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Burlington, Ontario

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City of Burlington
Brant Street in Downtown Burlington
Brant Street in Downtown Burlington
Official logo of Burlington
Stand By
Burlington is located in Southern Ontario
Coordinates: 43°22′12″N 79°48′51″W / 43.37000°N 79.81417°W / 43.37000; -79.81417[1]
City status1974
 • MayorMarianne Meed Ward
 • Governing BodyBurlington City Council
 • MPsKarina Gould (Lib), Pam Damoff (Lib), Adam van Koeverden (Lib)
 • MPPsNatalie Pierre (PC), Zee Hamid (PC), Effie Triantafilopoulos (PC)
 • Total185.66 km2 (71.68 sq mi)
74 m (243 ft)
 • Total186,948 (Ranked 28th)
 • Density946.8/km2 (2,452/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Burlingtonian, Burlingtonite
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Forward sortation area
Area code(s)905, 289, 365, and 742
Highways Queen Elizabeth Way
 Highway 403
 Highway 407
Former Highway 2 Former Highway 5

Burlington is a city and lower-tier municipality in the Regional Municipality of Halton at the west end of Lake Ontario in Ontario, Canada. Located approximately halfway between Toronto and Niagara Falls, it is part of the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and Hamilton metropolitan census area.


The Brant Hotel in 1902. Located on the shore of Lake Ontario in Burlington, the hotel was erected on the former homestead of Joseph Brant, and was the largest resort in Canada. The hotel was expropriated and used as a military hospital in 1917, demolished and rebuilt in the 1930s, and then demolished in 1964.[3]

Before the 19th century, the area between the provincial capital of York and the township of West Flamborough was home to the Mississauga nation. In 1792, John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, named the western end of Lake Ontario "Burlington Bay" after the town of Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.[4]

The British purchased the land on which Burlington now stands from the Mississaugas in Upper Canada Treaties 3 (1792), 8 (1797), 14 (1806), and 19 (1818). Treaty 8 concerned the purchase of the Brant Tract, 14.0 km2 (3,450 acres) on Burlington Bay which the British granted to Mohawk chief Joseph Brant for his service in the American Revolutionary War.[5][6] Joseph Brant and his household settled on this tract of land around 1802.[7] Brant is accordingly often referred to as the founder of Burlington, and the city of Burlington still celebrates an annual Joseph Brant Day in early August.[8][9] Subsequent disputes between the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation and the Canadian government over payment for the Brant Tract and the Toronto Purchase were settled in 2010 for the sum of $145 million (CAD).[6][10]

By the turn of the 19th century, the name "Burlington" was already in common use. With the completion of the local survey after the War of 1812, the land was opened for settlement. Early farmers prospered in the Burlington area because the area had fertile soil and moderate temperatures. Produce from the farms was shipped out via the bustling docks of the lakeside villages of Port Nelson and Wellington Square, as well as Brown's Wharf in the nearby village of Port Flamborough (which was to become Aldershot). Lumber taken from the surrounding forests also competed for space on the busy docks. In the latter half of the 19th century, increased wheat production from Western Canada convinced local farmers to switch to fruit and vegetable production.

In 1873, the villages of Wellington Square and Port Nelson merged to become the Village of Burlington which then became the Town of Burlington in 1914.[11] The arrival of large steamships on the Great Lakes made the small docks of the local ports obsolete, and the increased use of railway to ship goods marked the end of the commercial wharves.

Farming still thrived though, and the resultant growth resulted in continued prosperity. By 1906, the town boasted its own newspaper—the Burlington Gazette—as well as a town library and a local rail line that connected Burlington to nearby Hamilton. During the First World War, 300 local men volunteered for duty in the Canadian Expeditionary Force—38 did not return. In 1914, Burlington was incorporated into a town.

As more settlers arrived and cleared the land, cash crops replaced subsistence farming. Gradually, mixed farming and market gardens became the dominant form of agriculture, and in the early 20th century the area was declared the Garden of Canada. The first peaches grown in Canada were cultivated in the Grindstone Creek watershed in the city's south-west part. The farming tradition has passed down through the generations. Today over 40 per cent of the Grindstone Creek watershed is still devoted to farms, orchards and nurseries.[12]

Following the Second World War, cheap electricity from nearby Niagara Falls and better transportation access due to the new (1939) Queen Elizabeth Way encouraged both light industry and families to move to Burlington. The population skyrocketed as new homes were built, encouraging developers to build even more new homes. On 1 January 1958, Burlington officially annexed most of the Township of Nelson, as well as Aldershot, formerly a part of East Flamborough Township. By 1967, the last cash crop farm within the city had been replaced by the Burlington Centre.[13]

Burlington was the site of the Brant Inn built by the lake in 1917, which became famous during the ’40s and ’50s for showing big-band performers.

By 1974, with a population exceeding 100,000, Burlington was incorporated as a city. The extremely high rate of growth continued, and between 2001 and 2006, the population of Burlington grew by 9%, compared to Canada's overall growth rate of 5.4%. By 2006, the population topped 160,000.


Burlington is at the southwestern end of Lake Ontario, just to the north east of Hamilton and the Niagara Peninsula, roughly in the geographic centre of the urban corridor known as the Golden Horseshoe. Burlington has a land area of 187 km2 (72 sq mi). The main urban area is south of the Parkway Belt and Hwy. 407. The land north of this, and north Aldershot is used primarily for agriculture, rural residential and conservation purposes. The Niagara Escarpment, Lake Ontario and the sloping plain between the escarpment and the lake make up the land area of Burlington. The city is no longer a port; sailing vessels in the area are used for recreational purposes and moor at a 215 slip marina in LaSalle Park.

Burlington at night
Burlington at night


Burlington's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with hot, humid summers and cold and snowy winters. The climate is moderated somewhat by its proximity to Lake Ontario. Monthly mean temperatures range from 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in July to −4.4 °C (24.1 °F) in January. The average annual precipitation is 763 mm (30.0 in) of rain and 99 cm (39 in) of snow.

Although it shares the continental climate found in Southern Ontario, its proximity to Lake Ontario moderates winter temperatures and it also benefits from a sheltering effect of the Niagara Escarpment, allowing the most northerly tracts of Carolinian forest to thrive on the Escarpment that runs through western sections of city. Several species of flora and fauna usually found only in more southern climes are present in Burlington, including paw-paw, green dragon (Arisaema dracontium), tuckahoe (Peltandra virginica), American columbo (Frasera caroliniensis), wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria), plus the Louisiana waterthrush, the hooded warbler, the southern flying squirrel and the rare eastern pipistrelle. Near the visible promontory of Mount Nemo that rises some 200 m (650 ft) above the lake level, a "vertical forest" of white cedar clinging to the Escarpment face includes many small trees that are more than a thousand years old.[14]

Hamilton Harbour, the western end of Lake Ontario, is bounded on its western shore by a large sandbar, now called the Beach strip, that was deposited during the last ice age. A canal bisecting the sandbar allows ships access to the harbour. The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway (part of the Queen Elizabeth Way), and the Canal Lift Bridge allow access over the canal.

Climate data for Burlington TS
Climate ID: 6151064; coordinates 43°20′N 79°50′W / 43.333°N 79.833°W / 43.333; -79.833 (Burlington TS), elevation: 99.1 m (325 ft); 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1866–present[note 1]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.4
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.4
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −8.1
Record low °C (°F) −30.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.0
Average rainfall mm (inches) 31.8
Average snowfall cm (inches) 34.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.4 9.6 11.0 12.5 11.8 10.9 10.1 10.2 10.9 10.7 13.9 11.9 135.8
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.9 4.5 8.0 11.7 11.8 10.9 10.1 10.2 10.9 10.7 12.7 7.7 113.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 8.1 6.0 3.6 0.84 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 5.4 25.5
Source: Environment and Climate Change Canada[15][16]



In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Burlington had a population of 186,948 living in 73,180 of its 74,891 total private dwellings, a change of 2% from its 2016 population of 183,314. With a land area of 186.12 km2 (71.86 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,004.4/km2 (2,601.5/sq mi) in 2021.[18]

According to the 2016 census, Burlington's population was 183,314 where 48% of residents were male and 52% female. Minors (individuals up to the age of 19) made up 22.6% of the population (almost identical to the national average of 22.4%), and seniors (age 65+) were 19.2% (higher than the national average of 16.9%). This older population was also reflected in Burlington's median age of 43.3, which was higher than the Canadian median of 41.2.[19]


According to the 2011 census, 70% of Burlington residents identify as Christian, with Catholics (31.5%) making up the largest denomination, followed by Anglican (10%), United Church (9.2%), and other denominations. Others identify as Muslim (2%), Hindu (1.1%), Sikh (1%), Buddhist (0.4%), Jewish (0.4%), and with other religions. A total of 25% of the population report no religious affiliation.[20]


According to the 2016 census, the most common mother tongue in Burlington is English (78.7%), followed by French (1.6%), Spanish (1.5%), Polish (1.3%), and Arabic (1.2). The three most commonly known languages are English (99.1%), French (9%), and Spanish (2.5%).[21]

Mother tongue Population %
English 142,605 78.7
French 2,970 1.6
Spanish 2,680 1.5
Polish 2,365 1.3
Arabic 2,205 1.2
Italian 1,845 1.0
Punjabi 1,795 1.0
German 1,645 0.9
Mandarin 1,555 0.9
Portuguese 1,545 0.9
Tagalog (Filipino) 1,290 0.7
Dutch 1,080 0.6
Knowledge of language Population %
English 178,540 99.1
French 16,140 9.0
Spanish 4,455 2.5
Polish 2,920 1.6
Italian 2,865 1.6
Arabic 2,750 1.5
German 2,685 1.5
Punjabi 2,565 1.4
Hindi 2,055 1.1
Portuguese 2,040 1.1
Mandarin 1,990 1.1
Tagalog (Filipino) 1,830 1.0


Ethnic origin[22] Population %
English 56,130 31.2
Canadian 42,935 23.8
Scottish 40,050 22.2
Irish 37,160 20.6
German 18,645 10.4
French 16,585 9.2
Italian 14,235 7.9
Polish 10,475 5.8
Dutch 9,115 5.1
Ukrainian 8,160 4.5
East Indian 7,245 4.0

The 2016 census records a visible minority of 16%.[23]

The top 11 ethnic origins from the 2016 census are listed in the accompanying table. Percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents can report more than one ethnicity.

Panethnic groups in the City of Burlington (2001−2021)
2021[24] 2016[25] 2011[26] 2006[27] 2001[28]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[a] 143,180 77.83% 149,320 82.9% 151,195 87.15% 145,720 89.68% 137,575 91.88%
South Asian 11,955 6.5% 8,695 4.83% 6,325 3.65% 5,030 3.1% 3,235 2.16%
East Asian[b] 6,295 3.42% 5,160 2.86% 4,175 2.41% 3,280 2.02% 2,335 1.56%
Middle Eastern[c] 5,510 3% 3,495 1.94% 2,385 1.37% 1,555 0.96% 1,075 0.72%
African 4,670 2.54% 3,795 2.11% 2,830 1.63% 2,450 1.51% 2,305 1.54%
Southeast Asian[d] 4,075 2.22% 3,520 1.95% 2,270 1.31% 1,550 0.95% 890 0.59%
Latin American 3,205 1.74% 2,325 1.29% 1,660 0.96% 1,135 0.7% 665 0.44%
Indigenous 2,385 1.3% 1,970 1.09% 1,510 0.87% 1,070 0.66% 905 0.6%
Other/Multiracial[e] 2,680 1.46% 1,835 1.02% 1,135 0.65% 685 0.42% 755 0.5%
Total responses 183,955 98.4% 180,125 98.26% 173,490 98.7% 162,480 98.82% 149,735 99.27%
Total population 186,948 100% 183,314 100% 175,779 100% 164,415 100% 150,836 100%
Note: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses


Burlington's economic strength is the diversity of its economic base, mainly achieved because of its geography, proximity to large industries in southern Ontario (Canada's largest consumer market), its location within the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) and proximity to Hamilton, and its transportation infrastructure including the Port of Hamilton on Burlington Bay. This diversity has allowed for sustained growth with regards to the economy.[29] The city has a robust economy with potential for growth—it is at the hub of the Golden Horseshoe, is largely driven by both the automotive and manufacturing sectors.

No single employer or job sector dominates Burlington's economy. The leading industrial sectors, in terms of employment, are food processing, packaging, electronics, motor vehicle/transportation, business services, chemical/pharmaceutical and environmental. The top five private sector employers in Burlington are Fearmans Pork Inc, Cogeco Cable, Evertz Microsystems, Boehringer Ingelheim and EMC2. Other notable business include The EBF Group, ARGO Land Development, The Sunshine Doughnut Company and TipTapPay Micropayments Ltd.[30][31][32] The largest public sector employers in the city are the City of Burlington, the Halton District School Board, the Halton Catholic District School Board and Joseph Brant Hospital.

Burlington Centre and Mapleview Centre are popular malls within the city. The city's summer festivals include Canada's Largest Ribfest, and the Burlington Sound of Music Festival which also attract many visitors.[citation needed]

Arts and culture


The Burlington Teen Tour Band has operated in the city since 1947, including members between the ages of 13 and 21. The marching band are regular participants in major international parades. They are also referred to as "Canada's Musical Ambassadors" and have represented Canada all over the world.[33] One such occasion was during the 2018 Tournament of Roses Parade, where the band represented Canada for the fifth time in the band's history.[34] The band is led by Rob Bennett, managing director.[35]

The Junior Redcoats are the younger version of the Teen Tour Band. The band includes children between the ages of 9 and 12. They are directed by Caroline Singh.[36]

The Burlington Concert Band (BCB) is the oldest band in Burlington and has been in operation since 1908. It is composed of local volunteer musicians, and plays a wide variety of musical styles and repertoire. The band's main goal is to raise money for local charities and organizations. The BCB maintains an open membership policy, allowing anyone who feels they can handle the music competently to join without an audition. The BCB is led by an elected volunteer board.[37] The current musical director is Joanne Romanow.[38]

The Burlington Symphony Orchestra, formed in 1973, is a community orchestra under the direction of Denis Mastromonaco.[39]


Spencer Smith Park on Burlington's waterfront

There are 115 parks and 580 hectares (1,400 acres) of parkland in the city. On the shore of Lake Ontario, Spencer Smith Park features a shoreline walking path, an observatory, water jet play area and restaurant. The park includes the Burlington Rotary Centennial Pond, used for model sail boating and ice-skating. Festivals in Spencer Smith Park include Ribfest, the Sound of Music Festival, Canada Day, Children's Festival and Lakeside Festival of Lights.

The Brant Street Pier opened in Spencer Smith Park during the Sound of Music Festival in 2013.[40]

"Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial" (1995) by André Gauthier, Spencer Smith Park

The Art Gallery of Burlington contains permanent and temporary exhibits.[41]

Royal Botanical Gardens

"Royal Canadian Naval Association Naval Memorial" (1995), by André Gauthier, is a 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) high cast bronze statue of a World War II Canadian sailor in Spencer Smith Park.[42]

The Royal Botanical Gardens in Burlington is the largest botanical garden in Canada. Ontario's botanical garden and National Historic Site of Canada features over 11 km2 (2,700 acres) of gardens and nature sanctuaries, including four outdoor display gardens, the Mediterranean Garden under glass, three on-site restaurants, the Gardens' Gift Shop, and festivals.

The Village Square

Located at The Village Square in Burlington's downtown are historic landmarks, businesses, shopping, and dining area.[43]

Mount Nemo Conservation Area is operated by Conservation Halton. Bronte Creek Provincial Park features a campground and recreational activities.

The local sections of the Bruce Trail and the Niagara Escarpment, which is a UNESCO designated World Biosphere Reserve, provide hiking trails. Kerncliff Park, in a decommissioned quarry on the boundary with Waterdown, is a naturalized area on the lip of the Niagara Escarpment. The Bruce Trail runs through the park, at many points running along the edge of the cliffs, providing an overlook.

The Joseph Brant Museum has exhibits on the history of Burlington, the Eileen Collard Costume Collection, Captain Joseph Brant and the visible storage gallery. Ireland House at Oakridge Farm is a museum depicting family life from the 1850s to the 1920s. Freeman Railway Station (1906) of the Grand Trunk Railway, reopened as an interpretive centre in 2017.[citation needed]

Burlington offers four indoor and two outdoor pools, one splash park, nine splash pads, seven arenas and ice centres, six community centres and nine golf courses.[44] The Appleby Ice Centre is a 4-pad arena, used year-round for skating and ice hockey.[45]

The Burlington Performing Arts Centre is a 940-seat facility opened in 2011.[46]

Malls and shopping

Burlington Mall (Now Burlington Centre)

Burlington Centre is a two-storey mall opened in 1968, and Mapleview Centre is a two-storey mall opened in 1990.[citation needed]


Burlington doesn't host any professional teams, though several minor league teams are based in the city.

Club Sport League / Association Venue
Burlington Cougars Ice hockey Ontario Junior Hockey League Appleby Ice Centre
Burlington Chiefs Box lacrosse Ontario Junior A Lacrosse League Central Arena
Burlington Jr. Barracudas Ice hockey Provincial Women's Hockey League Mainway Ice Centre
Halton United Soccer Canadian Soccer League Norton Park
Burlington SC Soccer League1 Ontario
Burlington Eagles Ice hockey Ontario Minor Hockey Association
Burlington Bayhawks Soccer League1 Ontario
NEXXICE Synchronized skating Burlington Skating Club, Kitchener Waterloo Skating Club
Burlington Track and Field Club Track and Field Minor Track Association of Ontario, Athletics Ontario La Salle Park (fall), Tansley Woods Community Centre (winter), Nelson High School (spring and summer)
Appleby Ice Centre is a recreation facility with four ice rinks.

International competition

Burlington, Ontario, founded the Burlington International Games (B.I.G.). The games were first held in 1969 "to offer an athletic and cultural exchange experience for the youth of Burlington".[citation needed] Until recently,[when?] the games took place between Burlington, Ontario, and Burlington, Vermont, United States. But, other cities from places such as Quebec, Japan, the Netherlands, and the U.S. have all had athletes compete since 1998.[47] The games celebrated their 40th anniversary in 2009 and the competition ceased in 2010 due to limited participation in later years.[citation needed]


City Hall, on Brant Street
Burlington's six municipal wards

Local government

The city is divided into six wards, each represented by a city councillor. The mayor, who chairs the city council, is Marianne Meed Ward.

Council elected for 2018–2022 and entirely re-elected for 2022-2026

  • Mayor: Marianne Meed Ward
  • Ward 1: Kelvin Galbraith
  • Ward 2: Lisa Kearns
  • Ward 3: Rory Nisan
  • Ward 4: Shawna Stolte
  • Ward 5: Paul Sharman
  • Ward 6: Angelo Bentivegna



Burlington federal election results[49]
Year Liberal Conservative New Democratic Green
2021 45% 45,058 38% 37,877 11% 10,721 2% 1,820
2019 48% 50,253 35% 36,621 10% 10,324 6% 6,350
Burlington provincial election results[50]
Year PC New Democratic Liberal Green
2022 44% 33,239 16% 11,700 31% 23,227 6% 4,566
2018 42% 38,124 28% 24,839 24% 21,517 4% 3,952

Federally, the city is represented by three MPs whose ridings cover parts of the city:


Provincially, the city is represented by three MPPs, whose ridings are geographically contiguous with their federal counterparts:




Major transportation corridors through the city include:

The Queen Elizabeth Way and Ontario Highway 403 run concurrently throughout most of Burlington.

North-South Arterial Roads


  • Burloak Drive
    • Signed as a standard road south/east of Wyecroft Road & Harvester Road.
    • Northern/Western end continues as Upper Middle Road.
    • Boundary with Town of Oakville
  • Tremaine Road
    • Boundary with Town of Oakville south of Burnhamthorpe Road West & Number 1 Side Road
  • Appleby Line
    • Signed as a standard road south/east of Fairview Street
  • Walkers Line
  • Guelph Line
    • Signed as a standard road south/east of Fairview Street
  • Brant Street
    • Signed as a standard road south/east of Fairview Street
  • Waterdown Road

East-West Arterial Roads


  • Lakeshore Road
    • Splits from North Shore Boulevard East at Maple Avenue intersection.
  • New Street
  • Fairview Street
    • Continues west of QEW Niagara off-ramp as Plains Road East
      • Continues west of Waterdown Road & Lasalle Park Road as Plains Road West
  • Harvester Road
  • Mainway
  • Upper Middle Road
    • Northern/Eastern end continues as Burloak Drive.
    • Signed as a standard road west of Guelph Line
  • Dundas Street (former Highway 5)
  • Britannia Road
  • Derry Road
    • Boundary with Town of Milton

Public Transit

Burlington Transit bus

Burlington Transit, the public transport provider in the city, provides bus service on a transportation grid centred on three commuter GO Train stations: Appleby, Burlington and Aldershot.

Commuter rail service is provided by GO Transit at the Appleby GO Station, Burlington GO Station and the Aldershot GO station. Intercity rail service is provided by Via Rail at Aldershot, which also serves Hamilton. Rail cargo transportation is provided by both Canadian National Railway and Canadian Pacific.

Burlington Airpark in the city's north end is a thriving general-aviation without regular commercial passenger flight service. Some charter operations are provided.

On 26 February 2012, a Via Rail train traveling from Niagara Falls to Toronto Union Station derailed in Burlington, with three fatalities.[53]

Emergency services

Halton Regional Police Services car

Halton Regional Police Service provides law enforcement.[54]

The Burlington Fire Department offers emergency services from eight fire stations.[55] The services is made up of both career and volunteer fire fighters.[55]

Paramedic services are provided by Halton Region Paramedic Services.[56]

Joseph Brant Memorial Hospital is located in downtown Burlington.


Burlington's public elementary and secondary schools are part of the Halton District School Board. Burlington's Catholic elementary and secondary schools are part of the Halton Catholic District School Board. French public elementary and secondary schools are part of the Conseil scolaire Viamonde and French catholic elementary and secondary schools are part of the Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir. Several private schools are also available in the city.

M. M. Robinson High School
Nelson High School

Elementary schools

There are 29 public elementary schools and 14 Roman Catholic elementary schools in Burlington.

High schools

There are six public high schools and three Catholic high schools in the area.




  • Australian university Charles Sturt University had a study centre in Burlington that offered programs in Master of International Education, Bachelor of Early Childhood Studies and Master of Business Administration. Operation of the campus ceased in July 2015.[57]


Online media is an online local news source in Burlington, offering the latest breaking news, weather updates, entertainment, sports and business features, obituaries and more.

Print media

Several publications are either published in or around Burlington, or have Burlington as one of their main subjects, including Burlington Post and View Magazine. Burlington Post is no longer in circulation.[citation needed]


Burlington is part of the Hamilton radio market. One radio station, FM 107.9 CJXY, is licensed to Burlington and another, FM 94.7 CHKX, to "Hamilton/Burlington." Both presently broadcast from studios in Hamilton. Burlington listeners are also served by stations licensed to Toronto, St. Catharines, Niagara Falls and Buffalo, New York.

Television stations

Burlington is primarily served by media based in Toronto (other than those noted below), as it is geographically in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA).

  • YourTV from the studio in the Cogeco Cable Headquarters at Harvester Road & Burloak Drive.
  • Yes TV is based in Burlington with studios on the North Service Road near the junction of the QEW, 403 and 407.

Notable people

Visual art and writing



TV, film, and stage


Twin cities

Burlington has twin-city relationships with the following cities:[59]

  • Apeldoorn, Gelderland, Netherlands (May 6, 2005)[60]
    • Both cities have a park or garden named after each other. Burlington is home to Apeldoorn Park while Apeldoorn is home to Burlington Garden.
  • Itabashi, Japan (May, 1989)[61]
    • Itabashi Way, Itabashi Garden (opened July 1, 2019) and Itabashi Bridge (gifted June 1997) are all named after the city. Itabashi Bridge was donated to the City of Burlington by Itabashi as gratitude for the city's naming of Itabashi Way. In 2020, Itabashi Garden won the Parks and Recreation Ontario's Award of Excellence for Recreational Facility (non-aquatic) or Park Design.

Past twin-city relationships:[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ Long term records have been recorded at various climate stations in or nearby Burlington since 1866
  1. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  3. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  4. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.


  1. ^ "Burlington". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ a b c "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Data table". 6 October 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2011.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Arts & Entertainment" (PDF). Building Stories. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  4. ^ Rayburn, Alan (1997). Place Names of Ontario. Toronto-Buffalo-London: University of Toronto Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-8020-7207-0.
  5. ^ "Map of Ontario treaties and reserves". Government of Ontario. 22 February 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b Duric, Donna (28 May 2017). "The Brant Tract Treaty, No. 8 (1797)". Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  7. ^ "Joseph Brant; The Dictionary of Canadian Biography". Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  8. ^ "Burlington; The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  9. ^ "Joseph Brant Day; Hamilton-Halton-Brant Tourism". Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  10. ^ "Ontario band approves $145M land claim settlement". CTV News. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  11. ^ "History and Heritage; The City of Burlington". Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  12. ^ Halton: Rising, Wild and Beckoning. Conservation Halton. 1998.
  13. ^ Reynolds, John Lawrence (June 1993). "Sounds by the Shore: A History of Burlington, Ontario, Canada". City of Burlington. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
  14. ^ "Niagara Escarpment Commission: Flora & Fauna". Niagara Escarpment Commission. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  15. ^ "Burlington TS". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  16. ^ "Long Term Climate Extremes for Burlington Area (Virtual Station ID: VSON95V)". Daily climate records (LTCE). Environment and Climate Change Canada. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  17. ^ "Burlington, City Ontario (Census Subdivision)". Census profile, Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  18. ^ "Population and dwelling counts: Canada, provinces and territories, census divisions and census subdivisions (municipalities), Ontario". Statistics Canada. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  19. ^ "Statistics Canada. 2017. Burlington, CY [Census subdivision], Ontario and Halton, RM [Census division], Ontario". Statistics Canada. 29 November 2017. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  20. ^ "2011 National Household Survey Profile - Census subdivision". Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Burlington, City - Language". Statistics Canada. 8 February 2017.
  22. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Burlington, City - Ethnic origin". Statistics Canada.
  23. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Burlington, City - Visible minority". Statistics Canada.
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Burlington, Ontario
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