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China–Russia border

Map of China, with Russia to the north
Chinese and Russian boundary markers

The Chinese–Russian border or the Sino-Russian border is the international border between China and Russia. After the final demarcation carried out in the early 2000s, it measures 4,209.3 kilometres (2,615.5 mi),[1] and is the world's sixth-longest international border. According to the Russian border agency, as of October 1, 2013, there are more than 160 land border crossings between Russia and China, all of these border crossings are open 24 hours. There are crossing points established by the treaty including railway crossings, highway crossings, river crossing, and mostly ferry crossings.[2][3]

Description

The two countries' border signs at Manzhouli/Zabaykalsk

The eastern border section is over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) in length. According to a joint estimate published in 1999, it measured at 4,195 kilometres (2,607 mi).[4] It starts at the eastern China–Mongolia–Russia tripoint (49°50′42.3″N 116°42′46.8″E / 49.845083°N 116.713000°E / 49.845083; 116.713000), marked by the border monument called Tarbagan-Dakh (Ta'erbagan Dahu, Tarvagan Dakh).[5][6] From the tripoint, the border line runs north-east, until it reaches the Argun River. The border follows the Argun and Amur river to the confluence of the latter with the Ussuri River. It divides the Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island at the confluence of the two rivers, and then runs south along the Ussuri. The border crosses Lake Khanka, and finally runs to the south-west. The China–Russia border ends when it reaches the Tumen River, which is the northern border of North Korea. The end point of the China–Russia border, and the China–North Korea–Russia tripoint, at (42°25′N 130°36′E / 42.417°N 130.600°E / 42.417; 130.600), is located only a few kilometers before the river flows into the Pacific Ocean, the other end of the North Korea–Russia border.

The much shorter (less than 100 kilometres (62 mi)) western border section is between Russia's Altai Republic and China's Xinjiang. It runs in the mostly snow-covered high elevation area of the Altai Mountains. Its western end point is the China–Kazakhstan–Russia tripoint, whose location is defined by the trilateral agreement as 49°06′54″N 87°17′12″E / 49.11500°N 87.28667°E / 49.11500; 87.28667, elevation, 3327 m.[7] Its eastern end is the western China–Mongolia–Russia tripoint, at the top of the peak Tavan Bogd Uul (Mt Kuitun),[8][9] at the coordinates 49°10′13.5″N 87°48′56.3″E / 49.170417°N 87.815639°E / 49.170417; 87.815639.[6][9][10]

History

Tsarist era (pre-1917)

The shifting eastern border from 1689-1860

Today's Sino-Russian border line is mostly inherited by Russia (with minor adjustments) from the Soviet Union, while the Sino-Soviet border line was essentially the same as the border between the Russian and Qing Empires, settled by a number of treaties from the 17th through to the 19th centuries. Border issues first became an issue following Russia's rapid expansion into Siberia in the 17th century, with intermittent skirmishes occurring between them and Qing China.[11] Below is a list of important border treaties, along with the indication as to which section of today's Sino-Russian border were largely set by them:

Sino-Soviet border (1917–1991)

Map showing the locations of major clashes during the 1969 border war
Western section of the border in the 1970s

Following the Russian Revolution in 1917 and the later formation of the Soviet Union, there have been a number of issues along the border:

  • In 1911 Outer Mongolia declared independence from China; the USSR recognised the country in 1921, thus removing a large part of the China-USSR border and splitting it into two sections.[11] China later recognised Mongolian independence in 1946.[11]
  • Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) - a conflict largely centred on the Chinese Eastern Railway.
  • Sino-Soviet border conflict (1969) - this was a serious seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969 (China having been taken over by Communists in 1949). Although military clashes ceased that year, the underlying issues were not resolved until the 1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement. The most serious of these border clashes, which brought the two countries to the brink of all-out war, occurred in March 1969 in the vicinity of Zhenbao (Damansky) Island on the Ussuri (Wusuli) River; as such, Chinese historians most commonly refer to the conflict as the Zhenbao Island Incident.[13] Heavily militarised following the war, the border slowly opened after 1982, allowing the first exchange of goods between the two countries, though the territorial disputes remained unresolved. Between 1988 and 1992 the cross-border commerce between Russia and the Heilongjiang province increased threefold, with the number of legal Chinese workers in Russia increasing from 1,286 to 18,905.[4]

Three countries bordered both China and the Soviet Union: Afghanistan, Mongolia and North Korea. Both the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and Mongolian People's Republic were pro-Soviet satellite states during the Cold War, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was neutral.

Post-1991

The waning years of the Soviet Union saw a reduction of the tensions on the then heavily fortified Sino-Soviet border. In 1990–91, the two countries agreed to significantly reduce their military forces stationed along the border.[14] To this day one can find numerous abandoned military facilities in Russia's border districts.[15]

Even though the Sino-Soviet border trade resumed as early as 1983–85, it accelerated in 1990–91; the rate of cross-border trade continued to increase as the USSR's former republics became separate states. To accommodate increasing volume of travel and private trade, a number of border crossings were re-opened.[14] In early 1992, China announced border trade incentives and the creation of special economic zones (SEZs) along the Sino-Russian border, the largest of these being in Hunchun, Jilin.[14]

In 1991, China and USSR signed the 1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement, which was intended to start the process of resolving the border disputes held in abeyance since the 1960s. However, just a few months later the USSR was dissolved, and four former Soviet republics — Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan — inherited various sections of the former Sino–Soviet border.

It took more than a decade for Russia and China to fully resolve the border issues and to demarcate the border. On May 29, 1994, during Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin's visit to Beijing, an "Agreement on the Sino-Russian Border Management System intended to facilitate border trade and hinder criminal activity" was signed. On September 3, a demarcation agreement was signed for the short (55 kilometres (34 mi)) western section of the binational border; the demarcation of this section was completed in 1998.[16]

In November 1997, at a meeting in Beijing, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and General Secretary and Chinese President Jiang Zemin signed an agreement for the demarcation of the much longer (over 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi)) eastern section of the border, in accordance with the provisions of the 1991 Sino-Soviet agreement.

The last unresolved territorial issue between the two countries was settled by the 2004 Complementary Agreement between China and Russia on the Eastern Section of the China–Russia Boundary.[17] Pursuant to that agreement, Russia transferred to China a part of Abagaitu Islet, the entire Yinlong (Tarabarov) Island, about half of Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, and some adjacent river islets. The transfer has been ratified by both the Chinese National People's Congress and the Russian State Duma in 2005, thus ending the decades-long border dispute. The official transfer ceremony was held on-site on October 14, 2008.[citation needed]

Border management

A train passing the border crossing from Zabaykalsk in Russia to Manzhouli in China. The banner reads "Rossiya", Russia in the Russian language (coordinates: 49°37′49.24″N 117°20′20.68″E / 49.6303444°N 117.3390778°E / 49.6303444; 117.3390778)

As with many other international borders, a bilateral treaty exists concerning the physical modalities of managing the China–Russia border. The currently valid agreement was signed in Beijing in 2006.[18]

The treaty requires the two states to clear trees in a 15 metres (49 ft)-wide strip along the border (i.e. within 7.5 metres (25 ft) from the border line on each side of it) (Article 6).[18]

Civil navigation is allowed on the border rivers and lakes, provided the vessels of each country stay on the appropriate side of the dividing line (Article 9); similar rules apply to fishing in these waters (Article 10). Each country's authorities will carry out appropriate measures to prevent grazing livestock from crossing into the other country and will endeavor to apprehend and return any livestock that wanders onto their territory from across the border (Article 17). Hunting using firearms is prohibited within 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) from the borderline; hunters are prohibited from crossing the border in pursuit of a wounded animal (Article 19).[18]

Detained illegal border crossers are supposed to be normally returned to their country of origin within 7 days from their apprehension (Article 34).[18]

Border crossings

Eastern section

A special passenger train operates between the two border stations on the eastern section of the former Chinese Eastern Railway, Suifenhe and Grodekovo

A list of ports-of-entry on the eastern section is provided by China Association of Port-of-entry:

China–Russia border crossings (eastern section)
Name Type of crossing transports Bordering

Chinese town

Bordering Russian town Open to third country nationals Notes
Changchun Airport[19] air between Jiutaidonghu, Changchun and Longjia, Jilin City, Jilin Province n/a Yes air lines of Viadivostok-Bangkok and Vladivostok-Yekaterinburg stop here, also to/from Vladivostok
Yanji Airport[20] air Yanji, Yanbian, Jilin No seasonal air lines to Vladivostok
Hunchun South [zh]-Kameshovaya/Makhalino[21] railway Hunchun, Yanbian, Jilin Kraskino, Khasansky District, Primorsky Krai No the only railway crossing at Jilin section
Hunchun [zh]-Kraskino[22] road Yes the only road crossing at Jilin section, connects G609 (with indirectly G12, G302, G331 and G610)
Dongning [ja]-Poltavka[23] road Sanchakou, Dongning, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Poltavka [ru], Oktyabrsky District, Primorsky Krai Yes connects G331 and G602 indirectly
Suifenhe [zh]-Grodekovo [ru][24] railway Suifenhe, Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang Pogranichny, Pogranichny District, Primorsky Krai Yes prior to COVID-19 pandemic, 401/402 train [zh] (401E/402E) runs through here
Suifenhe [zh]-Pogranichny[25] road Yes connects G10 (with indirectly G301, G331 and G602) and 05A-215, part of AH6
Mudanjiang[26] air Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang n/a No regular air lines to Viadivostok, Yakutsk and Khabarovsk
Mishan [ja]-Turiy Rog[27] road Dangbi, Mishan, Jixi, Heilongjiang Turiy Rog [ru], Khankaysky District, Primorsky Krai Yes connects G501 (with indirectly G1115 and G331), nearby Lake Khanka
Hulin [ja]-Markovo[28] road Hulin, Jixi, Heilongjiang Markovo, Lesozavodsk, Primorsky Krai Yes connects G1115, G331 and G602 indirectly
Raohe-Pokrovka[29] shipping Raohe, Shuangyashan, Heilongjiang Pokrovka, Bikin, Khabarovsk Krai No boats available during Spring through Autumn, car crossing in Winter only, connects G229, G331 and G601 indirectly when car traffic available
Heixiazi-Bolshoy Ussuriysky[30] road Fuyuan, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai planned, expected only aboriginal peoples of the island and nearby towns can cross, will connect G1012 and G102 indirectly
Fuyuan-Khabarovsk[31] shipping Yes currently the easternmost port-of-entry of China in use, boats available during Spring through Autumn, car crossing in Winter only, connects G1012, G102, G331 and G601 indirectly when car traffic available
Tongjiang [zh]-Nizhneleninskoye[32] railway Tongjiang, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Nizhneleninskoye, Leninsky District, Jewish Autonomous Oblast No
Tongjiang [ja]-Nizhneleninskoye[33] shipping No boats available during Spring through Autumn, hovercraft and car crossing in Winter only, connects G1011, G221 and G331 indirectly when car traffic available
Fujin[34] shipping Fujin, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang n/a No international boats to ports of Nizhneleninskoye, Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk, Nikolayevsk and Sea of Japan
Jiamusi[35] shipping Jiamusi, Heilongjiang No international boats to ports of Nizhneleninskoye, Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk, Nikolayevsk and Sea of Japan
Luobei-Amurzet[36] shipping Luobei, Hegang, Heilongjiang Amurzet, Jewish Autonomous Oblast Yes boats available during Spring through Autumn, car crossing in Winter only, connects G332 (with indirectly G331) when car traffic available
Harbin[37] air Harbin, Heilongjiang n/a Yes
Harbin[38] railway Yes Trans-Eurasia Logistics dry port, was the terminus of K7023/7024 Harbin-Khabarovsk/Vladivostok Train (005/006/351/352)
Harbin[39] shipping was having international boats to ports of Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk, Nikolayevsk, Blagoveshchensk and Sea of Japan, unavailable in recent years
Jiamusi Airport[40] air Jiamusi, Heilongjiang No seasonal air lines to Khabarovsk
Jiayin-Pashkovo[41] shipping Jiayin, Yichun, Heilongjiang Pashkovo, Obluchensky District, Jewish Autonomous Oblast currently under renovation, if re-opened, it may connect G222 (with indirectly G331) during winter
Xunke-Poyarkovo[42] shipping Xunke, Heihe, Heilongjiang Poyarkovo, Mikhaylovsky District, Amur Oblast No boats available during Spring through Autumn, hovercraft and car crossing in Winter only, connects G331 indirectly
Qiqihar Airport[43] air Qiqihar, Heilongjiang No seasonal air lines to Blagoveshchensk and Krasnoyarsk
Sunwu-Konstantinovka[44] shipping Sunwu, Heihe, Heilongjiang Konstantinovka, Konstantinovsky District, Amur Oblast currently not available as there are concerns at Amur Oblast authorities, if opened in the future, it may connect G202 indirectly during winter
Heihe-Blagoveshchensk[45] road Heihe, Heilongjiang Blagoveshchensk, Amur Oblast Yes

connects G1211 (with indirectly G202, G331, G603 and G604), part of AH31

Heihe-Blagoveshchensk[46] pedestrain (gondola) under construction
Heihe [ja]-Blagoveshchensk[47] shipping Yes boats available during Spring through Autumn, hovercraft and car crossing in Winter only
Huma-Ushakovo[48] shipping Huma, Daxing'anling, Heilongjiang Ushakovo, Shimanovsky District, Amur Oblast currently not available as there are concerns at Amur Oblast authorities, if opened in the future, it may connect G331 and G605 indirectly during winter
Mohe-Dzhalinda[49] shipping Mohe, Daxing'anling, Heilongjiang Dzhalinda, Skovorodinsky District, Amur Oblast No boats available during Spring through Autumn, car crossing in Winter only, connects G111 (with indirectly G1213 and G331) when car traffic available
Shiwei [zh]-Olochi[50] road Shiwei, Ergun, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia Olochi, Nerchinsko-Zavodsky District, Zabaykalsky Krai Yes connects G644
Heishantou [zh]-Starotsurukhaitu[51] road Ergun, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia Starotsurukhaitu, Priargunsky District, Zabaykalsky Krai No
Hailar[52] air Hailar, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia n/a was having Chita-Pyongyang air lines stopping decades ago
Manzhouli [zh]-Zabaykalsk[53] road Manzhouli, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia Zabaykalsk, Zabaykalsky District, Zabaykalsky Krai Yes connects G10, G301 (with indirectly G331 and G623) and A 350, part of AH6
Manzhouli-Zabaykalsk [ru][54] railway Yes prior to COVID-19 pandemic, K19/20 Beijing-Moscow train [zh] (019Ch/020She) runs through here, break-of-gauge at Zabaykalsk
Manzhouli[55] air n/a Yes regular air lines to Chita, Ulan-Ude, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Abakan and Novosibirsk
Hohhot[56] air Hohhot, Inner Mongolia n/a Yes regular air lines to Irkutsk

Western section

According to Russian topographic maps, the lowest mountain passes on the western section of the border are the Betsu-Kanas Pass (перевал Бетсу-Канас), elevation 2,671.3 metres (8,764 ft)[10][57] and Kanas (перевал Канас), elevation 2,650 metres (8,690 ft).[58] No roads suitable for wheeled vehicles exist over these two passes, although a difficult dirt road approaches from the Russian side to within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the Kanas Pass. Until the Soviet authorities closed the border in 1936, Kazakh nomads would occasionally use these passes.[57]

Proposals exist for the construction of a cross-border highway and the Altai gas pipeline from China to Russia, which would cross the western section of the Sino-Russian border.[59]

Historical maps

Historical maps of the border from west to east in the International Map of the World, mid-20th century:

See also

References

  1. ^ Китай Archived 2015-07-07 at the Wayback Machine (China), at the Rosgranitsa site
  2. ^ Китай Archived 2015-07-07 at the Wayback Machine (China), at the Rosgranitsa site
  3. ^ The 1994 agreement is: Соглашение между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Китайской Народной Республики о пунктах пропуска на российско-китайской государственной границе. Пекин, 27 января 1994 года Archived 2015-07-21 at the Wayback Machine (The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the border crossing points on the Russia–China international border. Beijing, January 27, 1994). The text only lists 21 border crossing points.
  4. ^ a b Sébastien Colin, Le développement des relations frontalières entre la Chine et la Russie, études du CERI n°96, July 2003. (Note: this publication preceded the 2004 final settlement, and thus the estimate may slightly differ from the current number).
  5. ^ ПРОТОКОЛ-ОПИСАНИЕ ТОЧКИ ВОСТОЧНОГО СТЫКА ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ ГРАНИЦ ТРЕХ ГОСУДАРСТВ МЕЖДУ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ Российской Федерации, ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ МОНГОЛИИ и ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ КИТАЙСКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ Archived 2018-02-15 at the Wayback Machine (Protocol between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of Mongolia, and the Government of the People's Republic of China, describing the eastern junction point of the borders of the trees states) (in Russian)
  6. ^ a b Соглашением между Правительством Российской Федерации, Правительством Китайской Народной Республики и Правительством Монголии об определении точек стыков государственных границ трех государств (Заключено в г. Улан-Баторе 27 января 1994 года) Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine (The Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of the People's Republic of China, and the Government of Mongolia on the determination of the points of junction of the national borders of the three states) (in Russian)
  7. ^ Соглашение между Российской Федерацией, Республикой Казахстан и Китайской Народной Республикой об определении точки стыка государственных границ трех государств, от 5 мая 1999 года (The agreement between the Russian Federation, Republic of Kazakhstan, and the People's Republic of China on determining the junction point of the international borders of the three states. May 5, 1999)
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  9. ^ a b ПРОТОКОЛ-ОПИСАНИЕ ТОЧКИ ЗАПАДНОГО СТЫКА ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫХ ГРАНИЦ ТРЕХ ГОСУДАРСТВ МЕЖДУ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ Российской Федерации, ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ МОНГОЛИИ и ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВОМ КИТАЙСКОЙ НАРОДНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ (ПОДПИСАН в г. ПЕКИНЕ 24.06.1996) Archived 2018-02-16 at the Wayback Machine (Protocol between the Government of the Russian Federation, the Government of Mongolia, and the Government of the People's Republic of China, describing the western junction point of the borders of the three states. Signed in Beijing, June 24, 1996) (in Russian)
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  15. ^ Numerous photo reports from such sites exist on the internet. See e.g. Заброшенный укрепрайон на Большом Уссурийском острове (Abandoned fortified area in Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island)
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  48. ^ "呼玛水运(河港)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  49. ^ "漠河水运(河港)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  50. ^ "室韦陆路(公路)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  51. ^ "黑山头陆路(公路)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  52. ^ "海拉尔空运口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  53. ^ "满洲里陆路(公路)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  54. ^ "满洲里陆路(铁路)口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  55. ^ "满洲里空运口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  56. ^ "呼和浩特空运口岸". China Association of Port-of-entry. 2019-02-19. Retrieved 2023-07-19.
  57. ^ a b Перевал Бетсу-Канас (Betsu-Kanas Pass) (in Russian)
  58. ^ Перевал Канас (Kanas Pass) (in Russian)
  59. ^ Перевал "Канас" станет пунктом сдачи газа РФ китайским партерам по "западному маршруту" (Gas will be transferred to the Chinese partners over the Kanas Pass along the Western Route [of the pipeline]), 2015-05-08

Further reading

  • Burr, William. "Sino-American relations, 1969: the Sino-Soviet border war and steps towards rapprochement." Cold War History 1.3 (2001): 73-112.
  • Gerson, Michael S. The Sino-Soviet Border Conflict: Deterrence, Escalation, and the Threat of Nuclear War in 1969 (2010) online
  • Humphrey, Caroline. "Loyalty and disloyalty as relational forms in Russia’s border war with China in the 1960s." History and Anthropology 28.4 (2017): 497–514. online
  • Kuisong, Yang. "The Sino-Soviet Border Clash of 1969: From Zhenbao Island to Sino-American Rapprochement." Cold War History 1.1 (2000): 21–52.
  • Robinson, Thomas W. "The Sino-Soviet border dispute: Background, development, and the March 1969 clashes." American Political Science Review 66.4 (1972): 1175–1202. online
  • Urbansky, Sören:
    • Beyond the Steppe Frontier: A History of the Sino-Russian Border (2020) a comprehensive history; excerpt
    • "A Very Orderly Friendship: The Sino-Soviet Border under the Alliance Regime, 1950-1960." Eurasia Border Review 3.Special Issue (2012): 33-52 online.
    • "The Unfathomable Foe. Constructing the Enemy in the Sino-Soviet Borderlands, ca. 1969–1982." Journal of Modern European History10.2 (2012): 255–279. online
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China–Russia border
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