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Defence High Command

Defence High Command
Alto Estado Mayor
Building of the AEM, on Paseo de la Castellana (Madrid)
Active1939–1980
CountrySpain
BranchArmed forces
TypeMilitary staff
Part ofSpanish Armed Forces
HeadquartersMadrid
Commanders
First ChiefBrigadier General Juan Vigón Suerodíaz
Last ChiefLieutenant General Ignacio Alfaro Arregui
Insignia
AbbreviationAEM
Emblem (until 1975)
Emblem (1975–1980)

The Defence High Command (Spanish: Alto Estado Mayor, AEM) was the principal staff body of the Spanish Armed Forces during the Francoist regime and the Spanish transition to democracy. It operated between 1939 and 1980, and was in charge of coordination between the staffs of the three branches of the Armed Forces (Army, Navy and the Air Force).[1][2]

History

The AEM was created on 30 August 1939 with the objective of having a "body of coordination, study and information, which would provide to the supreme command the elements of suitable judgment for the orientation of its designs". In this way the Defence High Command is constituted with the following tasks:

  • Submit to the authority studies and proposals for the management of national energies so that in case of war they were insured to the maximum extent their evolution and functioning in autarkic regime.
  • Prepare the study of the resolutions that proceed in order to the weighting of organic media between the Army, Navy and the Air Force.
  • Study and propose the general lines of the permanent organizations that should constitute bases of combined operations of the aforementioned forces.
  • Study and propose directives and plans for their joint action in case of war.
  • Provide the supreme command with the necessary information for the appreciation of the military and economic potential of other countries.

For this it was necessary on the one hand the appointment of a General-Chief who would be a member and secretary of the National Defense Junta, and on the other hand the creation of a secretariat and three sections: a military, an economic and an informational.

On 5 February 1944, the need to act against foreign intelligence services within Spain was raised. That is why a new military intelligence agency began operating, the so-called "Third Information Section of the Defence High Command [es]" (SIAEM). However, due to problems of coordination between the various counterintelligence mechanisms of the time, it was decided in 1945 to divide the powers: the Defence High Command would be in charge of espionage and counterintelligence of military character both inside and outside the country, while the Ministry of the Interior would be in charge of the internal security of the country, and the rest of the ministries would collect the general information according to their needs.

After the death of Franco in 1975, the administrative structure of the Armed Forces was reorganized. The AEM disappeared in 1980 when all its functions were taken over by the Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff (JUJEM), which was succeeded in 1984 by the Defence Staff (EMAD).

List of chiefs of the Defence High Command

† denotes people who died in office.

No. Portrait Chief of the AEM Took office Left office Time in office Defence branch Commander-in-Chief Ref.
1
Juan Vigón
Vigón, JuanBrigadier General
Juan Vigón
(1880–1955)
30 August 193927 June 1940302 days
Army
Francisco Franco[3]
2
Francisco Martín Moreno
Moreno, Francisco MartínDivisional General
Francisco Martín Moreno
(1879–1941)
30 July 194023 April 1941 †267 days
Army
Francisco Franco[4][5]
3
Fidel Dávila Arrondo
Arrondo, Fidel DávilaLieutenant General
Fidel Dávila Arrondo
(1878–1962)
5 May 194120 July 19454 years, 76 days
Army
Francisco Franco[6][7]
4
Luis Orgaz Yoldi
Yoldi, Luis OrgazLieutenant General
Luis Orgaz Yoldi
(1881–1946)
19 October 194531 January 1946 †104 days
Army
Francisco Franco[8]
(1)
Juan Vigón
Vigón, JuanLieutenant General
Juan Vigón
(1880–1955)
15 February 194625 May 1955 †9 years, 99 days
Army
Francisco Franco[9]
5
Carlos Asensio Cabanillas
Cabanillas, Carlos AsensioLieutenant General
Carlos Asensio Cabanillas
(1896–1970)
3 June 19556 June 19583 years, 3 days
Army
Francisco Franco[10][11]
6
Agustín Muñoz Grandes
Grandes, Agustín MuñozCaptain General
Agustín Muñoz Grandes
(1896–1970)
[a]
6 June 195811 July 1970 †12 years, 35 days
Army
Francisco Franco[12]
7
Manuel Díez-Alegría
Díez-Alegría, ManuelLieutenant General
Manuel Díez-Alegría
(1906–1987)
23 July 197014 June 19743 years, 326 days
Army
Francisco Franco[9][13]
8
Carlos Fernández Vallespín
Vallespín, Carlos FernándezLieutenant General
Carlos Fernández Vallespín
(1913–1977)
[b]
15 June 197428 April 1977 †2 years, 317 days
Army
Francisco Franco
Juan Carlos I
[14][15]
9
Felipe Galarza Sánchez
Sánchez, Felipe GalarzaLieutenant General
Felipe Galarza Sánchez
(1913–1994)
[c]
23 July 197712 September 19781 year, 51 days
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[16][17]
10
Ignacio Alfaro Arregui
Arregui, Ignacio AlfaroLieutenant General
Ignacio Alfaro Arregui
(1918–2000)
[c]
12 September 197819 May 19801 year, 250 days
Air Force
Juan Carlos I[18][19]

Timeline

Ignacio Alfaro ArreguiFelipe Galarza SánchezCarlos Fernández VallespínManuel Díez-AlegríaAgustín Muñoz GrandesCarlos Asensio CabanillasLuis Orgaz YoldiFidel Dávila ArrondoFrancisco Martín Moreno (general)Juan Vigón (general)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Simultaneously served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Spain from 1962 to 1967
  2. ^ Simultaneously served as President of the Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff from 2 February 1977
  3. ^ a b Simultaneously served as President of the Board of Joint Chiefs of Staff

References

  1. ^ (in Spanish) Jornadas de estudio sobre el título preliminar de la Constitución, IV Volumen, pág. 2914
  2. ^ JAYME BIOBDI, Diego (2010). "El Alto Estado Mayor" (PDF). Los Ejércitos del Franquismo (1939-1975) (in Spanish). Instituto Universitario General Gutiérrez Mellado - UNED: 55–62. ISBN 978-84-608-1110-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  3. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto nombrando Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor, al General de Brigada D. Juan Vigón Suerodíaz. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  4. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se nombra Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor al General de División don Francisco Martín Moreno, que cesa de Jefe de la División núm. 22 y Gobernador Militar del Campo de Gibraltar. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  5. ^ (in Spanish) Fallecimiento del ilustre general Martín Moreno. ABC (24/04/41).
  6. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se nombra Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor al Teniente General don Fidel Dávila Arrondo. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  7. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto de 20 de julio de 1945 por el que cesa de Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor, el Teniente General don Fidel Dávila Arrondo. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  8. ^ (in Spanish) 'Decreto de 19 de octubre de 1945 por el que se nombra Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor, al Teniente General don Luis Orgaz Yoldi, cesando en la comisión que se le había conferido. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  9. ^ a b (in Spanish) Decreto 2187/1970, de 23 de julio, por el que se nombra Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor a don Manuel Díaz-Alegria Gutiérrez. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  10. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se dispone el del Teniente General don Carlos Asensio Cabanillas como Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  11. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se dispone el del Teniente General don Carlos Asensio Cabanillas como Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  12. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se dispone el del Capitán General don Agustín Muñoz Grandes para el cargo de Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  13. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto 1640/1974, de 14 de junio, por el que cesa el Teniente General don Manuel Díez-Alegría Gutiérrez como Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  14. ^ (in Spanish) Decreto por el que se nombra Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor al Teniente General don Carlos Fernández Vallespín. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  15. ^ (in Spanish) Ha muerto el Teniente General Fernández Vallespín. ABC (28/04/77).
  16. ^ (in Spanish) Corrección de errores del Real Decreto 1845/1977, de 23 de julio, por el que se nombra General Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor y Presidente de la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor al Teniente General don Felipe Galarza Sánchez. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  17. ^ (in Spanish) Real Decreto por el que se dispone el cese como Presidente de la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor y Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor del Teniente General del Ejército del Aire don Felipe Galarza Sánchez. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  18. ^ (in Spanish) Real Decreto por el que se nombra General Jefe del Alto Estado Mayor y Presidente de la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor al Teniente General don Ignacio Alfaro Arregui. The Spanish Official Gazette.
  19. ^ (in Spanish) Ley 26/1980, de 19 de mayo, por la que se suprime el Alto Estado Mayor, una vez transferidas las funciones a la Junta de Jefes de Estado Mayor y Altos Organismos de Defensa. The Spanish Official Gazette.
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Defence High Command
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