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Corinth

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Corinth
Κόρινθος
Clockwise from top left: Corinth Courthouse, the walled gates of Acrocorinth, Isthmus of Corinth, Statue of Pegasus, Ethnikis Antistaseos, Temple of Apollo
Official seal of Corinth
Corinth is located in Greece
Corinth
Corinth
Location within the regional unit
Coordinates: 37°56′19″N 22°55′38″E / 37.93861°N 22.92722°E / 37.93861; 22.92722
CountryGreece
Administrative regionPeloponnese
Regional unitCorinthia
MunicipalityCorinth
Area
 • Municipal unit102.19 km2 (39.46 sq mi)
Highest elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2021)[1]
 • Municipal unit
38,485
 • Municipal unit density380/km2 (980/sq mi)
 • Community
30,816
DemonymCorinthian
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
20100
Area code(s)(+30) 27410
Vehicle registrationKP
Websitewww.korinthos.gr

Corinth (/ˈkɒrɪnθ/ KORR-inth; Greek: Κόρινθος, romanizedKórinthos, Modern Greek pronunciation: [ˈkorinθos]) is the successor to an ancient city, and is a former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it has been part of the municipality of Corinth, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.[2] It is the capital of Corinthia.

It was founded as Nea Korinthos (Νέα Κόρινθος), or New Corinth, in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the existing settlement of Corinth, which had developed in and around the site of ancient Corinth.

History

Corinth derives its name from Ancient Corinth, a city-state of antiquity. The site was occupied from before 3000 BC.

Ancient Greece

Historical references begin with the early 8th century BC, when Corinth began to develop as a commercial center. Between the 8th and 7th centuries, the Bacchiad family ruled Corinth. Cypselus overthrew the Bacchiad family, and between 657 and 550 BC, he and his son Periander ruled Corinth as the Tyrants.

In about 550 BC, an oligarchical government seized power. This government allied with Sparta within the Peloponnesian League, and Corinth participated in the Persian Wars and Peloponnesian War as an ally of Sparta. After Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian war, the two allies fell out with one another, and Corinth pursued an independent policy in the various wars of the early 4th century BC. After the Macedonian unification of Greece, the Acrocorinth was the seat of a Macedonian garrison until 243 BC, when the city joined the Achaean League.

Ancient Rome

Nearly a century later, in 146 BC, Corinth was captured and was completely destroyed by the Roman army.

The Roman sack of Corinth in 146 BC (Thomas Allom, 1870)

As a newly rebuilt Roman colony in 44 BC, Corinth flourished and became the administrative capital of the Roman province of Achaea.[3]

Medieval times

An important earthquake touched Corinth and its region in 856, causing around 45000 deaths.[4]

Modern era

In 1858, the old city, now known as Ancient Corinth (Αρχαία Κόρινθος, Archaia Korinthos), located three kilometres (two miles) southwest of the modern city, was totally destroyed by a magnitude 6.5 earthquake. New Corinth (Nea Korinthos) was then built to the north-east of it, on the coast of the Gulf of Corinth. In 1928, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake devastated the new city, which was then rebuilt on the same site.[5] In 1933, there was a great fire, and the new city was rebuilt again.

During the German occupation in World War II, the Germans operated a Dulag transit camp for British, Australian, New Zealander and Serbian prisoners of war and a forced labour camp in the town.[6][7]

Geography

Located about 78 kilometres (48 mi) west of Athens, Corinth is surrounded by the coastal townlets of (clockwise) Lechaio, Isthmia, Kechries, and the inland townlets of Examilia and the archaeological site and village of ancient Corinth. Natural features around the city include the narrow coastal plain of Vocha, the Corinthian Gulf, the Isthmus of Corinth cut by its canal, the Saronic Gulf, the Oneia Mountains, and the monolithic rock of Acrocorinth, where the medieval acropolis was built.

Climate

According to the nearby weather station of Velo, operated by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Corinth has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), with hot, dry summers and cool, rainy winters. The hottest month is July with an average temperature of 28.7 °C (83.7 °F) while the coldest month is January with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F). Corinth receives about 463 mm of rainfall per year and has an average annual temperature of 18.1 °C (64.6 °F).

Climate data for Velo, Corinth (1988–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
13.9
(57.0)
16.5
(61.7)
20.3
(68.5)
25.7
(78.3)
30.7
(87.3)
33.2
(91.8)
32.9
(91.2)
28.4
(83.1)
23.6
(74.5)
18.5
(65.3)
14.4
(57.9)
22.6
(72.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.1
(48.4)
9.4
(48.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.7
(60.3)
21.1
(70.0)
26.1
(79.0)
28.7
(83.7)
28.1
(82.6)
23.4
(74.1)
18.8
(65.8)
13.8
(56.8)
10.5
(50.9)
18.1
(64.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
5.0
(41.0)
6.5
(43.7)
9.0
(48.2)
12.9
(55.2)
16.8
(62.2)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
16.9
(62.4)
13.8
(56.8)
9.9
(49.8)
6.9
(44.4)
11.9
(53.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.0
(2.83)
50.9
(2.00)
53.7
(2.11)
28.7
(1.13)
22.3
(0.88)
6.4
(0.25)
5.0
(0.20)
11.9
(0.47)
19.4
(0.76)
40.8
(1.61)
73.5
(2.89)
78.6
(3.09)
463.2
(18.22)
Source: HNMS[8]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2001[9]36,991—    
2011[10]38,132+3.1%
2021[1]38,485+0.9%

The Municipality of Corinth (Δήμος Κορινθίων) had a population of 55,941 according to the 2021 census, the second most populous municipality in the Peloponnese Region after Kalamata.[1] The municipal unit of Corinth had 38,485 inhabitants, of which Corinth itself had 30,816 inhabitants, placing it in second place behind Kalamata among the cities of the Peloponnese Region.[1]

Corinth in 1882

The municipal unit of Corinth (Δημοτική ενότητα Κορινθίων) includes apart from Corinth proper the town of Archaia Korinthos, the town of Examilia, and the smaller settlements of Xylokeriza and Solomos.[1] The municipal unit has an area of 102.187 km2.[9]

Economy

Industry

Corinth is a major industrial hub at a national level. The Corinth Refinery is one of the largest oil refining industrial complexes in Europe. Ceramic tiles, copper cables, gums, gypsum, leather, marble, meat products, medical equipment, mineral water and beverages, petroleum products, and salt are produced nearby. As of 2005, a period of Economic changes commenced as a large pipework complex, a textile factory and a meat packing facility diminished their operations.

View of the Gulf of Corinth and modern Corinth from the Castle of Acrocorinth

Transport

The rail road bridge over the Isthmus of Corinth

Roads

Corinth is a major road hub. The A7 toll motorway for Tripoli and Kalamata, (and Sparta via A71 toll), branches off the A8/European route E94 toll motorway from Athens at Corinth. Corinth is the main entry point to the Peloponnesian peninsula, the southernmost area of continental Greece.

Bus

KTEL Korinthias[11] provides intercity bus service in the peninsula and to Athens via the Isthmos station southeast of the city center.[12] Local bus service is also available.

Railways

The metre gauge railway from Athens and Pireaeus reached Corinth in 1884. This station closed to regular public transport in 2007. In 2005, two years prior, the city was connected to the Athens Suburban Railway, following the completion of the new Corinth railway station. The journey time from Athens to Corinth is about 55 minutes. The train station is 5 minutes by car from the city centre and parking is available for free.

Port

The port of Corinth, located north of the city centre and close to the northwest entrance of the Corinth Canal, at 37 56.0’ N / 22 56.0’ E, serves the local needs of industry and agriculture. It is mainly a cargo exporting facility.

It is an artificial harbour (depth approximately 9 m (30 ft), protected by a concrete mole (length approximately 930 metres, width 100 metres, mole surface 93,000 m2). A new pier finished in the late 1980s doubled the capacity of the port. The reinforced mole protects anchored vessels from strong northern winds.

Within the port operates a customs office facility and a Hellenic Coast Guard post. Sea traffic is limited to trade in the export of local produce, mainly citrus fruits, grapes, marble, aggregates and some domestic imports. The port operates as a contingency facility for general cargo ships, bulk carriers and ROROs, in case of strikes at Piraeus port.

Ferries

There was formerly a ferry link to Catania, Sicily and Genoa in Italy.

Canal

View of the Corinth Canal

The Corinth Canal, carrying ship traffic between the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea, is about 4 km (2.5 mi) east of the city, cutting through the Isthmus of Corinth that connects the Peloponnesian peninsula to the Greek mainland, thus effectively making the former an island. The builders dug the canal through the Isthmus at sea level; no locks are employed. It is 6.4 km (4.0 mi) in length and only 21.3 metres (70 ft) wide at its base, making it impassable for most modern ships. It now has little economic importance.

The canal was mooted in classical times and an abortive effort was made to build it in the 1st century AD. Julius Caesar and Caligula both considered digging the canal but died before starting the construction.[13] The emperor Nero was the first to attempt to construct the canal. The Roman workforce responsible for the initial digging consisted of 6,000 Jewish prisoners of war. Modern construction started in 1882, after Greece gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, but was hampered by geological and financial problems that bankrupted the original builders. It was completed in 1893, but due to the canal's narrowness, navigational problems and periodic closures to repair landslips from its steep walls, it failed to attract the level of traffic anticipated by its operators. It is now used mainly for tourist traffic.

Sport

The city's association football team is Korinthos F.C. (Π.Α.E. Κόρινθος), established in 1999 after the merger of Pankorinthian Football Club (Παγκορινθιακός) and Corinth Football Club (Κόρινθος). During the 2006–2007 season, the team played in the Greek Fourth Division's Regional Group 7. The team went undefeated that season and it earned the top spot.[14] This granted the team a promotion to the Gamma Ethnikí (Third Division) for the 2007–2008 season. For the 2008–2009 season, Korinthos F.C. competed in the Gamma Ethniki (Third Division) southern grouping.

Twin towns/sister cities

Corinth is twinned with:

Notable people

Other locations named after Corinth

Due to its ancient history and the presence of St. Paul the Apostle in Corinth some locations all over the world have been named Corinth.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Αποτελέσματα Απογραφής Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2021, Μόνιμος Πληθυσμός κατά οικισμό" [Results of the 2021 Population - Housing Census, Permanent population by settlement] (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 29 March 2024.
  2. ^ "ΦΕΚ B 1292/2010, Kallikratis reform municipalities" (in Greek). Government Gazette.
  3. ^ "Corinth | Greece | Britannica". 8 June 2023.
  4. ^ IISEENET (Information Network of Earthquake disaster Prevention Technologies) - Search Page
  5. ^ Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; et al. (March 2011). "Deterministic seismic hazard analysis for the city of Corinth, central Greece" (PDF). Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society. 14 (1): 1–14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  6. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P.; Overmans, Rüdiger; Vogt, Wolfgang (2022). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos 1933–1945. Volume IV. Indiana University Press, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 523. ISBN 978-0-253-06089-1.
  7. ^ "Barackenlager Korinth". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  8. ^ "Κλιματικά Δεδομένα ανά Πόλη- ΜΕΤΕΩΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ, ΕΜΥ, Εθνική Μετεωρολογική Υπηρεσία".
  9. ^ a b "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2015.
  10. ^ "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  11. ^ "Έναρξη παροχής της ηλεκτρονικής υπηρεσίας E-Services – Παρασκευή, 20 Φεβρουαρίου 2009". www.ktelkorinthias.gr (in Greek). 18 September 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
  12. ^ "Corinth – Map and travel Information". Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  13. ^ "A Brief History of the Corinth Canal". 9 December 2016.
  14. ^ [1] Archived 23 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Gemellaggio tra Siracusa e Corinto". Liberta Sicilia. 8 January 2008. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
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Corinth
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