presidential candidate, with a total tally of 60.8% in first round of runoff system election, beating former president Megawati and incumbent vice-president Kalla. After the resignation of Anas Urbaningrum, the party held an extraordinary congress on 30 March 2013 in Bali to fill the chairmanship. Yudhoyono ran unopposed and was unanimously elected after no other party members decided to run.

For the 2014 legislative election, the party set a target of 15% of the national vote, less than its 2009 share. One reason the party expected its vote to fall was that Yudhoyono would not able to run for president, having served the two terms allowed for in the constitution.[2] However, the party won only 10.19%, losing over half of its seats in the legislature.

Post–2014: AHY chairmanship and internal conflict

For the 2019 legislative election, the party initially set a target of 15%, but later changed the target to 10% of the national vote.[7] The party managed to gain 7.77% of the vote, losing some seats in the legislature.[8] On March 15, 2020, Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (AHY), who had previously commanded the Joint Task Command (Kogasma) during the 2019 general election, was elected as the new chairman, replacing his father.[9]

On March 5, 2021, an unauthorized extraordinary congress in Deli Serdang convened by some party members elected Moeldoko as the new chairman, contrary to the 2020 congress that elected AHY as the chairman until 2025.[10] Former chairman Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono opposed the congress, arguing it was unlawful, as neither the party's high council nor majority of its regional branches had requested it.[11][12] AHY claimed Moeldoko's election was illegal, asserting himself as the legitimate party leader.[13] On March 31, 2021, the government confirmed the extraordinary congress result as illegitimate, affirming AHY as the rightful chairman of the party.[14]

Political identities

Ideology

The 2008 Law on Political Parties states that political parties are allowed to include specific characteristics that reflect their political aspirations, as long as they do not contradict Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.[15] As per Articles 2 and 3 of its constitution and bylaws (AD/ART), the Democratic Party is founded on Pancasila and adheres to "religious-nationalist" ideology. It views attempts to clash nationalism and religion as incorrect and misleading.[16] Outsider views on the party's political orientation vary. Academics and domestic observers classified it as a nationalist party,[17] while their international counterparts described it as a secular-nationalist[18] or nationalist-liberal party.[19] Its political leaning has been described as centrist[20][4][21] or moderate-right.[22]

List of general chairpersons

Controversies

Corruption Cases

Muhammad Nazaruddin was dismissed by the Democratic Party's ethics council from his position as party treasurer in May 2011 due to his involvement in a corruption case, but he remained a legislator in the House of Representatives. Constitutional Court chief Mahfud MD said Nazaruddin had given S$120,000 ($96,900) to Constitutional Court secretary general Janedri M. Gaffar in 2010. The money was later returned to Nazaruddin.[23] On 24 May 2011, Mahfud reported Nazaruddin to the Corruption Eradication Commission for allegedly trying to bribe a court official.[24]

On 20 April 2012, Nazaruddin was convicted of corruption and sentenced to four years and 10 months in prison and fined approximately US$22,000. He was found guilty of accepting over 4.68 billion rupiah in return for helping rig the tenders for an athletes' village built for the Southeast Asian Games in South Sumatra in November 2011.[25]

Nazaruddin was arrested by Interpol in Cartagena, Colombia in August 2011, having fled Indonesia after being named a suspect in the case.[26]

The Nazaruddin scandal was followed by the naming of a number of high-ranking party officials and legislators as suspects in numerous graft cases. Most prominent among them was Youth and Sports Minister Andi Mallarangeng, who resigned in December 2012.[27] Mallarangeng was named suspect in the same athlete training camp case which had involved Nazaruddin.[28] Business tycoon Siti Hartati Murdaya, who had served on the party's Advisory Board, resigned in August 2012 after becoming embroiled in a corruption case for which she was later jailed.[29]

#ShameOnYouSBY

In 2014, the emergence of the hashtag #ShameOnYouSBY and several other hashtags on Twitter attacking the President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and the Democratic Party occurred due to the walk out of most members of the Democratic Party faction during the plenary session for the ratification of the Regional Election Law which resulted in the election of regional heads such as governors, regents and mayor by the Regional Representative Council.[30] It was later revealed that there was a miscommunication between the President and his party fraction as the parliamentary leader of the Democratic Party, Nurhayati Ali Assegaf misread the President's message from "all out" to "walk out".[31]

Election results

Legislative election results

Election Ballot number Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
2004 9
55 / 550
8,455,225 7.45%[32] Increase55 seats, governing coalition Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (founding board chairperson)
Subur Budhisantoso
(general chairperson)
2009 31
150 / 560
21,703,137 20.85%[32] Increase95 seats, governing coalition Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (founding board chairperson)
Hadi Utomo (general chairperson)
2014 7
61 / 560
12,728,913 10.19%[33] Decrease89 seats, opposition Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
2019 14
54 / 575
10,876,507 7.77%[34] Decrease7 seats, opposition (2019–2024) governing coalition (2024) Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
2024 14
0 / 580
Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono

Presidential election results

Election Ballot number Candidate Running mate 1st round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome 2nd round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome
2004 4 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Jusuf Kalla 39,838,184 33.57% Runoff 69,266,350 60.62% Elected Green tickY
2009 2 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Boediono 73,874,562 60.80% Elected Green tickY
2014 1 Prabowo Subianto[35] Hatta Rajasa 62,576,444 46.85% Lost Red XN
2019 02 Prabowo Subianto Sandiaga Uno 68,650,239 44.50% Lost Red XN
2024 02 Prabowo Subianto Gibran Rakabuming Raka

Note: Bold text indicates the party member

References

  1. ^ "Info Pemilu - Partai Demokrat". Komisi Pemilihan Umum RI. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b Nainggolan, Bestian; Wahyu, Yohan (2016). Partai Politik Indonesia 1999-2019 (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Kompas Media Nusantara. p. 151. ISBN 978-602-412-005-4.
  3. ^ Bulkin 2013.
  4. ^ a b Kwok 2017: "Agus is backed by his father's centrist Democratic Party..."
  5. ^ "Dinilai Gagal, Sayap Kanan Partai Demokrat Minta AHY Mundur Sebagai Ketum, Kalau Tidak, Ini yang Bakal Terjadi".
  6. ^ "KPU Ubah Perolehan Kursi Parpol di DPR (KPU Changes Allocations of Parties' seats in the DPR)". Indonesian General Election Commission (in Indonesian). 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
  7. ^ Dariyanto, Erwin (8 March 2019). "Pakai Strategi Rel Ganda, AHY Revisi Target Suara Demokrat". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  8. ^ Putri, Zunita (2019). "KPU Tetapkan Hasil Pileg 2019: PDIP Juara, Disusul Gerindra-Golkar". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  9. ^ a b Medistiara, Yulida (16 March 2020). "'Dinasti' Partai Demokrat dari SBY ke AHY". detiknews (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  10. ^ Lubis, Ahmad Arfah Fansuri. "KLB Demokrat di Sumut Tetapkan Moeldoko Jadi Ketum!". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  11. ^ Nufus, Wilda Hayatun (5 March 2021). "SBY Malu Pernah Beri Jabatan ke Moeldoko: Saya Mohon Ampun Pada Allah". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  12. ^ Nufus, Wilda (5 March 2021). "Pernyataan Lengkap SBY soal KLB Demokrat Sumut Tetapkan Moeldoko Jadi Ketum". detik.com. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  13. ^ Berutu, Sachril Agustin (5 March 2021). "AHY: KSP Moeldoko Ketum Demokrat Abal-abal Versi KLB Ilegal!". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  14. ^ Sihombing, Rolando Fransiscus (31 March 2021). "Pemerintah Tolak Kepengurusan Partai Demokrat Kubu Moeldoko!". detiknews (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  15. ^ Saifulloh 2016, pp. 178: "Akan tetapi, dalam Undang-Undang No.2 Tahun 2008 Tentang Partai Politik kembali dipertegas bahwa asas dan ciri partai politik merupakan penjabaran dari Pancasila dan UUD 1945." Translation: In Law No. 2 of 2008 on Political Parties, it is emphasized that the principles and characteristics of political parties derive from Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
  16. ^ Barrett 2010.
  17. ^ Lee & Paath 2019: "So-called nationalist parties such as the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), Prabowo Subianto's political machine the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), Golkar Party, National Democratic Party (NasDem) and the Democratic Party are still the dominant forces in Indonesian politics."
  18. ^ Bulkin 2013: "The secular-nationalist Democratic Party was established in 2001 as a political vehicle to carry Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to the presidency in the 2004 elections."
  19. ^ Gutschmidt 2009: "The national-liberal party Democrat of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is according to the most current counting of ballots with 20,2% of votes the strongest party of the parliamentary elections on April 9, 2009."
  20. ^ Bulkin 2013: "Hoping to appeal to the most Indonesians possible, the Democratic Party calls itself a moderate, centrist party."
  21. ^ Mietzner 2013, p. 46: "Moreover, Indonesia has now three pivotal center parties — parties that are deeply rooted in the political center and against whose combined strength it would be difficult to govern. These are PDIP, Golkar, and Partai Demokrat (Democratic Party, PD)."
  22. ^ Library of Congress 2009: "The Democratic Party is a moderate-right political party in Indonesia."
  23. ^ "Ethics council dismisses Nazaruddin as treasurer". The Jakarta Post. 23 May 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012.
  24. ^ Parlina, Ina (25 May 2011). "Mahfud officially reports Nazaruddin to KPK". The Jakarta Post.
  25. ^ Chatterjee, Neil (20 April 2012). "Former ruling party treasurer guilty of graft in Indonesia". Reuters.[dead link]
  26. ^ ICAC (21 April 2012). "April 21, 2012 – 0832: Indonesia KPK: Muhammad Nazaruddin convicted of bribery". ICAC. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012.
  27. ^ "Andi Mallarangeng: The road to resignation". The Jakarta Post. 8 December 2012.
  28. ^ Wardah, Fathiyah (18 July 2014). "Andi Mallarangeng Divonis 4 Tahun Penjara". VOA Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  29. ^ Rostiyani, Yeyen (13 September 2012). "Hartati Murdaya detained by KPK in graft case". Republika. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  30. ^ Amin, Al (27 September 2014). "Hastag #ShameOnYouSBY tembus lebih dari 250 ribu kicauan" [The hashtag #ShameOnYouSBY has received more than 250 thousand tweets]. Merdeka.com [id] (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  31. ^ Gatra, Sandro, ed. (29 September 2014). "Sutan: SBY Perintahkan All Out, tetapi Pimpinan Fraksi Malah Suruh Walk Out" [Sutan: SBY Orders All Out, But Faction Leaders Instead Order to Walk Out]. KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Jakarta. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  32. ^ a b "Bab V - Hasil Pemilu - KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  33. ^ "KPU sahkan hasil pemilu, PDIP nomor satu" (in Indonesian). BBC. 10 May 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  34. ^ Zunita Putri (21 May 2019). "KPU Tetapkan Hasil Pileg 2019: PDIP Juara, Disusul Gerindra-Golkar". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  35. ^ Fiansyah, Rahmat (30 June 2014). "Partai Demokrat Resmi Dukung Prabowo-Hatta". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 1 August 2018.

Sources

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Democratic Party (Indonesia)
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