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Juntos por el Cambio

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Together for Change
Juntos por el Cambio
AbbreviationJxC
Party PresidentsPatricia Bullrich
Gerardo Morales
Maximiliano Ferraro
Ricardo López Murphy
Miguel Ángel Pichetto
Deputies LeaderMario Negri
Senate LeaderAlfredo Cornejo
FounderMauricio Macri
Elisa Carrió
Ernesto Sanz
Founded15 June 2015; 8 years ago (2015-06-15)
Ideology
Political position
Colours  Yellow
Member parties
Chamber of Deputies
93 / 257
Senate
24 / 72
Governors
10 / 24
Website
jxc.com.ar

Juntos por el Cambio (English: Together for Change) is a political coalition in Argentina.[7] A big tent coalition, it was created in 2015 as Cambiemos (English: Let's Change), and renamed in 2019.[8][9] It is composed of Republican Proposal, Radical Civic Union, Civic Coalition ARI and United Republicans.[10][11]

These three parties respectively nominated Mauricio Macri, Ernesto Sanz, and Elisa Carrió as their representatives in the August 2015 primary elections, which were held to choose which candidate would run in the 2015 presidential election on 25 October.[12] On 9 August, Macri was elected as the candidate who would represent Cambiemos in the presidential election; on 22 November, where he won in second round by 51%.[13][14]

Creation

Cambiemos official logo.

Initially, the pre-candidates Mauricio Macri, Daniel Scioli, and Sergio Massa had a triple tie in the polls for the 2015 presidential election. Scioli was the candidate of the Front for Victory, the ruling party at the time.[15]

Macri and Carrió prepared a launch photo of their alliance.

The other parties created a political coalition, the Broad Front UNEN. Elisa Carrió, leader of the Civic Coalition, left UNEN and joined a coalition with Macri's PRO instead. Both of them would run in the primary elections.[16]

Sanz designed an alliance between PRO and UCR

The Radical Civic Union was divided: Ernesto Sanz proposed to join Macri as well, and Julio Cobos proposed to stay in UNEN. The party held a convention to decide what to do, and Sanz's proposal prevailed. Thus, the UCR left UNEN and joined the PRO-CC.[12]

The new coalition was named "Cambiemos", suggesting a change from the 12-year long rule of center-left Kirchnerists.[14]

History

First speech of the president-elect Macri

Macri, Sanz, and Carrió ran to be the nominee in the primary elections with Macri winning by a wide margin. He won the presidential election against the Kirchnerite candidate Daniel Scioli in a ballotage. In lower-level posts, Horacio Rodríguez Larreta was elected as Macri's replacement, keeping the City of Buenos Aires under coalition control. Alfredo Cornejo and Gerardo Morales became governors of Mendoza and Jujuy Provinces, respectively. María Eugenia Vidal defeated Aníbal Fernández and became the governor of the populous Buenos Aires Province, ending 28 years of Peronist control.[17]

Macri and the governor-elect, Maria Eugenia Vidal

The 2017 Argentine legislative election renewed a third of the seats in the Senate and half in the Chamber of Deputies. The result was a victory for the ruling Cambiemos alliance, being the most voted force in 13 of the 24 districts.[18]

Macri, Vidal and the new member, Pichetto

In June 2019, an extension of the Cambiemos alliance was made: it is renamed Together for Change, by adding to Federal Peronism led by Miguel Ángel Pichetto, who would share the presidential formula of space together with Mauricio Macri. In the 2019 presidential elections, JxC was in second place, with 40% of the votes, behind Alberto Fernández, who won first round with 48% of the votes.

In the province of Buenos Aires, Governor María Eugenia Vidal sought re-election but was defeated by the candidate of the Frente de Todos, Axel Kicillof, who won 52% of the votes against 38% obtained by JxC.[19]

In the City of Buenos Aires, Horacio Rodríguez Larreta joins the Radical Civic Union and the Socialist Party to the district alliance and is reelected as Chief of Government with 56% of the votes in the first round.[20][21][22]

On 10 December 2019, the Centre-Left Alberto Fernández of the Justicialist Party was inaugurated President, after defeating the incumbent Mauricio Macri in the 2019 Argentine general election.[23]

On 14 November 2021, the center-left coalition of Argentina's ruling Peronist party, Frente de Todos (Front for Everyone), lost its majority in Congress for the first time in almost 40 years in midterm legislative elections. The election victory of Juntos por el Cambio meant a tough final two years in office for President Alberto Fernández. Losing control of the Senate made it difficult for him to make key appointments, including to the judiciary. It also forced him to negotiate with the opposition every initiative he sends to the legislature.[24][25]

In 2023 Argentine general election, Patricia Bullrich, the candidate of Juntos por el Cambio, was defeated in the first round. After the election, Patricia Bullrich returned to government as security minister in president Javier Milei's Cabinet in December 2023. Bullrich also stated that she will step down both as the leader of Juntos por el Cambio and her own Republican proposal (PRO) party.[26]

Positions

Cambiemos is a big tent coalition, variously described as centrist,[27] to centre-right.[28][29] The coalition describes itself as anti-populist and liberal.[30][31][32]

Former President and coalition leader Mauricio Macri has been described as a conservative.[33] Macri said he would tear up Argentina's memorandum of understanding with Iran, seek Venezuela’s exclusion from the regional free trade association Mercosur and ease away from a fixed exchange rate with the dollar. This is the "change of an era we need to be in the world", he declared at a press conference.[34] He aligned the country with gradualist neoliberalism and re-opened Argentina to international markets by lifting currency controls, restructuring sovereign debt, and pressing free-market solutions.[35][36]

Macri said he would seek more sweeping reforms for Argentina after his governing coalition scored a resounding victory in 2017 congressional elections. Macri told reporters Argentinians should expect reforms in tax, education and labor, without providing details. The conservative leader had been pushing a free-market reform agenda to try to overhaul Argentina's economy.[36] His presidency has been criticized for failing to materially reform the Argentine economy,[37][38] while receiving praise for leaving a legacy of anti-corruption,[39] and increasing Argentina's sovereign marketability.[40][35]

Domestic policies

The members of Cambiemos were constituted to "promote economic development, the strengthening of democracy and the republican system, the independence of justice, the quality of education, social solidarity, and the personal happiness of the inhabitants of the Argentine Republic."[41]

Economic policies

Macri and IMF Managing Director, Christine Lagarde.

Mauricio Macri received a country with huge economic problems, and sought to reverse things. Quickly, moved from a fixed exchange-rate system to a floating one, removed taxes on exports and reduced subsidies on energy, to reduce the fiscal deficit.[42]

Macri avoided the use of shock therapy and introduced the changes in a gradual way.[43][44]

In April 2016, he negotiated with the vulture fund and ended the default to return to the international capital markets.[45]

Until January 2018, the gradualist system was working well, although at a slower pace than needed.[46]

Since May 2018, as part of an agreement with the International Monetary Fund, the government accelerated the austerity plans, aiming to completely remove the fiscal deficit.[47]

Social policies

Macri with the members of Cambiemos Gabriela Michetti, Federico Pinedo and Emilio Monzó at the Argentine Congress.

Domestically, he pursued moderate socially liberal policies, liberalized the energy sector, and combatted public corruption.[48]

Macri named two Supreme Court justices.[49]

President Mauricio Macri encouraged the discussion of an abortion law during the 2018 opening of regular sessions of the National Congress of Argentina.[50] The bill, called "Voluntary termination of pregnancy", divided the coalition, that had no official position and the legislators voted according their beliefs.

Mauricio Macri, Maria Eugenia Vidal, Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, Elisa Carrió, and ministers Marcos Peña, Rogelio Frigerio, Esteban Bullrich, etc., are anti-abortion; Martin Lousteau, Mario Negri, Luis Petcoff Naidenoff and ministers Sergio Rubinstein, Patricia Bullrich, Sergio Bergman, Juan José Aranguren, etc.; are pro-abortion.[51][52][53]

In this coalition of 108 members, the rejection of the project was imposed, with 65 negative votes compared to 42 positive.[54]

Within the ruling alliance, the PRO prevailed with the negative vote (37) - it should be remembered that President Mauricio Macri had expressed himself "in favor of life" - while 17 voted for the positive. In radicalism, 24 supported the initiative, 16 rejected it. In the Civic Coalition, of its 10 members, only Juan Manuel López voted in favor.[54]

When the bill was brought up again in late 2020, the coalition split, with 69 voting against and 42 in favour. In the PRO 40 members voted against while only 11 voted in favour, while in the Civic Coalition 4 supported the bill and 9 voted against. In contrast the radicals saw a greater endorsement of the bill, having 27 of its members in support and only 18 against.

In the senate the coalition was divided more evenly, with 11 members voting in favour and 14 against. It also resulted in an inversion of party support, with a majority of PRO voting favourably (5 yes and 3 no), while the radicals voted 9 against and 5 in favour. Other minor parties in JxC on both chambers also voted in different positions.

Foreign policy

Macri and U.S President Barack Obama.

Cambiemos opposes strongly the regime of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela for human rights abuses and calls for a restoration of democracy in the country.[55][56] It recognized Juan Guaidó, who was elected President of Venezuela by the National Assembly during the Venezuelan presidential crisis of 2019.[57]

Macri improved the relations with the United States[58] and from Mercosur achieved a free trade agreement with the European Union[59] and closer ties with the Pacific Alliance.[60]

Macri and his Foreign Minister Susana Malcorra endorsed Democrat Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election, which was won by Republican Donald Trump.[61]

Mauricio Macri said he wanted to start a "new kind of relationship" with the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands as he tried to move his country towards a centrist position in world affairs.[62]

During the first week in office, Macri annulled the Memorandum of understanding between Argentina and Iran, which would have established a joint investigation into the 1994 bombing with AMIA, a terrorist attack on a Jewish organization for which Argentina blamed Hezbollah and Iran.[63]

Presidents

President Photo District Presidency start date Presidency end date Time in office
Mauricio Macri (b. 1959) Buenos Aires 10 December 2015 10 December 2019 4 years, 0 days

Members

Party Leader Ideology
Republican Proposal Patricia Bullrich Liberal conservatism
Radical Civic Union Alfredo Cornejo Social liberalism
Coalición Cívica ARI Maximiliano Ferraro Social liberalism
Republican Peronism Miguel Ángel Pichetto Federal Peronism
GEN Party Margarita Stolbizer Social democracy
Democratic Progressive Party Ana Copes Social liberalism
Public Trust Graciela Ocaña Anti-corruption
Integration and Development Movement Juan Pablo Carrique Developmentalism
Civic Front of Córdoba Luis Juez Progressivism
Popular Union Graciela Devita Federal Peronism
Dialogue Party Emilio Monzó Federal Peronism
UNIR Constitutional Nationalist Party Alberto Asseff National conservatism
Republicans United Ricardo López Murphy Conservative liberalism

Electoral performance

President

Election Candidate First round Second round Result
Votes % Votes %
2015 Mauricio Macri 8,601,131 34.15 (#2) 12,988,349 51.34 (#1) Won
2019 10,811,586 40.28 (#2) Lost
2023 Patricia Bullrich 6,379,023 23.81 (#3) Lost

Legislative elections

Chamber of Deputies

Election year votes % seats won Position Note
2015 8,230,605 35.11
47 / 130
Minority government
2017 10,261,407 41.75
64 / 127
Minority government
2019 10,347,605 40.36
56 / 130
Opposition
2021 9,832,813 41.89
61 / 127
Opposition
2023 6,412,133 26.12
32 / 130
Confidence and supply

Senate

Election year votes % seats won Position Note
2015 2,770,410 38.81
9 / 24
Minority Government
2017 4,864,886 41.01
12 / 24
Minority Government
2019 2,210,310 39.22
8 / 24
Opposition
2021 3,260,964 46.85
14 / 24
Opposition
2023 2,969,070 25.57
2 / 24
Confidence and supply

References

  1. ^ Carl Friedrich Bossert, ed. (2021). Power, Alliances, and Redistribution: The Politics of Social Protection for Low-Income Earners in Argentina, 1943–2015. Verlag Barbara Budrich. p. 321. ISBN 9783966659987. With the victory of the center-right liberal Cambiemos alliance in the 2015 presidential elections, a cycle of 13 years of progressive reform ended in Argentina. Rather than being an isolated phenomenon, this development coincided ...
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Argentina's slum policy is a rare bright spot in the country". The Economist.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "Macri y el social liberalismo". Horacio Minotti (in European Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2021.|Sebastián Fest (18 October 2020). "Mauricio Macri: "El kirchnerismo y Podemos caen en la irracionalidad"". El Mundo.
  6. ^ Isabella Escobedo (16 August 2020). "Argentiniens doppelte Krise: Düstere Zukunftsaussichten?". Deutsche Welle.
  7. ^ María Victoria Murillo (27 October 2017). "Macri triunfó, ¿ahora qué?". New York Times.
  8. ^ "Las 8 alianzas que competirán en las próximas elecciones" [The 8 alliances that will run in the next elections]. La Nación (in Spanish). 11 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  9. ^ "La coalición oficialista tiene nuevo nombre: Juntos por el cambio" [The official coalition has a new name: Juntos por el cambio]. La Nacion (in Spanish). 12 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  10. ^ "Tres cafés y una foto para calmar los ánimos de Cambiemos en la recta final". Télam. 1 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Lo que Cambiemos nos legó". Revista Anfibia (in Spanish). 17 October 2019. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  12. ^ a b "El radicalismo aprobó la alianza con Macri y Carrió" [Radicalism approved the alliance with Macri and Carrió]. La Nación (in Spanish). 15 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  13. ^ Jonathan Watts and Uki Goñi (22 November 2015). "Argentina shifts to the left after Mauricio Macri wins presidential runoff". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  14. ^ a b Jonathan Watts and Uki Goñi (22 November 2015). "Argentina election: second round vote could spell end for 'Kirchnerism'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
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  16. ^ "Elisa Carrió ratifica su salida de UNEN nacional: "Al suicidio no voy"" [Elisa Carrió confirms her departure from UNEN: "I'm not going to suicide"]. La Nación (in Spanish). 19 November 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
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  18. ^ "Argentina election: Macri wins crucial mid-term vote". BBC. 23 October 2017. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  19. ^ Lara, Rodolfo (28 October 2019). "Elecciones 2019: Axel Kicillof le ganó a María Eugenia Vidal y criticó a Cambiemos por la crisis en la Provincia". www.clarin.com.
  20. ^ "Horacio Rodríguez Larreta sumó a la UCR y al socialismo y Martín Lousteau está más cerca de ser su candidato a senador". www.clarin.com. 12 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Arrasó Larreta en histórico triunfo porteño, que alivia ahora transición". Ámbito (in Spanish). 28 October 2019. Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  22. ^ Rosemberg, Jaime (28 October 2019). "Elecciones 2019: un triunfo aplastante proyecta a Larreta como el referente nacional de la oposición". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 November 2019.
  23. ^ Goñi, Uki (28 October 2019). "Argentina election: Macri out as Cristina Fernández de Kirchner returns to office as VP". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Peronists may lose Argentina Congress for first time in 40 years".
  25. ^ Bronstein, Hugh; Misculin, Nicolás (15 November 2021). "Argentina's Peronists on the ropes after bruising midterm defeat". Reuters.
  26. ^ "Bullrich returns to government as security minister in Milei's Cabinet | Buenos Aires Times". www.batimes.com.ar. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  27. ^ de 2021Sociólogo, PorGonzalo Arias7 de Febrero; libro "Gustar, autor del; Gobernar", Ganar Y. "Por el centro o por derecha: el dilema en Juntos por el Cambio". infobae (in European Spanish). Retrieved 26 September 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  28. ^
  29. ^ "Argentina's centre-right candidate backs radical Javier Milei for president". www.ft.com. Retrieved 24 March 2024.
  30. ^ "Lo que Cambiemos nos legó". 17 October 2019.
  31. ^ "The end of populism". The Economist. 26 November 2015.
  32. ^ "Javier Milei, el ultraliberal que agita la política argentina". El Mundo. 14 September 2021.
  33. ^ "Conservative Mauricio Macri wins Argentina presidency". BBC News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2023.
  34. ^ Watts, Jonathan; Goñi, Uki (23 November 2015). "Argentina president-elect pledges radical policy changes in shift to right". The Guardian.
  35. ^ a b "Mauricio Macri's long odds". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Argentinian president Macri vows 'many reforms' after strong election result". The Guardian. 24 October 2017.
  37. ^ Luciana, Zorzoli (14 May 2019). "The Consequences of Mr Macri". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  38. ^ Gedan, Benjamin N. (24 October 2019). "Mauricio Macri Was Bound for Disaster". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  39. ^ The Editorial Board (9 December 2019). "Argentina must preserve anti-corruption legacy". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  40. ^ Wallencraft, Jeff (31 October 2019). "Mauricio Macri | Biography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  41. ^ "PLATAFORMA JUNTOS POR EL CAMBIO PASO 2019 | Juntos por el Cambio". Cambiemos.
  42. ^ Mander, Benedict; Politi, Daniel (20 January 2016). "Macri raises hopes for Argentina's economic renewal". Financial Times.
  43. ^ Kerner, Daniel (1 October 2018). "Mauricio Macri's failure to plan has put Argentina in a tight spot". Financial Times.
  44. ^ Mander, Benedict (18 October 2017). "Election tests Macri's promise to make Argentina 'normal' again". Financial Times.
  45. ^ Bob Van Voris (13 April 2016). "Argentina Wins Court Ruling Letting Bond Sale Proceed". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  46. ^ "Argentina's gamble on economic gradualism is working, so far". The Economist. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  47. ^ Agustino Fontevecchia (13 June 2018). "Cambiemos Must Change: Argentina's Macri Needs A Radical Paradigm Shift". Forbes. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  48. ^ "Mauricio Macri's long odds". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  49. ^ "Argentina's new president is already changing everything". The Washington Post. 17 December 2015.
  50. ^ "Mauricio Macri en el Congreso: reviví el minuto a minuto de la Asamblea Legislativa" [Mauricio Macri in the Congress, relive the minute by minute of the Legislative assembly]. La Nación (in Spanish). 1 March 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
  51. ^ "¿Cuál es la apuesta de Macri con el aborto?". The New York Times. 1 April 2018.
  52. ^ Demian Bio (26 February 2018). "Where Do the Cambiemos' Top Politicians Stand on Abortion?". The Bubble. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  53. ^ "Aborto legal: cómo votó cada uno de los senadores". El Cronista Comercial. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  54. ^ a b Serra, Laura (14 June 2018). "Uno por uno, cómo votó cada diputado el proyecto de legalización del aborto - LA NACION". La Nación – via La Nacion (Argentina).
  55. ^ "Argentina's President Macri calls on Venezuela to free political prisoners". TheGuardian.com. 21 December 2015.
  56. ^ "Diputados de Cambiemos lanzaron una mesa de trabajo para seguir de cerca la crisis de Venezuela" [Deputies of Cambiemos started a workgroup to follow the crisis in Venezuela] (in Spanish). Infobae. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  57. ^ "Crisis en Venezuela: Macri reconoció a Juan Guaidó como presidente interino". La Nación. 23 January 2019.
  58. ^ "Mauricio Macri se reunió con Barack Obama en la Casa Rosada". La Nación. 23 March 2016.
  59. ^ "Histórico: firman el acuerdo comercial entre el Mercosur y la Unión Europea". La Nación. 28 June 2019.
  60. ^ Dinatale, Martín (31 May 2016). "Giro estratégico: Macri busca un acercamiento a la Alianza del Pacífico". La Nación.
  61. ^ Dinatale, Martín (8 May 2016). "El gobierno de Macri apuesta por Hillary en la pelea por la Casa Blanca". La Nación.
  62. ^ "Argentina's president: 'I will try to start a new kind of relationship' with the UK". TheGuardian.com. 19 January 2016.
  63. ^ Ventura, Adrián (11 December 2015). "Macri confirmó que se cae definitivamente el memorándum con Irán". La Nación.
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Juntos por el Cambio
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