For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Coat of arms of Egypt.

Coat of arms of Egypt

Coat of arms of Egypt
ArmigerArab Republic of Egypt
Adopted4 October 1984 (Present form)
ShieldTierced per pale gules, argent, and sable
SupportersThe Eagle of Salahuddin
MottoArabic: جمهورية مصر العربية
(Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʻArabīyah, "Arab Republic of Egypt")

The coat of arms of Egypt (Arabic: شعار مصر) is known as the Republican Eagle or Egyptian Golden Eagle, is a heraldic golden eagle, facing the viewer's left (dexter). The eagle's breast is charged with an escutcheon bearing the red-white-black bands of the flag of Egypt rotated vertically, whilst the eagle's talons hold a scroll bearing the official name of the state written in Kufic script. The earliest version of the Eagle of Saladin was that used as the flag of Saladin,[1] the first Sultan of Egypt, whilst the modern version of the eagle was adopted during the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Subsequently, the modern design of the eagle of Saladin was adopted as the coat of arms of numerous other states in the Arab World,[2] such as the United Arab Republic, North Yemen, Iraq, South Yemen, the Libyan Arab Republic, and Palestine. The current eagle was modified in 1984 to its present form.

History

Eagles have for millennia been symbols of power in Egypt, appearing in innumerable devotional and political artistic representations from the Pharoanic era onwards, and used as the heraldic banners of pagan, Christian, and Muslim rulers well in to the medieval era.[3] Chief amongst these was Saladin, who adopted an eagle as his personal standard upon his coronation as Sultan of Egypt in 1174.[4] Subsequent Egyptian rulers, from both the Ayyubid dynasty that he founded, and the Mamluk military caste that succeeded it, would continue his use of the heraldic eagle.

Saladin's celebrated stature as the leader who recaptured Jerusalem from the Crusaders, led to the eagle that bears his name becoming associated with renewed Egyptian and Arab nationalism from the late 19th century onwards, ultimately becoming the symbol of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.[5] The Egyptian revolutionaries of the Free Officers Movement under Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser emblazoned on the eagle's breast the green field and white crescent and stars of the old flag of the Kingdom of Egypt and Sudan, and placed the eagle in the centre of the horizontal red-white-black bands of the revolution's Arab Liberation Flag.[6] In so doing, they incorporated all four of the Pan-Arab colours of red, white, black, and green derived from the Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, and Fatimad caliphates of Medina, Damascus, Baghdad, and Cairo respectively.[7]

In addition to being one of the four Pan-Arab colours, and the predominant colour of the old flag of monarchical Egypt and Sudan, the colour green was itself strongly associated with nationalism in Egypt, particularly due to its use on the banner of the Egyptian Revolution of 1919. As the subsequent revolution of 1952 was explicitly committed to both Egyptian and Arab nationalism, Naguib and Nasser insisted on the inclusion of green on revolutionary Egypt's coat of arms, and national flag.[8]

When Egypt united with Syria to form the United Arab Republic in 1958, the appearance of the eagle was modified, replacing the monarchical green field and white crescent and stars on the eagle's breast with an escutcheon bearing a vertically rotated flag of the United Arab Republic with two green stars in the central white band representing the two constituent members of the union. In the eagle's talons was placed the official name of the state on a green scroll, thereby, along with the green stars, incorporating once again the colour green on the coat of arms.[9] Whilst the eagle was replaced at the centre of the Arab Liberation Flag by the two green stars, its status as the union's coat of arms meant that it appeared on all state buildings, documents, and uniforms.

Following Egypt's membership of the Federation of Arab Republics in 1972 during the presidency of Anwar Sadat, the Eagle of Saladin was replaced entirely as Egypt's coat of arms by the Hawk of Quraish, which would also take the place of the two green stars in the centre of the national flag. In both policies and symbolism, Sadat was eager to depart from the path of his predecessor, Gamal Abdel Nasser, resulting in the adoption of a new coat of arms, and a modified flag, both of which excluded the colour green.[10] The federation, however, was short-lived, dissolving in 1977. Sadat himself was assassinated in 1981.

In 1984, the Eagle of Saladin was restored as Egypt's coat of arms, and has remained as such since, with the eagle returned to the central white band of the national flag. The appearance of the eagle when re-adopted remained the same as the 1958 version with the exception of it being rendered entirely in gold and white, save for the escutcheon on the eagle's breast, which continues to bear the vertically rotated red-white-black bands of the national flag. Consequently, the changes to Egypt's heraldic colours by Sadat were made permanent, and the current design of Egypt's coat of arms (and national flag) does not include the colour green used in both the revolutions of 1919, and 1952.[11]

Appearance

The Eagle of Saladin holds a scroll on which the name of the state appears in Arabic script, Gumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah ("Arab Republic of Egypt"). The eagle carries on its breast a shield with the flag's colors — but with a vertical instead of a horizontal configuration. When appearing on the national flag, the eagle is rendered entirely in gold and white. During the union with Syria in the United Arab Republic (1958–1961), and in the ten years afterwards when Egypt retained the union's official name, the two green stars of the union's flag appeared in the white band of the eagle's shield. Between 1972 and 1984, the eagle was replaced by the golden Hawk of Quraish, as part of the symbolism of the Federation of Arab Republics.

Military symbols

See also

References

  1. ^ Phillips, Jonathan (2019). The life and legend of the Sultan Saladin. New Haven. ISBN 978-0-300-24906-4. OCLC 1111947893.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  2. ^ Elgenius, G. (2018). Symbols of Nations and Nationalism : Celebrating Nationhood. London: Palgrave Macmillan Limited. ISBN 978-0-230-31704-8. OCLC 1076229176.
  3. ^ "The First Aegean Civilizations", Ancient Civilizations, Routledge, pp. 266–294, 2015-08-13, doi:10.4324/9781315664842-18, ISBN 978-1-315-66484-2, retrieved 2021-06-03
  4. ^ Lyons, M. C. (1982). Saladin : the politics of the holy war. D. E. P. Jackson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22358-X. OCLC 4933444.
  5. ^ Smith, Whitney (1975). Flags through the ages and across the world. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. OCLC 1324552.
  6. ^ Smith, Whitney (1975). Flags through the ages and across the world. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. OCLC 1324552.
  7. ^ Elgenius, G. (2018). Symbols of Nations and Nationalism : Celebrating Nationhood. London: Palgrave Macmillan Limited. ISBN 978-0-230-31704-8. OCLC 1076229176.
  8. ^ Smith, Whitney (1975). Die Zeichen der Menschen und Völker : unsere Welt in Fahnen und Flaggen. Zürich: Buchclub ex Libris. ISBN 3-7243-0115-4. OCLC 34082111.
  9. ^ Jacobs, Robin (2017). Flying colours a guide to flags from around the world!. Robert Fresson. London. ISBN 978-1-80066-009-0. OCLC 1164358097.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  10. ^ Elgenius, G. (2018). Symbols of Nations and Nationalism : Celebrating Nationhood. London: Palgrave Macmillan Limited. ISBN 978-0-230-31704-8. OCLC 1076229176.
  11. ^ Smith, Whitney (1980). Flags and arms across the world. Whitney Smith. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-059094-X. OCLC 4957064.
  • el Ansary, Nasser (2001). "L'emblème de l'État égyptien" [The emblem of the Egyptian State]. L'Encyclopédie des souverains d'Égypte des pharaons à nos jours [The Encyclopedia of rulers of Egypt from the Pharaohs until today] (in French). Alleur: Éditions du Perron. pp. 138–141. ISBN 978-2-87114-173-0. OCLC 48965345.
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Coat of arms of Egypt
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?