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Bukharan Jews

Bukharan Jews
יְהוּדֵי־בּוּכָרָה
Bukharan students with their teacher in Samarkand, c. 1910
Total population
320,000
Regions with significant populations
 Israel160,000
 United States
120,000
80,000
 United Kingdom15,000
 Austria3,000–3,500
 Germany2,000
 Uzbekistan
1,500
150[1][2]
 Canada1,500
 Russia1,000
Languages
Traditionally Bukharian (Judeo-Tajik),[3] Russian, Hebrew (Israel), English (United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia) and German (Austria and Germany), Uzbek (Uzbekistan)
Religion
Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Iranian Jews, Afghan Jews, Mashhadi Jews, Caucasus Jews, Georgian Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Soviet Jews and Kaifeng Jews

Bukharan Jews (Bukharian: יהודיאני בוכארא/яҳудиёни Бухоро, Yahudiyoni Bukhoro; Hebrew: יְהוּדֵי־בּוּכָרָה, Yehudey Bukhara), in modern times called Bukharian Jews (Bukharian: יהודי בוכרה/яҳудиёни бухорӣ, Yahudiyoni Bukhorī; Hebrew: יְהוּדִים־בּוּכָרִים, Yehudim Bukharim), are an ethnoreligious Jewish sub-group of Central Asia that historically spoke Bukharian, a Judeo-Tajik[4][3][5] dialect of the Tajik language, in turn a variety of the Persian language. Their name comes from the former Central Asian Emirate of Bukhara (now primarily Uzbekistan), which once had a sizable Jewish population. Bukharan Jews are of Persian-Jewish ethnicity, along with the Iranian Jews, Afghan Jews, and the Mountain Jews, all of whom fall under the category of Mizrahi Jews.[6][4][3]

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the great majority have immigrated to Israel or the United States while others have immigrated to Europe or Australia.

Name and language

The Bukharan Jews originally called themselves Bnei Israel, which relates specifically to the Israelites of Assyrian captivity. The term Bukharan was coined by European travellers who visited Central Asia around the 16th century. Since most of the Jewish community at the time lived under the Emirate of Bukhara, they came to be known as Bukharan Jews. The name by which the community called itself is "Bnei Isro'il".[7]

Bukharan Jews used Bukharian or Bukhori, a Jewish dialect of the Tajik language (in turn a variety of Farsi) with linguistic elements of Hebrew, to communicate among themselves.[3] This language was used for all cultural and educational life among the Jews. It was used widely until Central Asia was "Russified" by the Soviet Union and the dissemination of "religious" information was halted. The elderly Bukharian generation used Bukhori as their primary language but largely speak Russian (sometimes with a slight Bukharian accent). The younger generation use Russian as their primary language, but often do understand or speak Bukharian.

The first primary written account of Jews in Central Asia dates to the beginning of the 4th century CE. It is recalled in the Talmud by Rabbi Shmuel bar Bisna, a member of the Talmudic academy in Pumbeditha, who traveled to Margiana (present-day Merv in Turkmenistan).[8] The presence of Jewish communities in Merv is also proven by Jewish writings on ossuaries from the 5th and 6th centuries, uncovered between 1954 and 1956.[9]

History

Some Bukharan Jews relate their own ancestry to exiles from the tribes of Naphtali and Issachar during the Assyrian captivity,[10] basing this assumption on a reading of "Habor" at II Kings 17:6 as a reference to Bukhara. Nevertheless, more widespread Bukharan Jewish tradition associates their establishment in the country with the emigration of Persian Jews, fleeing the persecutions of King Peroz I (458–485 CE).[11] In the opinion of some scholars, Jews settled in Central Asia in the sixth century, but it is certain that during the eighth to ninth centuries they lived in Central Asian cities such as Balkh, Khwarezm, and Merv. At that time, and until approximately the sixteenth century, Bukharan Jews formed a group continuous with Jews of Iran and Afghanistan.[12]

The Bukharan Jews are considered one of the oldest ethno-religious groups of Central Asia and over the years they have developed their own distinct culture. Throughout the years, Jews from other Eastern countries such as Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Syria, and Morocco migrated into Central Asia (by way of the Silk Road).[13]

Under Sunni Muslim rule

Bukharan girl, 1871-1872

At the beginning of the 16th century, Central Asia was controlled by Sunni Uzbeks. The town of Bukhara became a center of Jewish life in Central Asia in the 16th century, having also absorbed many Jews between the Persians and the local Sunni rulers.

Bukharan Jews lived under the status of Dhimmi, and experienced persecution from the Muslim majority. They were forced to wear a yellow patch along with a special hat called a Tilpak to identify them as Jews, and had their belts made of rope, while the leather belts were reserved for Muslims. Jewish homes also had to be marked as "Jewish" with a dirty cloth nailed to their front doors, and their stores and homes had to be lower than Muslim ones. In court cases, any evidence from a Jew was inadmissible involving a Muslim. They were also forbidden to ride horses and donkeys and had to transport themselves by foot. Lastly, when paying their annual Jizya tax, the Jewish men would be ritually slapped in the face by Muslim authorities. Despite these prohibitions and humiliations, the Jews were able to achieve financial success primarily as merchants and established lucrative trade businesses.[14][15][16]

Towards the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, the Jewish quarter, Mahalla, was established in the town of Bukhara. The Jews were forbidden to reside outside its boundaries.[17]

During the 18th century, Bukharan Jews continued to face considerable discrimination and persecution. Jewish centers were closed down, and the Muslims of the region forced conversion on more than one-third of the Bukharan population, under a threat of torture and agonizing execution. On top of this, isolation from the rest of the Jewish world reached a point where the Jews of Bukhara began to lack knowledge and practice of their Jewish religion.[18]

By the middle of the 18th century, practically all Bukharan Jews lived in the Bukharan Emirate. In the early 1860s, Arminius Vambery, a Hungarian-Jewish traveler visited the emirate disguised as a Sunni dervish, writing in his journals that the Jews of Bukhara "live in utmost oppression, being despised by everyone."[19]

Rabbi Yosef Maimon

Interior of the Great Synagogue in Bukhara, sketch based on a photograph by Elkan Nathan Adler
Bukharan Jews (before 1899)

In 1793, a missionary kabbalist named Rabbi Yosef Maimon, who was a Sephardic Jew originally from Tetuan, Morocco, travelled to Bukhara to collect/solicit money from Jewish patrons. Upon arriving and his first days of meeting the Bukharan Jews, he stated in his writings:

"As I arrived in Bukhara in 1793, I found my co-religionists in a state of utter ignorance. Only a few of them could read. I found serious deviations in Jewish observance. The local community did not have leaders who could competently govern their people. In addition, there weren't enough religious literature, the community owned only two copies of the Holy Scripture, and even then, they only had the first three books of the Pentateuch".[20]

Prior to Maimon's arrival, the native Jews of Bukhara followed the Persian religious tradition. Maimon staunchly demanded that the native Jews of Bukhara adopt Sephardic traditions.[21][22] Many of the native Jews were opposed to this and the community split into two factions. The followers of the Maimon clan eventually won the struggle for religious authority over the native Bukharans, and Bukharan Jewry forcefully switched to Sephardi customs. The supporters of the Maimon clan, in the conflict, credit Maimon with causing a revival of Jewish practice among Bukharan Jews which they claim was in danger of dying out. However, there is evidence that there were Torah scholars present upon his arrival to Bukhara, but because they followed the Persian rite their practices were aggressively rejected as incorrect by Maimon.[23]

Maimon is an ancestor of Shlomo Moussaieff, author Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, and the former First Lady of Iceland Dorrit Moussaieff.[24][25] Another distant descendant, Iosef Yusupov,[26] has worked as an artistic director and conceptual designer for the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Sochi, Russia.[27]

Maimon's great-grandson Shimon Hakham continued his great-grandfather's work as a Rabbi, and in 1870 opened the Talmid Hakham yeshiva in Bukhara, where religious law was promoted. At that time Bukharan Jews were getting only a general education, which mostly consisted of religious laws, reading, writing and some math. Even though they studied Torah, many Bukharan Jews did not speak fluent Hebrew. Only a few books were written in Persian and many of them were old and incomplete. Hakham decided to change this situation by translating religious books into Bukhori.[28] But since there was no printing in Bukhara at that time, he went to Jerusalem to print his books.[29][30]

Under Tsarist Russia rule

In 1865, Russian colonial troops took over Tashkent, and established the Russian Turkestan region, as part of their expanding empire. The emir of Bukhara, 'Abd al-Ahad Khan and his successor Sayyid Mir Muhammad Alim Khan blamed their defeat against the Russians towards the Jews, and attempted to punish them, causing a migration of Jews from Bukhara to Samarkand, Tashkent, and other Turkistan cities. Unlike the Jews of Eastern Europe, Tsarist Russia was largely favorable towards the Bukharan Jews living there, due to years of close trade relations between Russian and Jewish merchants. Dubbed the "Golden Age" for Bukharan Jews, from 1876 to 1916 they were no longer restricted in their autonomy and had the same rights as their Muslim neighbors. Dozens of Bukharan Jews held prestigious jobs in medicine, law, and government, and many of them prospered. Many Bukharan Jews became successful and well-respected actors, artists, dancers, musicians, singers, film producers, and sportsmen. Several Bukharan entertainers became artists of merit and gained the title "People's Artist of Uzbekistan", "People's Artist of Tajikistan", and even (in the Soviet era) "People's Artist of the Soviet Union". Jews succeeded in the world of sport also, with several Bukharan Jews in Uzbekistan becoming renowned boxers and winning many medals for the country.[31]

Hibbat Zion and immigrating into Ottoman Palestine

Bukharan women in the Bukharan Quarter of Jerusalem, 1906
Bukharan men in the Bukharan Quarter of Jerusalem, 1927
Bukharan woman in the Bukharan Quarter of Jerusalem, 1927

Beginning from 1872, Bukharan Jews began to move into the region of Ottoman Palestine, motivated by religious convictions and the desire to return to their ancestral homeland. The land on which they settled in Jerusalem was named the Bukharan Quarter (Sh'hunat HaBucharim) and still exists today.[32][33] In 1890, seven members of the Bukharan Jewish community formed the Hovevei Zion Association of the Jewish communities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent, a precursor to the Zionist movement.[32][33] In 1891, the association bought land[32] and drew up a charter stating that the new quarter would be built in the style of Europe's major cities.[33] Architect Conrad Schick was employed to design the neighborhood.[32] The streets were three times wider than even major thoroughfares in Jerusalem at the time, and spacious mansions were built with large courtyards.[32] The homes were designed with neo-Gothic windows, European tiled roofs, neo-Moorish arches and Italian marble.[33] Facades were decorated with Jewish motifs such as the Star of David and Hebrew inscriptions.[33]

Rabbi Shimon Hakham and Rabbi Shlomo Moussaieff were some of the organizers of the quarter where Bukharan homes, synagogues, schools, libraries, and a bath house were established.[34][35]

The Bukharim neighborhood was one of the most affluent sections of the city, populated by Bukharan Jewish merchants and religious scholars supported primarily by various trading activities such as cotton, gemstones, and tea from Central Asia. After World War I and the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, however, the neighborhood fell into decline as overseas sources of income were cut off and residents were left with just their homes in Jerusalem, forcing them to subdivide and rent out rooms to bring in income.[35] The Revolution also brought a flood of impoverished Russian Jewish refugees to the neighborhood.[36] Later on Jews from Iran joined the mix, and overcrowding became rife. [37] In the 1920's and 1930's the neighborhood also became one of the centers of the Zionist movement with many of its leaders and philosophers living there.[38]

Between 1953-1963, Rabbi Bernard M. Casper was working as Dean for Student Affairs at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and during this period he became deeply concerned about the impoverished Quarter.[39] After his appointment as Chief Rabbi in South Africa he set up a special fund for the Quarter's improvement and this was tied with Prime Minister Menachem Begin's urban revitalization program, Project Renewal.[39] Johannesburg was twinned with the Bukharan Quarter, and Johannesburg Jewry raised enormous funds for its rehabilitation.[39] Frustrated by the lack of progress, Casper traveled to Jerusalem in 1981 to resolve the hurdles.[39] He consulted with community organizer Moshe Kahan and suggested that they present the dormant agencies with concrete evidence of what could be done.[39] Using a private discretionary fund, he initiated development of several pilot projects, among them a free loan fund, a dental clinic and a hearing center whose successes spurred the municipality back on track.[39]

The quarter borders Tel Arza on the west, the Shmuel HaNavi neighborhood on the north, Arzei HaBira on the east, and Geula on the south. Today, most of the residents are Haredi Jews.[40]

Under Soviet Union rule

Family of David Kalontarov, head of Samarkand’s Bukharan quarter, in front of their Sukkah, 1902

By the late 19th century, much of the Bukharan Jewish population began to favor a Bolshevik takeover, with the perception that the Soviets would continue to be tolerant of the Jews. This new political view led to more animosity from the Muslims, with several riots breaking out against Jews from 1918 to 1920. Following the Soviet capture of Bukhara and the creation of the Soviet Social Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, synagogues were destroyed or closed down, and were replaced by Soviet institutions.[41] Consequently many Bukharan Jews fled to the West. The route they undertook went through Afghanistan, as the neighboring country had many possibilities to the west.

Soviet doctrines, ideology and nationalities policy had a large impact on the everyday life, culture and identity of the Bukharan Jews.[41] The remaining community attempted to preserve their traditions while displaying loyalty to the new government.

Stalin's decision to end Lenin's New Economic Policy and initiate the First five-year plan in the late 1920s resulted in a drastic deterioration of living conditions for the Bukharan Jews. By the time Soviet authorities established their hold over the borders in Central Asia in the mid 1930s, many tens of thousands of households from Central Asia had crossed the border into Iran and Afghanistan, amongst them some 4,000 Bukharan Jews (comprising about one tenth of the total number of Bukharan Jews in Central Asia), who were heading towards the region of Palestine.[42]

During this time, the distinction between Jews and Muslims eroded as a result of the anti-religious policies the Soviets imposed on Central Asia.[43]

World War II and the Holocaust brought many Ashkenazi Jewish refugees from the European regions of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe through Uzbekistan, though Ashkenazi Jews and Bukharan Jews interacted very little, and intermarriage between the two was practically non-existent.[44]

In 1948 began the "Black Years of Soviet Jewry," where suppression of the Jewish religion resumed after briefly stopping due to war.[45] In 1950 thirteen religious Bukharan Jews in Samarkand were arrested and sentenced to 25 years.[46] Similar arrests happened to prominent Bukharan Jews in Kattakurgan and Bukhara.

Bukharan Jews celebrate Hanukkah in Tel Aviv, 1959

After the creation of the state of Israel in 1948, antisemitism intensified amongst the Muslim majority.[47] By the Six-Day Arab–Israeli War of 1967, the relationship between Jews and Muslims had reached another breaking point, with the war leading to a rise in Jewish patriotism as Bukharan Jews and others carried out demonstrations as refuseniks.[48]

Bukharan Jews who had put efforts into creating a Bukharan Jewish Soviet culture and national identity were charged during Stalin's Great Purge, or, as part of the Soviet Union's nationalities policies and nation building campaigns, were forced to assimilate into the larger Soviet Uzbek or Soviet Tajik national identities.[42]

In the late 1980s to the mid 1990s, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, almost all of the remaining Bukharan Jews left Central Asia for the United States, Israel, Europe, or Australia in the last mass emigration of Bukharan Jews from their resident lands. In 1990, there were riots against the Jewish population of Andijan and nearby areas. This led to most Jews in the Fergana Valley immigrating to Israel or the United States.[48]

After 1991

With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and foundation of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan in 1991, some feared growth of nationalistic policies in the country. The resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan prompted an increase in the level of emigration of Jews (both Bukharan and Ashkenazi). Before the collapse of the USSR, there were 45,000 Bukharan Jews in Central Asia.[49]

Today, there are about 150,000 Bukharan Jews in Israel (mainly in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, especially the neighborhoods of Tel Kabir, Shapira, Kiryat Shalom, HaTikvah and its neighbouring cities within the Gush Dan region like Or Yehuda, Ramla and Holon) and 60,000 in the United States (especially Queens—a borough of New York that is widely known as the "melting pot" of the United States due to its ethnic diversity)—with smaller communities in the USA like Phoenix, South Florida, Atlanta, San Diego, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Denver. Only a few thousand still remain in Uzbekistan. About 500 live in Canada (mainly Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec). Almost no Bukharan Jews remain in Tajikistan (compared to the 1989 Jewish population of 15,000 in Tajikistan).

Immigrant populations

Entrance to the now demolished Dushanbe Synagogue in 2006

Tajikistan

In early 2006, the still active Dushanbe Synagogue in Tajikistan as well as the city's mikveh (ritual bath), kosher butcher, and Jewish schools were demolished by the government (without compensation to the community) to make room for the new Palace of Nations. After an international outcry, the government of Tajikistan announced a reversal of its decision and publicly claimed that it would permit the synagogue to be rebuilt on its current site. However, in mid-2008, the government of Tajikistan destroyed the whole synagogue and started construction of the Palace of Nations. The Dushanbe synagogue was Tajikistan's only synagogue and the community were therefore left without a centre or a place to pray. As a result, the majority of Bukharan Jews from Tajikistan living in Israel and the United States have very negative views towards the Tajik government and many have cut off all ties they had with the country. In 2009, the Tajik government reestablished the synagogue in a different location for the small Jewish community.[50]

United States

Congregation Beth-El in Fresh Meadows, Queens, a Bukharan synagogue

The largest amount of Bukharan Jews in the U.S. is in New York City.[6] In Forest Hills, Queens, 108th Street, often referred to as "Bukharan Broadway"[51] or "Bukharian Broadway",[52] is filled with Bukharan restaurants and gift shops. Furthermore, Forest Hills is nicknamed "Bukharlem" due to the majority of the population being Bukharian.[53] They have formed a tight-knit enclave in this area that was once primarily inhabited by Ashkenazi Jews. Congregation Tifereth Israel in Corona, Queens, a synagogue founded in the early 1900s by Ashkenazi Jews, became Bukharan in the 1990s. Kew Gardens, Queens, also has a very large population of Bukharan Jews. Although Bukharan Jews in Queens remain insular in some ways (living in close proximity to each other, owning and patronizing clusters of stores, and attending their own synagogue rather than other synagogues in the area), they have connections with non-Bukharans in the area. In December 1999, the First Congress of the Bukharian Jews of the United States and Canada convened in Queens.[54] In 2007, Bukharan-American Jews initiated lobbying efforts on behalf of their community.[55] Zoya Maksumova, president of the Bukharan women's organization "Esther Hamalka" said "This event represents a huge leap forward for our community. Now, for the first time, Americans will know who we are."[citation needed] Senator Joseph Lieberman intoned, "God said to Abraham, 'You'll be an eternal people'… and now we see that the State of Israel lives, and this historic [Bukharan] community, which was cut off from the Jewish world for centuries in Central Asia and suffered oppression during the Soviet Union, is alive and well in America. God has kept his promise to the Jewish people."[55]

Culture

Dress codes

Bukharan kippah

Bukharan Jews had their own dress code, similar to but also different from other cultures (mainly Turco-Mongol) living in Central Asia, which they were wore as their daily attire until the country was "Russified" by the Soviet Union. Today, the traditional kaftan (Jomah-ҷома-ג'אמה in Bukhori and Tajik) is worn during weddings and Bar Mitzvah's.[56]

Bukharan Jews also have a unique kippah, a full head-sized covering with rich patterns and lively colors embroidered. Aside from Bukharan Jews themselves, in present times some liberal-leaning and Reform Jews can be seen wearing the Bukharan kippah as well.[57]

Music

A Bukharan dance performed by members of the Rina Nikova ballet in the citadel of Jerusalem, 1946

The Bukharan Jews have a distinct musical tradition called shashmaqam, which is an ensemble of stringed instruments, infused with Central Asian rhythms, and a considerable klezmer influence as well as Muslim melodies, and even Spanish chords. The main instrument is the dayereh. Shashmaqam music "reflect[s] the mix of Hassidic vocals, Indian and Islamic instrumentals and Sufi-inspired texts and lyrical melodies."[58] Ensemble Shashmaqam was one of the first New York-based ensembles created to showcase the music and dance of Bukharan Jews. The Ensemble was created in 1983 by Shumiel Kuyenov, a dayereh player from Queens.

Cuisine

Central Asian-style dumpling soup called shurboi dushpera or tushpera (left) along with traditional tandoor style bread called non in Bukharan, Tajik, and Uzbek (right)

Bukharan cuisine consists of many unique dishes, distinctly influenced by ethnic dishes historically and currently found along the Silk Road and many parts of Central and even Southeast Asia. Shish kabob, or shashlik, as it is often referred to in Russian, are popular, made of chicken, beef or lamb. Pulled noodles, often thrown into a hearty stew of meat and vegetables known as lagman, are similar in style to Chinese lamian, also traditionally served in a meat broth. Samsa, pastries filled with spiced meat or vegetables, are baked in a unique, hollowed out tandoor oven, and greatly resemble the preparation and shape of Indian samosas.

The Bukharians' Jewish identity was always preserved in the kitchen. "Even though we were in exile from Jerusalem, we observed kashruth," said Isak Masturov, another owner of Cheburechnaya. "We could not go to restaurants, so we had to learn to cook for our own community.[59]

Plov is a very popular slow-cooked rice dish spiced with cumin and containing carrots, and in some varieties, chick peas or raisins, and often topped with beef or lamb. Another popular dish is baksh which consists of rice, beef and liver cut into small cubes, with cilantro, which adds a shade of green to the rice once it's been cooked. Baklava is also a popular dish in Bukharan Jewish communities. It is believed that baklava (paklava) was accustomed by Bukharan Jews from Persian cuisine. Most Bukharan Jewish communities still produce their traditional breads including non (lepyoshka in Russian), a circular bread with a flat center that has multiple pattern of designs, topped with black and regular sesame seeds, and the other, called non toki, bears the dry and crusty features of traditional Jewish matzah, but with a distinctly wheatier taste.

After Sabbath synagogue service, Bukharan Jews often eat steamed eggs and sweet potatoes followed by a dish of fish such as carp. Next comes the main meal called oshesvo.

Genetics

A 2013 genetic study of multiple Jewish groups, including Bukharan Jews, found that Bukharan Jews clustered closely with Jewish communities from the Middle East and the Caucasus such as Iranian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, Kurdish Jews and Iraqi Jews, as well as other Middle Eastern and West Asian people including Kurds, Iranians, Armenians, Syrians, Druze and did not cluster with their neighbours.[60]

Notable Bukharan Jews

Afghanistan

  • Zablon Simintov, widely regarded as last remaining Jew in Afghanistan, evacuated to Israel in 2021

United Kingdom

Israel

United States

Other

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "In Bukhara, 10,000 Jewish Graves but Just 150 Jews". The New York Times. 7 April 2018.
  2. ^ Ido, Shinji (June 15, 2017). "The Vowel System of Jewish Bukharan Tajik: With Special Reference to the Tajik Vowel Chain Shift". Journal of Jewish Languages. 5 (1): 81–103. doi:10.1163/22134638-12340078. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d Zand, Michael (1989). "BUKHARA vii. Bukharan Jews". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica, Volume IV/5: Brick–Burial II. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 530–545. ISBN 978-0-71009-128-4.
  4. ^ a b Ehrlich, M. Avrum, ed. (2009). "Caucasus and Central Asia". Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 1124. Bukharan Jews spoke a dialect of Tajik referred to as Bukhori or Judeo-Tajik, which is still used by Bukharan Jews today.
  5. ^ Ido, Shinji (2017). "The Vowel System of Jewish Bukharan Tajik: With Special Reference to the Tajik Vowel Chain Shift". Journal of Jewish Languages. 5 (1): 85. doi:10.1163/22134638-12340078. The term 'the Jewish dialect of Tajik' is often used interchangeably with such terms as Judeo-Tadzhik, Judeo-Tajik, Bukhori, Bukhari, Bukharic, Bukharan, Bukharian, and Bukharit (Cooper 2012:284) in the literature.
  6. ^ a b Goodman, Peter. "Bukharian Jews find homes on Long Island", Newsday, September 2004.
  7. ^ Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan
  8. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Aboda Zara, 31b, and Rashi
  9. ^ Ochildiev, D; R. Pinkhasov, I. Kalontarov. A History and Culture of the Bukharian Jews, Roshnoyi-Light, New York, 2007.
  10. ^ "The Jewish Palate: The Bukharian Jews". The Jerusalem Post.
  11. ^ Abraham N. Poliak, Uzbekistan, Encyclopedia Judaica, 2nd ed., 2007, volume 20 pp.447-448,447.
  12. ^ "Bukharan Jews".
  13. ^ "Wandering Jew: Bukhara, the ancient silk way city". The Jerusalem Post.
  14. ^ "Bukharan Jews".
  15. ^ Glueck, Grace (6 August 1999). "DESIGN REVIEW; when Russia Uncovered Exotic Jewish Cultures - the New York Times". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2017-09-17.
  16. ^ Cooper, Alanna (December 7, 2012). Bukharan Jews and the Dynamics of Global Judaism. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253006554.
  17. ^ Iran & the Caucasus Vol. 9, No. 2 (2005), pp. 257-272
  18. ^ "Bukharan Jews – History and Cultural Relations", everyculture.com website. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
  19. ^ Malikov A. Arminius Vambery and the urban culture of Samarkand In: Orpheus Noster, Vol. 14, no. 4, 2022, p.97-108
  20. ^ Meindorf (1975). The Travel from Orenburg to Bukhara. p. 96-97.
  21. ^ "Bukharan Jews of Central Asia". Geni. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  22. ^ SHNIDMAN, RONEN (October 19, 2011). "Jews far and wide". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 15, 2023.
  23. ^ Cooper, Alanna (2012). Bukharian Jews. Indiana University Press. p. 60.
  24. ^ Fuzailoff, Giora. "Rabbinic Succession in Bukhara 1790-1930". JewishGen.
  25. ^ Ochildiev, D.; Pinkhasov, R.; Kalontarov, I. (2007). A History and Culture of the Bukharian Jews. New York: Roshnoyi-Light. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-893552-09-8.
  26. ^ "Rabbi Yosef HaMaaravi Mamon". geni.com. 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-12-22.
  27. ^ Miller, Beverly (2014-03-01). "USA 829 Newsletter". UNITED SCENIC ARTISTS • Local USA 829 • IATSE • VOLUME 15 • ISSUE 3.
  28. ^ Dymshits, Valery; Zwolle, Waanders Uitgevers; Emelyanenko, Tatjana; Netherlands), Joods Historisch Museum (Amsterdam (1998). Facing West: Oriental Jews of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Antique Collectors Club Limited. ISBN 978-90-400-9216-9.
  29. ^ Thrower, James (2004). The Religious History of Central Asia from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-6417-9.
  30. ^ Goldberg, Harvey E. (1996). Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-21041-8.
  31. ^ Pinkhasov, Peter. "The History of Bukharian Jews", Bukharian Jewish Global Portal website, p. 2. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
  32. ^ a b c d e Wager, Eliyahu (1988). Bukharan Quarter. The Jerusalem Publishing House. pp. 207–201. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  33. ^ a b c d e Eylon, Lili (2011). "Focus on Israel: Jerusalem: Architecture in the late Ottoman Period: The Bukharan Quarter". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  34. ^ Shaked, Shaul; Netzar, Amnon (2003). איראנו-יודאיקה, כרך ה: לחקר פרס והיהדית [Irano-Judaica, Part V: Studies Relating to Jewish Contacts with Persian Culture Throughout the Ages]. מכון בן צבי לחקר קהילות ישראל במזרח. p. 199. ISBN 9789652350954.
  35. ^ a b "Bukharim – Beit Yisrael". Jerusalem Municipality. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  36. ^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1979). עיר בראי תקופה: ירושלים החדשה בראשיתה [A City Reflected in its Times: New Jerusalem – The Beginnings] (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Publications. p. 253.
  37. ^ Housing in Jewish Palestine. Jewish Agency for Israel. 1938. p. 26.
  38. ^ https://archive.ph/20120802121958/http://www.jerusalem.muni.il/jer_sys/picture/atarim/Toursite_form_atarEng.asp
  39. ^ a b c d e f Grace under fire The Jerusalem Post. 8 January 2009
  40. ^ The Moussaieff Synagogue, a Relic of Bukhara in Jerusalem, Haaretz
  41. ^ a b Loy, Thomas (2022). "Cross-border biographies: representations of the "Bukharan" Jewish self in changing cultural and political settings". Journal of Modern Jewish Studies. 22 (3): 4. doi:10.1080/14725886.2022.2090240. S2CID 250232378.
  42. ^ a b Loy, Thomas (2022). "Cross-border biographies: representations of the "Bukharan" Jewish self in changing cultural and political settings". Journal of Modern Jewish Studies. 22 (3): 5. doi:10.1080/14725886.2022.2090240. S2CID 250232378.
  43. ^ Cooper, Alanna (December 7, 2012). Bukharan Jews and the Dynamics of Global Judaism. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253006554.
  44. ^ "Rift over root differences remains unmended for Uzbek Jews". 31 December 2006.
  45. ^ Gitelman, Zvi (Apr 22, 2001). A Century of Ambivalence, Second Expanded Edition: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press. pp. 144–145. ISBN 9780253013736.
  46. ^ Zand, Michael. "BUKHARA vii. Bukharan Jews". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  47. ^ "Bukharan Jews".
  48. ^ a b Blady, Ken (2000). Jewish Communities in Exotic Places. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 185.
  49. ^ Cooper, Alanna E. (2003). "Looking Out for One's Own Identity: Central Asian Jews in the Wake of Communism". In Kosmin, Barry Alexander; Kovács, András (eds.). New Jewish Identities: Contemporary Europe and Beyond. Central European University Press. pp. 189–210. ISBN 963-9241-62-8.
  50. ^ "New Synagogue Opens In Dushanbe". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 5 May 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Bukharan Broadway":
  52. ^ Moskin, Julia. "The Silk Road Leads to Queens" The New York Times, January 18, 2006.
  53. ^ Popik, Barry. "Buharlem or Bukharlem (Bukhara + Harlem)". www.barrypopik.com. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
  54. ^ "Heritage". bucharianlife.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  55. ^ a b Ruby, Walter."The Bukharian Lobby" Archived February 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The Jewish Week, October 31, 2007.
  56. ^ For examples see men and women coats as well as children's clothing from Bukhara, ["Dress Codes: Revealing the Jewish Wardrobe" "שפת לבוש". Archived from the original on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2014-07-23.] exhibition, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, March 11, 2014 – October 18, 2014
  57. ^ Kippah Couture, The Forward, Angela Himsel, September 29, 2006.
  58. ^ "Shashmaqam". The Wandering Muse. Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2012-01-05.
  59. ^ NYT,1-18-2006 The Silk Road Leads to Queens
  60. ^ Behar, Doron; Metspalu, Mait; Baran, Yael; Kopelman, Naama; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Gladstein, Ariella; Tzur, Shay; Sahakyan, Havhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Tambets, Kristiina (2013-12-01). "No Evidence from Genome-Wide Data of a Khazar Origin for the Ashkenazi Jews". Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints. 85 (6).
  61. ^ "A Silk Road Bride Rides a London Taxi". Haaretz. 2015-01-27.

Bibliography

  • Ricardo Garcia-Carcel: La Inquisición, Biblioteca El Sol. Biblioteca Básica de Historia. Grupo Anaya, Madrid, Spain 1990. ISBN 84-7969-011-9.
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Bukharan Jews
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