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CFB Goose Bay

CFB Goose Bay
Goose Bay Airport;
CFS Goose Bay
Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada
CYYR
CYYR
CFB Goose Bay
Location in Newfoundland and Labrador
Coordinates53°19′09″N 060°25′33″W / 53.31917°N 60.42583°W / 53.31917; -60.42583
TypeMilitary air base / civilian airport
Site information
OwnerGovernment of Canada
Operator Royal Canadian Air Force
1941 (1941) – present
Civilian operatorGoose Bay Airport Corporation
Websitehttp://www.rcaf-arc.forces.gc.ca/en/5-wing/index.page?
Site history
Built1941 (1941) – 1943 (1943)
Built by Royal Canadian Air Force
In use1941 (1941) – present
Garrison information
Current
commander
Lieutenant-Colonel Guy Parisien
Garrison5 Wing
Occupants444 Combat Support Squadron
5 Wing Air Reserve Flight
Forward Operating Location Goose Bay
Airfield information
IdentifiersIATA: YYR, ICAO: CYYR, WMO: 71816
Elevation160 ft (49 m) AMSL
Runways
Direction Length and surface
08/26 11,051 ft (3,368 m) concrete with asphalt overlay
16/34 9,580 ft (2,920 m) concrete with asphalt overlay
14/32 5,200 ft (1,600 m) gravel
09/27 1,500 ft (460 m) gravel
Hosted deployments of units from:

Luftwaffe 1980–2005
Aeronautica Militare 2001–2005

Royal Netherlands Air Force 1985–2005
RAF(U) Goose Bay
Royal Air Force Panavia Tornados
Royal Air Force Panavia Tornados
RAF(U) Goose Bay Leuchars badge
TypeRoyal air force unit
Site information
OwnerMinistry of Defence
Operator Royal Air Force
ConditionClosed
Site history
Built1941 (1941)
In use1942–2005 (2005)
Fate
Garrison information
GarrisonNo. 1 Group
OccupantsNo. 14 Squadron
No. XV(R) Squadron
No. 17 Squadron
No. 20 Squadron
No. 25 (Fighter) Squadron
No. 31 Squadron
No. 617 Squadron
Goose Air Force Base
USAF F-15 at Goose AFB
Goose Air Defense Sector
TypeUS Air Force Base
Site information
OwnerDepartment of Defense
Operator United States Air Force
ConditionClosed
Site history
Built1941 (1941)
In use1942–1976 (1976)
Fate
Garrison information
GarrisonAerospace Defense Command
Strategic Air Command
Northeast Air Command
Goose Air Defense Sector
Air Transport Command
Occupants21st Air Division
26th Air Division
37th Air Division
64th Air Division
95th Strategic Wing
4082d Strategic Wing
59th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
641st Aircraft Control Squadron
4732d Air Defense Group
6603d Air Base Group
Twenty-First Air Force
RCAF Goose Bay Station Headquarters c.1957
5 Wing Goose Bay
Luftwaffe Tornados at CFB Goose Bay
CH-135 Twin Huey from Base Rescue Goose Bay (later 444 Squadron)
Avro Vulcan XL361 on display at CFB Goose Bay

Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay (IATA: YYR, ICAO: CYYR), commonly referred to as CFB Goose Bay, is a Canadian Forces Base located in the municipality of Happy Valley-Goose Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). Its primary RCAF lodger unit is 5 Wing, commonly referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay.

The airfield at CFB Goose Bay is also used by civilian aircraft, with civilian operations at the base referring to the facility as Goose Bay Airport. The airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers.

The mission of 5 Wing is to support the defence of North American airspace, as well as to support the RCAF and allied air forces in training.[1] Two units compose 5 Wing: 444 Combat Support Squadron (flying the CH-146 Griffon) and 5 Wing Air Reserve Flight. CFB Goose Bay also serves as a forward operating location for RCAF CF-18 Hornet aircraft and the base and surrounding area is occasionally used to support units of the Canadian Army during training exercises.

History

While the flat and relatively weather-favoured area around North West River had for years been under consideration for an airport for the anticipated North Atlantic air routes, it was not until Eric Fry of the Dominion Geodetic Survey investigated the area on 1 July 1941[2][3] that the Goose Bay location was selected. Fry beat by three days a similar United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) survey team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt; the American team had first investigated nearby Epinette Point before joining Fry at the sandy plains that would become Goose Bay. These surveys used amphibious aircraft that landed at the Grenfell Mission; from there the teams explored by boat.[4]

Eric Fry recalled: "The airport is actually located on the plateau at the west end of Terrington Basin but it is only five miles inland from the narrows between Goose Bay and Terrington Basin. Having a Gander air base in Newfoundland I suggested we call the Labrador site Goose Bay airport and the suggestion was accepted."[5]

Under pressure from Britain and the United States the Canadian Air Ministry worked at a record pace, and by November, three 2,100-metre (7,000 ft) gravel runways were ready.[6] The first land aircraft movement was recorded on 9 December 1941. By spring of 1942 the base, now carrying the wartime codename "Alkali", was bursting with air traffic destined for the United Kingdom. In time, the USAAF and the British Royal Air Force (RAF) each developed sections of the triangular base for their own use, but the airport remained under overall Canadian control despite its location in the Dominion of Newfoundland, not yet a part of Canada. The 99-year lease arrangement with the United Kingdom was not finalized until October 1944.[7]

Aerodrome

In approximately 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome – Goose Bay, Labrador at 53°20′N 60°24′W / 53.333°N 60.400°W / 53.333; -60.400 with a variation of 35 degrees west and elevation of 45 metres (147 ft). The field was listed as "all hard-surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows:[8]

Runway name Length Width Surface
9/27 2,000 m (6,600 ft) 60 m (200 ft) Hard surfaced
17/35 1,800 m (6,000 ft) 60 m (200 ft) Hard surfaced
5/23 1,800 m (6,000 ft) 60 m (200 ft) Hard surfaced

The northeast side of the facility was built to be a temporary RCAF base, complete with its own hangars and control tower, while the south side of the facility, built for the Americans, was being upgraded with its own aprons, hangars, earth-covered magazines, control tower and infrastructure. The Canadian and American bases were built as an RCAF station[9] and later a United States Air Force base known as Goose AB, housing units of the Strategic Air Command[10] and Aerospace Defense Command. It was later home to permanent detachments of the RAF, Luftwaffe, Aeronautica Militare, and Royal Netherlands Air Force, in addition to temporary deployments from several other NATO countries.

Cold War history

1950 – The Rivière-du-Loup Incident

Goose Air Base was the site of the first US nuclear weapons in Canada, when in 1950 the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command (SAC) stationed 11 model 1561 Fat Man and Mark 4 atomic bombs at the base in the summer, and flew them out in December.[11] While returning to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base with one of the bombs on board, a USAF B-50 heavy bomber encountered engine trouble, had to drop, and conventionally detonate, the bomb over the St. Lawrence, contaminating the river with uranium-238.

1954 – Construction of the Strategic Air Command Weapons Storage Area

Construction of SAC's Weapons Storage Area at Goose Air Base was officially completed in 1954.[3][12] The area was surrounded by two fences, topped with barbed wire. It was the highest security area in Goose Air Base and comprised

  • One guard house
  • One administration building
  • Three warehouses (base spares #1, base spares #2, supply warehouse)
  • Six guard towers
  • One plant group building
  • Five earth-covered magazines for non-nuclear weapon storage
  • Four earth-covered magazines for "pit" storage (constructed with vaults and shelving to store pit "birdcages")

The design and layout of the Goose Air Base weapons storage area was identical, with only slight modifications for weather and terrain, to the three SAC weapons storage areas in Morocco located at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Ben Guerir Air Base, and Nouasseur Air Base, which were constructed between 1951 and 1952 as overseas operational storage sites. The last nuclear bomb components that were being stored at the Goose Air Base weapons storage area were removed in June 1971.[13]

1958 – Construction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage area

Construction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1958.[3][14] This extension to the SAC weapons storage area was built directly beside the previously constructed area, with a separate entrance. The buildings built within the area were:

  • Three storage buildings
  • One guardhouse
  • One missile assembly building.

The storage was being built to accommodate components of the GAR-11/AIM-26 "Nuclear" Falcon, which is normally stored in pieces, requiring assembly before use.

1976 – Departure of the USAF Strategic Air Command and closure of Goose AB

The former U.S. facilities were re-designated CFB Goose Bay (the second time this facility name has been used).[3] The value of the airfield and facilities built and improved by the USAF since 1953 and transferred to Canada were estimated in excess of US$250 million[citation needed] (equivalent to $1.3 billion today). By 1976 all SAC assets had been stood down, and only USAF logistical and transport support remained.

1980 – Multinational low-level flying training stepped up

In response to lessons learned from the Vietnam War and the growing sophistication of Soviet anti-aircraft radar and surface-to-air missile technology being deployed in Europe, NATO allies began looking at new doctrines in the 1970s–1980s which mandated low-level flight to evade detection. CFB Goose Bay's location in Labrador, with a population of around 30,000 and area of 294,000 km2 (114,000 sq mi), made it an ideal location for low-level flight training. Labrador's sparse settlement and a local topography similar to parts of the Soviet Union, in addition to proximity to European NATO nations caused CFB Goose Bay to grow and become the primary low-level tactical training area for several NATO air forces during the 1980s.[citation needed]

The increased low-level flights by fighter aircraft was not without serious controversy as the Innu Nation protested these operations vociferously, claiming[example needed] that the noise of aircraft travelling at supersonic speeds in close proximity to the ground was adversely affecting wildlife, namely caribou, and was a nuisance to their way of life on their traditional lands.[15][16][17][18]

During the 1980s–1990s, CFB Goose Bay hosted permanent detachments from the Royal Air Force, Luftwaffe, Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF),[3] and the Aeronautica Militare, in addition to temporary deployments from several other NATO countries. The permanent RNLAF detachment left CFB Goose Bay in the 1990s, although temporary training postings have been held since.[citation needed] Goose Bay was an attractive training facility for these air forces in light of the high population concentration in their countries, as well as numerous laws preventing low-level flying. The 13-million-hectare (130,000 km2; 50,000 sq mi) bombing range is larger than several European countries.[Note 1]

1983 – The Space Shuttle Enterprise visits

In 1983, a NASA Boeing 747 transport aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle Enterprise landed at CFB Goose Bay to refuel on its way to a European tour where the prototype shuttle was then displayed in France and the United Kingdom. This was the first time that a U.S. Space Shuttle ever "landed" outside the United States.[19]

1988 – Long-range radar closure

In 1988, the Pinetree Line radar site (Melville Air Station) adjacent to CFB Goose Bay was closed.

Post-Cold War history

1990 – Gulf War

Goose Bay experienced a significant increase in traffic volume from USAF Military Airlift Command (MAC) during August 1990 due to Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. At one point, MAC flights arrived at an average rate of two per hour; the normal rate was two to three per month. Part of the increase may have been driven by Hurricane Bertha, which occurred at the same time. The USAF deployed additional personnel to the base to assist managing the increased volume. Overall, operations proceeded smoothly as it resembled previous high-volume airlifts like Exercise Reforger.[20]

1993 – Base Rescue Flight and 444 Combat Support Squadron

To provide rescue and range support to the jet aircraft operating from Goose Bay, the Canadian Forces provided a Base Rescue Flight consisting of three CH-135 Twin Huey helicopters. In 1993 the Base Rescue Flight was re-badged as 444 Combat Support Squadron and continued to operate the same fleet of three helicopters. In 1996 the CH-135s were replaced with three CH-146 Griffon helicopters.[21][22]

2001 – 9/11 Operation Yellow Ribbon

On 11 September 2001, CFB Goose Bay hosted seven trans-Atlantic commercial airliners which were diverted to land as part of Operation Yellow Ribbon, following the closure of North American airspace as a result of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. It was also the first Canadian airport to receive diverted aircraft.[citation needed]

2005 – Cessation of Multinational Low Level Flying Training

In 2004 the RAF announced its intent to close the permanent RAF detachment, effective 31 March 2005.[3] The German and Italian air forces had agreements signed to use the base until 2006, however they were not renewed as of 2004. These air forces still operate at Goose Bay, but plan to initiate simulator training instead.[23][needs update] The base continues in its role as a low-level tactical training facility and as a forward deployment location for the RCAF, although the total complement of Canadian Forces personnel numbers less than 100.[citation needed]

2005 – Ballistic missile defence

Labradorian politicians such as former Liberal Senator Bill Rompkey have advocated using CFB Goose Bay as a site for a missile defence radar system being developed by the United States Department of Defense. Executives from defence contractor Raytheon have surveyed CFB Goose Bay as a suitable location for deploying such a radar installation.[24]

Airlines and destinations

Civilian flights use a smaller terminal structure located on Zweibrucken Crescent. A new terminal structure was being built in 2012 to accommodate civilian use.[25] The terminal has a single retail tenant, Flightline Café and Gifts with a Robin's Donuts shop.

An increasing number of airliners (especially mid-range aircraft like the Boeing 757) have resorted to using Goose Bay for unplanned fuel stops, especially common for trans-Atlantic flights impacted by a seasonally strong jet stream over the North Atlantic.[26] The majority of civilian airliners using the airfield are not regularly scheduled airlines to this location.

AirlinesDestinations
Air Borealis Hopedale, Makkovik, Nain, Natuashish, Postville[27]
Air Canada Express Halifax[28]
PAL Airlines Blanc-Sablon, Churchill Falls, Deer Lake, Gander, St. Anthony, St. John's, Wabush

Helicopter charters are operated by CHC Helicopter, Cougar Helicopters and Universal Helicopters.

Air Labrador was a tenant of the airport until the airline ceased operations in 2017 when it was merged with Innu Mikun Airlines as Air Borealis. It flew mainly from Goose Bay to remote communities in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec.[29]

Historical airline service

In 1950, Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) was operating round trip transatlantic service via a stop at the airport with a routing of Montreal Dorval - Goose Bay - Glasgow Prestwick - London Airport flown with Canadair North Star aircraft which was a Canadian manufactured version of the Douglas DC-4.[30][31] By 1962, Trans-Canada was serving Goose Bay with nonstop flights twice a week from Montreal Dorval operated with Vickers Vanguard turboprop aircraft.[32] In 1981, Eastern Provincial Airways was the only airline serving Goose Bay with nonstop Boeing 737-200 jet service from Churchill Falls, Deer Lake, Halifax, Montreal Dorval, St. John's, Stephenville and Wabush although none of these flights were operated on a daily basis.[33] By 1989, Canadian Airlines International was operating nonstop Boeing 737-200 jet service to Montreal Dorval four days a week.[34] On January 23, 2021 Air Canada Express ended service from the airport to Halifax because of reduced demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[35] Service returned on April 30, 2022.[28]

Units, squadrons and formations

The principal components of CFB Goose Bay are:[36]

Fixed-base operators

The following fixed-base operators (FBOs) are based at CFB Goose Bay:

Contamination

Aerodrome chart, CFB Goose Bay

The heavy contamination of the site and surrounding area is the result of decades of military operations.[37] For many years waste material was disposed of on-site . The contamination is mostly due to the waste dumps and substance leaks from storage tanks, pipelines, and equipment. As a result, both the soil and groundwater of the site have been contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls, among other hazardous substances.[38] In addition, in 2014 it was estimated that there were over 1 million litres of undissolved petroleum before cleanup began.[39] The contamination is spread over more than 100 individual sites on the base.[40] Over time the contamination has spread from the base itself onto neighbouring private and provincially-owned land.[41] In 2004 the groundwater pollution of the surrounding area had progressed to an extent that the Department of National Defence warned local farmers to avoid using wellwater until further testing was done.[42]

Remediation

Work started on remediation in 2009 and is slated to be finished in 2028. As of 2022, the federal government has spent $142.9 million on remediating the site.[43] One of the dumps has been transformed into an engineered wetland as part of the efforts to filter out contaminants from the water.[44] In addition, over 46,000 m3 of contaminated soil has been cleaned and returned to the site.[45] Over 700,000 litres of hydrocarbons have been recuperated and over 5 million litres of contaminated groundwater have been treated.

A number of different technologies have been employed in the site clean-up, such as dual phase vacuum extraction.

Incidents

Source:[46]

Historic place

Hangar 8 at CFB Goose Bay was designated as a Canadian historic place in 2004.[51] The hangar suffered a structural damage in April 2024.[50]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The thirteen-million-hectare (130,000 km2) bombing range is larger than Iceland; Portugal; Serbia; Austria; the Czech Republic; Ireland; Slovakia; the Netherlands; Denmark; Switzerland; Belgium. see List of countries and dependencies by area.

References

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency

  1. ^ "5 Wing Goose Bay". Canadian Royal Canadian Air Force. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  2. ^ Lindert-Wentzell, Anne (17 December 2015). "A World of Opportunities in Canada's Bright Light of the North". Business in Focus. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "History of 5 Wing Goose Bay". Government of Canada. 21 October 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  4. ^ Hansen, 195-7
  5. ^ Carr, 84–85
  6. ^ Carr, 111
  7. ^ Christie, 129
  8. ^ Staff Writer c.1942, p. 5
  9. ^ "Military Presence in Labrador".[dead link]
  10. ^ "Strategic Air Command Bases". Strategic-air-command.com.
  11. ^ Clearwater, John (1998). Canadian Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 18.
  12. ^ Seaward, Larry D. (January 1999), Preliminary Information Sheets, Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office
  13. ^ Norris, Robert S; Arkin, William M; Burr, William (November–December 1999), "Where they were" (PDF), The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 55 (6): 26–35, Bibcode:1999BuAtS..55f..26N, doi:10.1080/00963402.1999.11460389
  14. ^ Seaward, Larry D. (21 January 1999), Preliminary Information Sheets, Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office
  15. ^ Armitage, Peter (December 1986). "NATO's Invasion: Air Combat Training and its Impact on the Innu". culturalsurvival.org.
  16. ^ Lucia, Clark (December 2000). "When Outrage Is A Scarce Commodity: Low-flying Maneuvers over Innu lands in Labrador". culturalsurvival.org.
  17. ^ Gaudi, John (14 December 2019). "New children's book is based on Innu protests of low-level flying in Labrador". CBC News. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  18. ^ Swardson, Anne (17 March 1994). "Indians in Labrador Press for End to Low-Level Flight Training". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  19. ^ "Shuttle Enterprise begins international tour". UPI. 16 May 1983. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  20. ^ McKay, James R. (16 April 2012). "CFB Goose Bay and Operation "Desert Shield"". Canadian Military History. 14 (3). Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University: 71–80.
  21. ^ Air Force Public Affairs / Department of National Defence (15 June 2007). "444 Squadron History". Archived from the original on 26 January 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  22. ^ AEROWARE / RCAF.com (n.d.). "No. 444 Squadron". Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  23. ^ "To Cope with Flying Restrictions, German Pilots Turn to Simulators". Defense Industry Daily. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2011.
  24. ^ "U.S. missile company scouts Labrador". CBC News. 22 April 2005. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  25. ^ "CBC.ca – Labrador Morning Show – A tour of the New Airport in Happy Valley Goose Bay (Part 1)". cbc.ca. 12 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  26. ^ "Strong jet stream forcing airliners to make Labrador retrievals". thestar.com. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  27. ^ Churchill Duke, Laura (20 September 2019). "Hopedale woman circulating petition calling for the province to subsidize flights to northern Labrador". Saltwire. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  28. ^ a b "Air Canada Affirms Market Leadership by Expanding its North American Network this Summer as Recovery Accelerates" (Press release). Air Canada. 22 February 2022.
  29. ^ "Air Labrador Route Map". Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  30. ^ Trans-Canada Air Lines, Eastbound flights
  31. ^ Trans-Canada Air Lines, Westbound flights
  32. ^ Trans-Canada Air Lines, Quick Reference Schedule
  33. ^ "YYR81p1". Departedflights.com.
  34. ^ "YUL89p1". Departedflights.com.
  35. ^ Mullin, Malone (12 January 2021). "Air Canada cuts all service in Labrador, St. John's to Toronto route axed". CBC News. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  36. ^ "5 Wing Goose Bay". Government of Canada. 8 November 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  37. ^ "5 Wing Goose Bay Newfoundland Project – Case Study". SGC Industries. Archived from the original on 28 March 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  38. ^ "Site 01822018 - Canadian Side & Northside". Federal Contaminated Sites Inventory. Government of Canada. January 1994. Archived from the original on 29 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  39. ^ "The Goose Bay Military Base". Vertex Environmental Inc. 30 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 June 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  40. ^ "Goose Bay Remediations". Defence Construction Canada. Archived from the original on 23 March 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  41. ^ "SCOPING DOCUMENT FOR THE 5 WING GOOSE BAY REMEDIATION PROJECT" (PDF). Government of Canada. Impact Assessment Agency of Canada. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  42. ^ "Toxins from Goose Bay airbase may be spreading, DND warns". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  43. ^ Blake, Emily (27 November 2022). "Canada's top five federal contaminated sites to cost taxpayers billions to clean up". CTV News. Archived from the original on 14 March 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  44. ^ Barker, Jacob. "Turning an old dump into new wetland in Happy Valley-Goose Bay". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  45. ^ "Goose Bay Clean-Up Reaches Its Peak of Activity". Canadian Military Engineers Association. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  46. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Goose Bay Airport, NL profile - Aviation Safety Network". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  47. ^ "Newfoundland & Labrador | Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives". Baaa-acro.com. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  48. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Accident General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcon J-358, 10 May 1990". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  49. ^ "2 people seriously injured in plane crash near Happy Valley-Goose Bay airport". CBC News. 14 December 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  50. ^ a b Head, Jenna (20 April 2024). "'Yesterday this time, there was a huge hangar there, and now today there's nothing': State of Emergency over in Happy Valley-Goose Bay following fire and risk of explosion". Saltwire.
  51. ^ "HistoricPlaces.ca – HistoricPlaces.ca". Historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  • A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 – 1980, by Lloyd H. Cornett and Mildred W. Johnson, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado
  • Winkler, David F. (1997), Searching the skies: the legacy of the United States Cold War defense radar program. Prepared for United States Air Force Headquarters Air Combat Command.
  • Information for Melville AS, Goose Bay, NL
  • Carr, William G.: Checkmate in the North. MacMillan, Toronto, 1944.
  • Christie, Carl A.: Ocean Bridge. University of Toronto Press, 1995.
  • Hansen, Chris: Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Able Baker, Tucson, 2012.
  • Carr, William G.: Checkmate in the North, 1944
  • Staff writer (c. 1942). Pilots Handbook of Aerodromes and Seaplane Bases Vol. 1. Royal Canadian Air Force.
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