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2014 Catalan self-determination referendum

2014 Catalan self-determination referendum
9 November 2014

Do you want Catalonia to become a state?

In case of affirmative answer, do you want this state to become independent?

Map of the Yes-Yes vote share by vegueria:   60%   65%   70%   75%   80%   85%   90%   95%
Websiteparticipa2014.cat
Results
Yes–Yes
80.76%
Yes–No
10.07%
Yes–Blank
0.97%
No
4.54%
Blank
0.56%
Location of Catalonia (dark green) in Spain (light green) and Europe.

A non-binding Catalan self-determination referendum, also known as the Citizen Participation Process on the Political Future of Catalonia,[1] was held on Sunday, 9 November 2014, to gauge support on the political future of Catalonia. While also referred to as "Catalan independence referendum",[2][3][4] the vote was rebranded as a "participation process" by the Government of Catalonia, after a "non-referendum popular consultation" on the same topic and for the same date had been suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain.[5]

The ballot papers carried two questions: "Do you want Catalonia to become a State?" and "Do you want this State to be independent?" The second question could only be answered by those who had answered Yes to the first one.[6] The Catalan government gave notice on 10 November, the day after voting, that 2,305,290 votes had been cast overall,[7] but it did not provide a percentage figure for the turnout. Estimates for the turnout as published by the news media ranged from 37.0%, as given in The Economist and El País among others,[8][9][10] to 41.6% as per the Catalan government's preliminary data.[11] 80.8% of the cast votes supported the Yes–Yes option, 10.1% the Yes–No, 4.5% the No option.

Holding a referendum about the "political future of Catalonia" in 2014 was one of the items of the governance agreement ratified by Artur Mas from Convergence and Union (CiU) and Oriol Junqueras from Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) on 18 December 2012,[12][13][14][15] that allowed Artur Mas to be voted in as President of the Generalitat of Catalonia for a second term.

On 19 September 2014, the Catalan parliament approved a call for a referendum on independence.[16] Eight days later Artur Mas announced that the vote was to be held on 9 November 2014.[17] The same day the Spanish government announced that it would block the effort by appealing to the Constitutional Court of Spain.[18] The Court decided to hear the Spanish government's case on 29 September 2014, and provisionally suspended the vote.[19] The Catalan Government subsequently announced the "temporary suspension" of the referendum campaign.[20]

On 14 October, Artur Mas proposed a "process of citizen participation" as an alternative to the original referendum.[21] The Spanish government announced that it would also block this effort by appealing to the Constitutional Court, which decided to hear the Spanish government's case on 4 November 2014, and provisionally suspended the vote. The Catalan Government, however, pushed forward with the "citizen participation" process, in defiance of the Constitutional Court,[22] and voting took place as planned on 9 November 2014.

Background

2009–2012

Unofficial Catalan independence referendums

In 2009 and 2011 unofficial referendums took place in hundreds of Catalan towns as one of the many actions included in the independentist-wing-parties' platforms; in the referendums the pro-independence option won an overwhelming majority of the votes cast, although the participation rate was very low.

Demonstrations in Barcelona

In 2010 and 2012 different demonstrations took place in Barcelona. The first one took place on 10 July 2010. It featured a Catalan regionalist ideological leadership. The second one on 11 September 2012 was openly in favor of Catalan independence and had as a slogan "Catalonia, next state in Europe". As a consequence of this second demonstration, the Rt. Hon. Artur Mas, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia at that time, called a snap election, and the "Agreement for Freedom" was negotiated between Artur Mas (CiU "Conservativel local party") and Oriol Junqueras (ERC, Republican and socialistic-style left party).

Free Catalan Territories

Also, during 2012, dozens of Catalan towns declared themselves Free Catalan Territory stating that "the Spanish legislation and regulations have effect only in Spain, so this town will wait for new legislation and regulation from the Catalan Government and the Parliament of Catalonia."

Resolution of the Catalan Parliament for Holding an Independence Referendum

The Catalan independence referendum is planned to take place during the tenth legislature of the Parliament of Catalonia. According to a resolution adopted by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 September 2012:

The Parliament of Catalonia confirms the need for the people of Catalonia to be able to freely and democratically determine their collective future and urges the government to hold a referendum during the following legislature.[25]

The resolution was adopted after the general policy debate. It received 84 favourable votes, 21 against and 25 abstentions.[26] The President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Artur Mas, declared in a speech to Parliament that it was time for the people of Catalonia to exercise the right of self-determination.[27]

2013

Declaration of Sovereignty

Results of the votes for the "Declaration of sovereignty" at the Catalan Parliament, on 23 January 2013

On 23 January 2013 the Parliament of Catalonia adopted by 85 favourable votes, 41 against, and 2 abstentions the "Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People".[28][29][30] It states that "The people of Catalonia have – by reason of democratic legitimacy – the character of a sovereign political and legal entity." Five Socialist MPs did not vote. It is based on the following principles: sovereignty, democratic legitimacy, transparency, dialogue, social cohesion, Europeanism, legality, role of the Catalan Parliament and participation.[31][32][33]

In accordance with the democratically expressed will of the majority of the Catalan public, the Parliament of Catalonia initiates a process to bring to promote the right of the citizens of Catalonia to collectively decide their political future.[31]

The political parties Convergence and Union (CiU) (50 yes), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) (21 yes) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens-United and Alternative Left (ICV-EUiA) (13 yes) totally supported the statement of sovereignty. On the other hand, the People's Party of Catalonia (PPC) (19 no) and Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (C's) (9 no) totally opposed the proposal. 15 members of the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) voted against; 5 did not vote despite being present in the Chamber, thus disobeying the orders of the party whips to vote against the proposal. Finally, the Popular Unity Candidature (CUP) gave a "critical yes", with 1 vote in favour and 2 abstentions.[32]

On 8 May 2013 this purely political declaration was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain.[34][35]

Date and wording

On 12 December 2013, the Government of Catalonia announced that a deal between Catalan nationalist parties had set the date and wording for the referendum on independence. The date would be 9 November 2014 and that it will contain a question with two sections: "Do you want Catalonia to become a State?" and "In case of an affirmative response, do you want this State to be independent?".[36][37]

The date was chosen as it would allow for discussions with the Spanish Government in order "to stage the consultation legally", but the Spanish Government stated shortly thereafter its intention to block the referendum, stating: "Such a poll will not be held."[38][39] Mariano Rajoy, Spanish Prime Minister, said that the referendum would be considered illegal and that "any discussion or debate on this is out of the question".[38][40]

Ballot questions

Ballot question (in Catalan and Spanish)

According to the consultation decree, "in the consultation there is a first question followed successively by a second question, and they are worded as follows: a) Do you want Catalonia to become a State? (Yes/No); If so: b) Do you want this State to be independent? (Yes/No). You can only answer the question under Letter b) in the event of having answered "Yes" to the question under Letter a)."[6] The "participation process" that has replaced the "non-referendum consultation" maintains the same two questions.

Eligibility

The participation process does not have an official electorate.[41] The vote has been called by the Catalan government for people who are at least 16 years of age on 9 November 2014 and who meet one of the following criteria:[42]

  • Spanish citizens whose national identity card states they are resident in Catalonia;
  • Spanish citizens who live outside of Spain and are registered as "Catalans abroad" or "Spaniards abroad" linked to a Catalonia municipality;
  • Foreign nationals who are legally residing in Catalonia;

Catalan people who are resident in other Spanish regions, and Spanish citizens who live in Catalonia but are not resident there, cannot vote.

Estimates of the number of people eligible to vote range between 5.4 million[43] and 6.2 million.[44][45]

Legality

On 25 March 2014, the Spanish Constitutional Court finally ruled that the sovereignty part of the "Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People" was "unconstitutional and null", and therefore did not allow a self-determination referendum to be held in Catalonia.[46] It however allows the part of the right to decide (allows to check the Catalan people's opinion by a legal consultation).[citation needed] The Catalan government declared that this ruling would "have no effect on the process".[47]

On 8 April 2014, the Spanish Congress rejected the Catalan parliament's request to give it the power to organize the self-determination referendum. The bill was voted down 299 (PP, PSOE, UPyD, UPN and Foro Asturias) to 47 (CiU, Izquierda Unida, PNV, BNG, Amaiur, ERC, Compromís and Geroa Bai), with one abstention (NC-CC).[48][49]

Catalan government's legal initiatives

Consultation and other forms of citizen participation Law

On 19 September 2014 the Parliament of Catalonia approved by 106 favourable votes, 28 against, the Consultation law. According to pro-consultation parties, this law will provide the legal basis for the President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Artur Mas, to hold the consultation (non-binding self-determination referendum) on independence from Spain on 9 November.[50]

Non-binding independence referendum decree

On 27 September 2014, Catalan President Artur Mas signed a decree calling for a consultation on independence.[17] On 29 September 2014, the Spanish Constitutional Court provisionally suspended the vote.[19] The Catalan Government subsequently announced the "temporary suspension" of the referendum campaign.[20]

Citizen participation process

On 14 October, the Catalan President proposes a "process of citizen participation" as an alternative for the original referendum[21] The Spanish government announced that it would block the effort by appealing to the Spanish Constitutional Court, which decided to hear the Spanish government case on 4 November 2014, which provisionally suspended the vote. The Catalan Government announced they would push forward with the vote, in defiance of the Constitutional Court of Spain.[22] On 5 November, Catalan representatives complained against the Spanish Government to international organizations for blocking self-determination.[51]

Positions

Catalonia

Position of the parties with parliamentary representation in Catalonia (sorted by votes):

  • CiU, liberal and Catalan nationalist coalition of CDC (37 seats) and UDC (13 seats): the goal to achieve a sovereign state in the European framework was included in their election manifesto, Catalunya 2020. This is an aim shared by a majority within the coalition and by CDC, including the party president Artur Mas. However some leaders of UDC such as Josep Antoni Duran Lleida have had an ambiguous position and have defended a confederal model.[52][53] For the 9N consultation, CDC supports the "yes-yes" to independence whereas UDC supports the "yes" to the first question but has given liberty to its members on how to vote on the second question.[54]
  • ERC, social democratic and pro Catalan independence party (21 seats): ERC clearly supports Catalonia having its own State within the European Union framework, and for that reason they have signed the pact with CiU since 2012.[55][56]
  • PSC, social democratic party federated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (20 seats): in the words of their leader, the PSC is against independence, but favours the holding of a legal referendum agreed with the Spanish Government. This is why it decided to abstain in all parliamentary votes dealing with the right to decide. Despite that, some notable PSC leaders (like Montserrat Tura and Joaquim Nadal) said they would vote for independence in a referendum.[57] Miquel Iceta, leader of the PSC from 2014 to 2021, had declared that he would not vote in the participation process.[41]
  • PPC, the Catalan affiliate of the Spanish People's Party (19 seats): the PP believe that the referendum is illegal, they defend the Spanish Constitutional framework and are against secession. They also claim that the independence of Catalonia would give rise to a number of serious social and economic problems, such as expulsion from the Eurozone.[58] The PP would not vote in the participation process.[41]
  • ICV-EUiA ecosocialist and Catalan nationalist coalition (ICV hold 10 seats and EUiA hold 3): ICV, an eco-socialist group, defends the right to self-determination, but party leaders have never responded as to how they would vote in a referendum and say they are a union of federalists and separatists.[59] Joan Herrera, current leader of ICV, has declared he will not vote in the participation process.[41]
  • C's, a neoliberal party, which supports Catalan-Spanish bilingualism,[60][61] (9 seats): C's is strongly positioned against the self-determination referendum unless it is previously approved by the Spanish parliament.[62] Its leadership said that C's would not vote in the participation process.[41]
  • CUP, anti capitalist, socialist and pro-independence party (3 seats): the CUP is in favour of the independence of Catalonia, as part of the emancipation of all the "Catalan Countries" (territories where Catalan is spoken), and seeks the formation of a socialist country outside the European Union.[63][64]

Rest of Spain

Catalan independence flag hoisted on the Gipuzkoa Regional Govt headquarters on 9 November 2014.
Spanish Government

The Spanish Government "will not allow" and "will not negotiate" on Catalonia's self-determination vote.[38][65]

Parties

Position of the parties with parliamentary representation in the Parliament of Spain (sorted by seats):

  • People's Party (PP) (186 seats) conservative, argue that the referendum is illegal. The Spanish deputy Prime Minister Soraya Saenz de Santamaria says Catalonia cannot hold an independence referendum without first consulting the rest of the country. She also said the call for a referendum "of this nature" requires prior constitutional procedures, which consist of "authorization by the State". She also noted that it would be a matter that would "affect the whole Spanish people, that is, the whole electoral roll and thus each and every Spanish citizen must be consulted, because it is up to all of us to determine the territorial organization".[65]
  • Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) (110 seats) argue that the referendum is illegal. It considers the Catalan referendum 'unlawful and disastrous'. Reiterates that the route taken by the Government of Catalonia is a "road to nowhere".[67][68]
  • The Plural Left (11 seats) anti-capitalist and eco-socialist group led by United Left, and containing a number of left, environmental, Federalist and nationalist parties throughout Spain, defends a federal, multinational, social and Republican government and recognizes the right of the people of Catalonia to decide their political future.[69]
  • Amaiur (7 seats), Basque separatist party, actively supports the Catalan right to hold a referendum on self-determination and requests a similar right for the Spanish Basque Country.[70]
  • Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) (5 seats) argue that the referendum is illegal and believes that the Spanish government should use all legal means to prevent the referendum, and partially blames PP and PSOE for this situation.[71]
  • Basque Nationalist Party (5 seats) defends the right of the people of Catalonia to decide their political future and the Catalan independence referendum.[72]
  • Galician Nationalist Bloc (2 seats) defends the right of self-determination of Catalonia and a similar right for Galicia.[70][73]
  • Compromís (1 seat) Valencian coalition that contains left, environmental and Valencian nationalist parties, defends the Catalan referendum of self-determination.[74][75]
  • Foro Asturias (1 seat) opposes the Catalan referendum of self-determination because "national sovereignty resides in the Spanish people".[76]
Regional Governments

The Basque Government supports the Catalan agreement to hold the referendum and calls on the Spanish government to recognise the referendum and allow it to be celebrated.[77]

International reactions

This article contains too many or overly lengthy quotations. Please help summarize the quotations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote or excerpts to Wikisource. (November 2019)
Organisations
  •  United Nations — In April 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon stated in a press conference that "All the issues between the countries and among the countries should be resolved through peaceful means, through dialogue, respecting the genuine aspirations of the people concerned."[78]
  •  European Union — A spokesperson of the European Commission declared that if Catalonia seceded from Spain it would automatically leave the European Union: "An independent state, because of its independence, would become a third country vis-à-vis the EU and as of the day of the independence the EU treaties will no longer apply'".[79]
  •  NATO — A spokesperson for NATO said that an independent country would not automatically be part of the organisation, saying "for any nation to be incorporated into the alliance the consensus of all the NATO allies will be necessary".[80]
States
  •  Germany — Chancellor Angela Merkel said: "We're in favour of the territorial integrity of all states but that's completely different to regions becoming independent and organising themselves. So I share the opinion of the Spanish government, and other than that I won't get involved in domestic Spanish matters".[81]
  •  Latvia — Prime Minister Valdis Dombrovskis said: "If there is a clear will of the people and a clear demand for a referendum, it is absolutely worth it to pay attention and look at options on how to tackle it".[82]
  •  Lithuania — Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevičius said: "Each country must find its own path and has the right to self-determination".[83]
  •  France — Prime Minister Manuel Valls (born in Catalonia), announced in January 2014 that he does not agree with "the process that is underway in Catalonia" and reaffirmed that he is "anxious" about the referendum.[84]
  •  United Kingdom — Prime Minister David Cameron (who enabled the 2014 Scottish independence referendum to be carried out) said: "I don't believe that, in the end, [it's right to] try to ignore these questions of nationality, independence, identity... I think it’s right to make your arguments, take them on and then you let the people decide. But that's the way I want to do things in the United Kingdom. I would never presume to tell people in Spain how to meet these challenges themselves; it's a matter for the Spanish Government and the Spanish Prime Minister."[85] After the consultation he declared that he wanted Spain "to stay united" and that referendums "should be done through the proper constitutional and legal frameworks".[86]
  •  United States — Deputy National Security Council Spokesperson and Assistant Press Secretary Caitlin Hayden said of the White House response to a petition on its website that was supported by 30,000 signatures: "The United States recognises the unique culture and traditions of the Catalan region, but considers the status of Catalonia to be an internal Spanish matter. We are confident that the Government and the people of Spain will resolve this issue in accordance with their laws and Constitution."[87]
European parties
  • Graham Watson, President of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (ALDE): "The people of Catalonia have the right to choose their own future [...] I believe in the democracy. Catalans should be able to choose. That's what democracy is about."[88]
  • The European Free Alliance stated: "We believe that freedom, democracy and the right to decide on your own future are core values of Europe. We would welcome Catalonia and a Catalan Republic to be a new state within Europe, if the people so decide"[88]
  • Ska Keller, The Greens–European Free Alliance: "The Greens defend radical democracy and in Catalonia there is a citizen demand in favour of a [self-determination] referendum. For this reason I want to make the personal commitment that, if I am elected Commission President, I will support Catalonia in allowing a consultation vote on its political future and its relationship with Spain".[89]
Media
  • David Gardner, International Affairs Editor at the Financial Times, wrote: "No one can simply ban a democratic referendum in Catalonia".[90][91] On 15 December 2013, the Financial Times published an editorial that read: "This is a political problem that requires a negotiated solution – more federalism within Spain’s crying need for institutional renewal." It exhorted "politicians from both sides (...) to prevent what is at root a political issue becoming a problem that threatens the very state."[92]
  • The Economist published an article in the week after the November 2014 ballot arguing that "The Madrid government should let the Catalans have a vote—and then defeat the separatists at the polls."[93]
Individuals
  • The LetCatalansVote manifesto included a statement that read "we call on the Spanish government and institutions and their Catalan counterparts to work together to allow the citizens of Catalonia to vote on their political future and then negotiate in good faith based on the result."[94]

Opinion polling

Attitudes in Catalonia

Surveys with the referendum questions

Since December 2013, several surveys have been carried out on the two stated questions of the referendum. The "Yes/Yes"-option indicates the percentage of voters in favour of Catalonia becoming an independent state and the "Yes/No"-option indicates the percentage in favour of Catalonia becoming a state but against independence. Voters who vote in the first question no, are against Catalonia becoming a state.

Date
published
Polling organisation Yes/Yes Yes/No Yes/Undecided No Undecided/Abstention
Sep 2014 El Mundo 34.6% 4.5% 2.3% 39.5% 19.2%
Mar 2014 El Periódico de Catalunya 46.1% 4.4% 2.8% 31.9% 14.8%
5 Feb 2014 8 al dia Archived 27 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine 40.7% 3.8% 3.5% 24.4% 27.5%
16-19 Dec 2013 La Vanguardia 44.9% 8.4% - 36.6% 10.1%
12-13 Dec 2013 El Mundo 35.2% 5.5% 2.3% 39.1% 17.9%
12-13 Dec 2013 El Periódico de Catalunya 44.1% 5.8% 2.4% 30.4% 17.3%

Short-term polling

Date
published
Polling organisation Support Reject Undecided Lead
Sep 2013 Cadena SER Archived 22 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine 52.3% 24.1% 23.6% 28.2%
Jun 2013 Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió Archived 1 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine 55.6% 23.4% 21% 32.2%
May 2013 El Periódico de Catalunya 57.8% 36% 6.2% 21.8%
Feb 2013 Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió 54.7% 20.7% 24.6% 34%
Sep 2012 Telecinco (GESOP) 50.9% 18.6% 30.5% 32.3%
Jul 2012 Diari Ara 50.4% 23.8% 25.8% 26.6%
Jun 2012 Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió 51.1% 21.1% 27.8% 30%
Mar 2012 Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió Archived 27 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine 44.6% 24.7% 30.7% 19.9%
Jan 2012 El Periódico de Catalunya 53.6% 32% 14.4% 21.6%

Long-term surveys

Trends in support for Catalan independence can be observed by comparing more recent surveys with that carried out by Spain's Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas in 1996, which asked "Personally, would you support or reject Catalonia becoming independent?".

Date
published
Polling organisation Support Reject Undecided Lead
2011 Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials 41.4% 22.9% 35.7% 18.5%
1996 Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas 33.6% 53.5% 13.1% 19.9%

Results

The Catalan government indicated that 2,305,290 votes were cast overall,[7] out of 5.4m eligible voters.[95] The Catalan government did not provide a final turnout percentage figure. Turnout estimates published by media outlets range between 37.0%[8][9][10] and 41.6% (the latter figure, based on the Catalan government's preliminary data).[11] 80.8% of the cast votes supported the Yes-Yes option, 10.1% the Yes-No, 4.5% the No option.

Choice Votes %
Yes/Yes 1,861,753 80.76
Yes/No 232,182 10.07
Yes/Blank ballots 22,466 0.97
Total Yes 2,116,401 91.80
No 104,760 4.54
Total No 104,760 4.54
Blank ballots 12,986 0.56
Others 71,131 3.09
Total 2,305,290 100.00
Source: Generalitat of Catalonia

Turnout varied greatly across the 41 administrative districts of Catalonia. It was higher than 50% in twelve of them, whereas in two it was lower than 25%. The proportion of Yes-Yes votes over the total electorate ranged between 12.9% (Val d'Aran) and 56.9% (Priorat). In the most populous district (Barcelonès) turnout was 32.5% and the overall proportion of Yes-Yes votes reached 24.9%.[96]

By District

Below is a table outlining the results of the referendum by district. The table does not consider turnout.

District[97] First question Second question Yes-Yes

/ total %

Valid
ballots
Yes No Blank Oth Yes % Yes-Yes Yes-No Yes-Abs Y-Y %
Alt Camp 16,018 519 123 526 93.20% 15,012 846 160 93.72% 87.35% 17,186
Alt Empordà 39,017 1,474 259 1,390 92.59% 36,131 2,349 537 92.60% 85.74% 42,140
Alt Penedès 39,906 1,227 219 1,183 93.82% 36,648 2,846 412 91.84% 86.16% 42,535
Alt Urgell 7,454 203 78 222 93.68% 6,854 485 115 91.95% 86.14% 7,957
Alta Ribagorça 1,195 60 9 37 91.85% 1,033 150 12 86.44% 79.40% 1,301
Anoia 36,885 1,705 188 1,460 91.67% 33,365 3,077 443 90.46% 82.92% 40,238
Bages 67,858 2,457 465 1,657 93.68% 62,593 4,561 704 92.24% 86.41% 72,437
Baix Camp 49,437 2,477 309 1,700 91.68% 44,779 4,074 584 90.58% 83.04% 53,923
Baix Ebre 25,384 962 227 821 92.66% 23,435 1,638 311 92.32% 85.55% 27,394
Baix Empordà 42,539 1,326 249 1,344 93.58% 39,586 2,469 484 93.06% 87.08% 45,458
Baix Llobregat 174,760 14,945 937 7,110 88.37% 142,611 30,329 1,820 81.60% 72.12% 197,752
Baix Penedès 19,955 1,240 114 812 90.21% 17,753 1,977 225 88.97% 80.25% 22,121
Barcelonès 569,470 32,475 3,469 20,060 91.05% 479,315 84,171 5,984 84.17% 76.63% 625,474
Berguedà 19,450 287 149 471 95.54% 18,706 612 132 96.17% 91.89% 20,357
Cerdanya 6,019 191 56 234 92.60% 5,554 389 76 92.27% 85.45% 6,500
Conca de Barberà 9,534 197 70 306 94.33% 9,047 388 99 94.89% 89.51% 10,107
Garraf 37,398 1,935 186 1,331 91.55% 32,730 4,268 400 87.52% 80.12% 40,850
Garrigues 9,384 173 92 191 95.37% 8,836 396 152 94.16% 89.80% 9,840
Garrotxa 24,686 377 173 617 95.49% 23,652 789 245 95.81% 91.49% 25,853
Gironès 63,622 1,687 346 1,607 94.59% 59,374 3,723 525 93.32% 88.27% 67,262
Maresme 137,705 5,013 724 4,088 93.34% 123,179 13,236 1,290 89.45% 83.49% 147,530
Montsià 21,021 921 166 801 91.76% 19,256 1,445 320 91.60% 84.05% 22,909
Noguera 15,502 398 169 358 94.37% 14,511 758 233 93.61% 88.34% 16,427
Osona 71,397 1,076 441 1,309 96.19% 68,233 2,616 548 95.57% 91.93% 74,223
Pallars Jussà 5,308 114 44 147 94.57% 4,981 272 55 93.84% 88.74% 5,613
Pallars Sobirà 2,934 52 24 74 95.14% 2,738 156 40 93.32% 88.78% 3,084
Pla d'Urgell 14,698 398 147 340 94.32% 13,817 699 182 94.01% 88.67% 15,583
Pla de l'Estany 14,818 177 85 231 96.78% 14,187 483 148 95.74% 92.66% 15,311
Priorat 5,132 82 28 124 95.64% 4,887 177 68 95.23% 91.07% 5,366
Ribera d'Ebre 9,491 310 90 282 93.30% 8,841 531 119 93.15% 86.91% 10,173
Ripollès 12,465 288 102 334 94.51% 11,762 534 169 94.36% 89.18% 13,189
Segarra 8,219 199 67 247 94.13% 7,715 396 108 93.87% 88.35% 8,732
Segrià 60,825 2,843 468 1,926 92.07% 54,538 5,545 742 89.66% 82.56% 66,062
Selva 49,105 1,871 272 1,652 92.83% 45,249 3,294 562 92.15% 85.54% 52,900
Solsonès 5,915 106 56 139 95.16% 5,572 283 60 94.20% 89.64% 6,216
Tarragonès 48,678 3,971 294 2,003 88.59% 42,472 5,635 571 87.25% 77.30% 54,946
Terra Alta 4,773 184 42 166 92.41% 4,404 282 87 92.27% 85.27% 5,165
Urgell 14,919 328 112 387 94.75% 14,023 701 195 93.99% 89.06% 15,746
Val d'Aran 1,365 223 24 131 78.31% 1,091 241 33 79.93% 62.59% 1,743
Vallès Occidental 234,129 14,254 1,255 9,177 90.46% 199,433 32,402 2,294 85.18% 77.06% 258,815
Vallès Oriental 118,031 6,047 658 4,136 91.59% 103,850 12,959 1,222 87.99% 80.58% 128,872
Catalonia 2,116,401 104,772 12,986 71,131 91.81% 1,861,753 232,182 22,466 87.97% 80.76% 2,305,290

Reactions

Catalan president Artur Mas said the vote was "a lesson in democracy." Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy called the vote a "deep failure" because "two-thirds of Catalans did not participate" and he claimed it violated a ruling of the Constitutional Court.[98]

Legal consequences

On 6 February 2017, a trial against the former president of the Government of Catalonia Artur Mas, the former vice president Joana Ortega and the former Catalan education minister Irene Rigau was held by the Supreme Court of Catalan Justice. They were accused of serious civil disobedience and perverting the course of justice for having authorized the unofficial vote on 9 November 2014 in defiance of its prohibition by the Constitutional Court of Spain. Prosecutors were calling for Artur Mas to be disqualified from office for 10 years, while Ortega and Rigau for 9. The trial focused on the events since the suspension decided by the Constitutional Court on 4 November 2014, until the beginning of the popular vote, on 9 November.[99][100][101]

In the event, in March 2017 Mas was barred from public office for two years by a court in Barcelona for organizing an illegal vote in defiance of the Spanish courts. He was also fined 36,500 euros; Joana Ortega and Irene Rigau, were also convicted, barred 21 months and 18 months, respectively, as well as receiving lesser fines.[102]

See also

References

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2014 Catalan self-determination referendum
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