For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Climate of Myanmar.

Climate of Myanmar

Köppen climate classification of Myanmar, 1980 to 2016.

The climate of Myanmar varies depending on location and in the highlands, on elevation. The climate is subtropical/tropical and has three seasons, a "cool winter from November to February, a hot summer season in March and April and a rainy season from May to October, dominated by the southwest monsoon."[1] A large portion of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator and the entirety of the country lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while average annual rainfall in the central dry zone is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). The higher elevations of the highlands are predisposed to heavy snowfall, especially in the North. The Northern regions of Myanmar are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have an average maximum temperature of 32 °C (89.6 °F).[2]

The climate of Myanmar has a significant impact on tourist arrivals. Tourists tend to avoid the rainy season and travel in the dry season which runs between November and April with peak inflows occurring between December and February.[3]

Geography

Myanmar has three agro-ecological zones and eight physiographic regions.[1]

Agro-ecological zones

Physiographic regions

  • Rakhine Coastal
  • Ayeyarwadv Delta
  • Yangon Deltaic
  • Southern Myanmar Coastal
  • Central Dry Zone
  • Western Hilly
  • Northern Hilly
  • Eastern Hilly

Examples

Climate data for Yangon (Kaba–Aye) 1981–2010, extremes 1881–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.9
(102.0)
38.9
(102.0)
40.0
(104.0)
41.1
(106.0)
42.0
(107.6)
37.8
(100.0)
37.8
(100.0)
34.4
(93.9)
38.9
(102.0)
37.8
(100.0)
38.9
(102.0)
35.6
(96.1)
42.0
(107.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 33.2
(91.8)
35.2
(95.4)
36.7
(98.1)
37.5
(99.5)
34.2
(93.6)
30.8
(87.4)
30.3
(86.5)
30.0
(86.0)
30.9
(87.6)
32.2
(90.0)
33.1
(91.6)
32.5
(90.5)
33.1
(91.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.8
(76.6)
26.5
(79.7)
28.6
(83.5)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
27.4
(81.3)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.3
(81.1)
25.0
(77.0)
27.4
(81.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
18.4
(65.1)
21.0
(69.8)
23.8
(74.8)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.8
(64.0)
21.6
(70.9)
Record low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13.3
(55.9)
16.1
(61.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
21.1
(70.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
15.0
(59.0)
9.2
(48.6)
9.2
(48.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.4
(0.02)
3.1
(0.12)
12.4
(0.49)
37.8
(1.49)
328.1
(12.92)
565.6
(22.27)
605.8
(23.85)
570.7
(22.47)
393.7
(15.50)
200.3
(7.89)
58.6
(2.31)
6.8
(0.27)
2,783.3
(109.58)
Average rainy days 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.6 12.6 25.3 26.2 26.1 19.5 12.2 4.8 0.2 129.3
Average relative humidity (%) 62 66 69 66 73 85 86 87 85 78 71 65 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 300 272 290 292 181 80 77 92 97 203 280 288 2,452
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute (average high and average low, and precipitation 1981–2010),[4] World Meteorological Organization (rainy days 1961–1990),[5] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes)[6]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun and relative humidity 1931–1960),[7] Myanmar Times (May record high and December record low)[8] Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[9]
Climate data for Naypyidaw
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30
(86)
34
(93)
36
(97)
38
(100)
35
(95)
32
(90)
31
(88)
30
(86)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
29
(84)
32.5
(90.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 14
(57)
16
(61)
20
(68)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
20
(68)
16
(61)
21.2
(70.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
2
(0.1)
9
(0.4)
33
(1.3)
154
(6.1)
160
(6.3)
198
(7.8)
229
(9.0)
186
(7.3)
131
(5.2)
37
(1.5)
7
(0.3)
1,151
(45.5)
Average precipitation days 1 0 1 3 14 21 23 24 19 12 4 1 123
Source: Weather2Travel.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013
Climate data for Mandalay (1981–2010, extremes 1889–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.2
(99.0)
39.2
(102.6)
42.8
(109.0)
48.0
(118.4)
45.0
(113.0)
42.0
(107.6)
41.6
(106.9)
39.8
(103.6)
43.4
(110.1)
39.2
(102.6)
38.5
(101.3)
34.0
(93.2)
48.0
(118.4)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 29.6
(85.3)
32.7
(90.9)
36.6
(97.9)
38.9
(102.0)
36.9
(98.4)
35.2
(95.4)
35.1
(95.2)
34.3
(93.7)
34.0
(93.2)
33.4
(92.1)
31.1
(88.0)
29.1
(84.4)
33.9
(93.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.9
(71.4)
24.4
(75.9)
28.8
(83.8)
31.9
(89.4)
31.3
(88.3)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.2
(86.4)
29.7
(85.5)
28.8
(83.8)
25.7
(78.3)
22.2
(72.0)
28.0
(82.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
16.0
(60.8)
20.4
(68.7)
24.7
(76.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.1
(79.0)
26.2
(79.2)
25.8
(78.4)
25.4
(77.7)
24.0
(75.2)
19.9
(67.8)
15.4
(59.7)
22.0
(71.6)
Record low °C (°F) 8.0
(46.4)
10.0
(50.0)
12.8
(55.0)
13.0
(55.4)
17.4
(63.3)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.5
(67.1)
20.5
(68.9)
18.5
(65.3)
11.1
(52.0)
7.6
(45.7)
7.6
(45.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.9
(0.04)
3.8
(0.15)
5.8
(0.23)
40.4
(1.59)
130.0
(5.12)
99.5
(3.92)
74.7
(2.94)
132.9
(5.23)
157.1
(6.19)
130.7
(5.15)
36.4
(1.43)
4.9
(0.19)
817.1
(32.17)
Average rainy days 0.4 0.4 0.4 3.3 8.3 7.2 5.9 8.7 8.1 6.8 2.8 0.7 53.0
Average relative humidity (%) 68 58 49 50 66 73 71 76 76 77 74 72 68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 309 280 301 291 267 208 182 168 215 223 269 278 2,991
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute (average high and average low, and rainfall 1981–2010),[10] World Meteoroglogical Organization (rainy days 1961–1990),[11] Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1991–2010)[12]
Source 2: Danish Meteorological Institute (sun and relative humidity, 1931–1960),[13] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows),[14]
Climate data for Myitkyina (1981-2010, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
41.1
(106.0)
42.0
(107.6)
40.2
(104.4)
38.3
(100.9)
38.5
(101.3)
37.5
(99.5)
36.2
(97.2)
38.5
(101.3)
35.5
(95.9)
42.0
(107.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
27.5
(81.5)
30.4
(86.7)
32.6
(90.7)
33.3
(91.9)
31.6
(88.9)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
31.7
(89.1)
30.9
(87.6)
28.4
(83.1)
25.8
(78.4)
30.0
(86.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75.0)
26.6
(79.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.7
(81.9)
28.3
(82.9)
28.1
(82.6)
26.2
(79.2)
22.5
(72.5)
18.8
(65.8)
24.9
(76.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
12.9
(55.2)
16.3
(61.3)
19.7
(67.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
23.9
(75.0)
21.5
(70.7)
16.2
(61.2)
11.9
(53.4)
19.0
(66.2)
Record low °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
7.5
(45.5)
10.0
(50.0)
10.0
(50.0)
16.1
(61.0)
18.1
(64.6)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
19.8
(67.6)
15.0
(59.0)
8.0
(46.4)
3.0
(37.4)
3.0
(37.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.9
(0.39)
21.0
(0.83)
24.0
(0.94)
54.0
(2.13)
218.5
(8.60)
549.2
(21.62)
543.0
(21.38)
398.3
(15.68)
294.7
(11.60)
170.6
(6.72)
25.1
(0.99)
11.7
(0.46)
2,320
(91.34)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.3 mm) 2 7 5 8 15 25 27 28 19 11 3 2 152
Average relative humidity (%) 77 68 64 64 72 83 89 87 85 83 79 78 77
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute,[15] Deutscher Wetterdienst (mean temperatures 1991–2010, rainy days 1896–1940, humidity 1963–1988)[16]
Source 2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[17]

Disasters

Droughts

Rising temperatures and increased drought in Myanmar have caused diminished village water sources across the country, destroyed agricultural yields of peas, sugar cane, tomatoes and rice, and are expected to continue having negative effects on agricultural production and food security by further destruction of cultivation and erosion on soils in the long term.[3] There is a large dependence on rain fed agriculture, as over 70% percent of it people's livelihood dependent on natural capital, and 40% of GDP reliant on agriculture, livestock, fisheries, and forestry.[18][3] In the dry zone, longer more extreme droughts and losses of natural ecosystem services which play a role in retaining sediment force those in more rural areas to travel miles for water where lakes have not dried posing considerable livelihood challenges.[19]

Monsoons

In August 2015, extreme flooding caused by monsoon rains killed 27 people and affected over 150,000 in the Sagaing region and in July 2018 over 120,000 people over seven regions were displaced from their homes also due to heavy monsoon rains, with the death toll hitting at least 10.[20][21]

Climate change

Predicted future Köppen climate classification in Myanmar, 2071-2100.
Visualisation of average annual temperature anomaly in Myanmar, 1901 to 2020.

Some researchers and organizations have predicted that climate impacts could pose a hazard.[22][23] To combat any potential hardships, the government of Myanmar has displayed interest in expanding its use of renewable energy and lowering its level of carbon emissions. Groups involved in helping Myanmar with the transition and move forward include the UN Environment Programme, Myanmar Climate Change Alliance (MCCA), and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation.[24] In April 2015, it was announced that the World Bank and Myanmar would enter a full partnership framework aimed to better access to electricity and other basic services for about six million people and expected to benefit three million pregnant woman and children through improved health services.[25] Myanmar has also acquired funding and proper planning, which is intended to better prepare the country for the impacts of climate change by enacting programs which teach its people new farming methods, rebuild its infrastructure with materials resilient to natural disasters, and transition various sectors towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.[26]

To this end the country has also entered the United Nation's Paris Agreement in 2016,[27][28] created the Myanmar National Climate Change Policy in 2017,[24] submitted its new climate action plan to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change,[29] and developed the Myanmar Climate Change Strategy & Action Plan.[30][31] At the same time, Myanmar's state technical capacity to conduct international climate change negotiations and implement environmental agreements remains limited and the country requires external assistance in improving its technical capacities.[23]

Dry zone adjustments

The government of Myanmar, the United Nations Development Programme, and the Adaptation Fund, are carrying out programs to provide farmers the resources, knowledge and tools needed to support good harvests, despite changing weather patterns.[32] Anticipated to reduce food insecurity and losses from extreme climate events in 42,000 households, the "Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water Resources and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar" project provides specially developed climate resistant pulses and other crops, as well as special heat resistant breeds of pigs, goats, and poultry to farmers and laborers.[33][34][35] In the past, poverty stricken communities cut down trees for fuels and timber, so now communities are being actively involved in establishing and managing forests in order to improve soil conditions, reduce surface runoff, and slow erosion.[32] Nearly 30,000 households in the region have benefited from enhanced water capture and storage capacity in the forms of expanded community ponds, construction on diversion canals, and rehabilitation and protection of over 4,000 hectares of micro-watersheds.[32] To help Myanmar meet its 2030 Water Sanitation and Hygiene Goals, Lien Aid also continues to partner with local governments and community leaders to improve safe water access in villages throughout Myanmar.[36]

References

  1. ^ a b "Myanmar Climate Strategy and Action Plan (MCCSAP) 2016-2030" (PDF). asiapacificenergy.org. 2018-12-02.
  2. ^ Thein, Myat (2005). Economic Development of Myanmar. Singapore: Inst. of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-9812302113.
  3. ^ a b c "Best Time to visit Myanmar". 2018-02-02.
  4. ^ "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 26–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  5. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Yangon". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
  6. ^ "Klimatafel von Yangon (Rangun) / Myanmar (Birma)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  7. ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Myanmar – Rangoon" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 189. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  8. ^ Cho, Myo. "High of 40C, low of 13C in Yangon for 2003". Government of Myanmar. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Normals Data: YANGON – MYANMAR Latitude: 16.77°N Longitude: 96.17°E Height: 14 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 26–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  11. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Mandalay". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  12. ^ "Klimatafel von Mandale (Mandalay) / Myanmar (Birma)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  13. ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "Myanmar – Mandalay" (PDF). Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931–1960) (in Danish). Danish Meteorological Institute. p. 188. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  14. ^ "Station Mandalay" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  15. ^ "Myanmar Climate Report" (PDF). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. pp. 26–36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Klimatafel von Myitkyina / Myanmar (Birma)" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  17. ^ "Station Myitkyina" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  18. ^ Mandle, Lisa; Wolny, Stacie; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Helsingen, Hanna; Hamel, Perrine; Bartlett, Ryan; Dixon, Adam; Horton, Radley; Lesk, Corey (2017-09-21). "Assessing ecosystem service provision under climate change to support conservation and development planning in Myanmar". PLOS ONE. 12 (9): e0184951. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184951. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5608473. PMID 28934282.
  19. ^ "Greening the Dry Zone by United Nations Development Programme on Exposure". Exposure. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  20. ^ "Myanmar flood death toll 'to rise'". The National. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  21. ^ "Myanmar people struggle amid floods". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  22. ^ Overland, Indra et al. (2017) Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS).
  23. ^ a b Stokke, Kristian; Vakulchuk, Roman and Indra Overland (2018) Myanmar: A Political Economy Analysis. Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI). Report commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  24. ^ a b "National climate change policy finalised". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 2018-12-15. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  25. ^ "Millions to Benefit from Myanmar's New Partnership Framework With the World Bank Group". World Bank. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
  26. ^ "Myanmar Climate Change Policy Draft 1 – March 2017" (PDF). Myanmar Climate Change Alliance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-03-22. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  27. ^ "Myanmar signs climate deal". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  28. ^ CoconutsYangon (2017-07-12). "Myanmar eyes ratifying Paris climate agreement | Coconuts Yangon". Coconuts. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  29. ^ "Myanmar Submits its Climate Action Plan Ahead of 2015 Paris Agreement | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  30. ^ "Myanmar National Climate Change Policy, Strategy & Action Plan (NCCP and MCCSAP 2017-2030) | Myanmar Climate Change Alliance". myanmarccalliance.org. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  31. ^ "Myanmar to fight climate change by protecting forests". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  32. ^ a b c Pacific, UNDP in Asia and the (2018-02-26). "Running dry: A window into the Dry Zone of Myanmar". UNDP in Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  33. ^ "Addressing Climate Change Risks on Water Resources and Food Security in the Dry Zone of Myanmar | UNDP's Climate Change Adaptation Portal". www.adaptation-undp.org. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  34. ^ "Heat Tolerant Animals Provide Lifeline for Vulnerable Communities in Dry Zone". UNDP in Myanmar. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  35. ^ "Measuring Progress: Adapting to Climate Change in the Dry Zone of Myanmar". UNDP in Myanmar. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  36. ^ "Lien AID plans more clean water projects in remote rural Myanmar". The Myanmar Times. 23 March 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Climate of Myanmar
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?