For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for Bucellarii.

Bucellarii

Bucellarii (the Latin plural of Bucellarius; literally "biscuit–eater",[1] Greek: Βουκελλάριοι) were formations of escort troops used in the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity.[2][a] They were employed by high-ranking military figures (such as Flavius Aetius and Belisarius) or civil office-holders.[2][3] Their name is derived from the type of bread rations eaten by these troops, so-called buccellatum.[2] The term bucellarii came into common use during the reign of Emperor Honorius (r. 395–423).[2]

According to Jon Coulston, one bucellarii regiment is attested in the Notitia Dignitatum.[2] The creation of the bucellarii reflected an increase in the "use of armed retinues by public officials" in the Roman Empire.[2] These armies were, therefore, associated with the decline of imperial authority because they demonstrated that it no longer had the monopoly of violence.[4][5] The bucellarius had close ties with its commander, supporting him in his quarrel with other commanders and even against the Empire, court, and emperor. This is shown by the army of Heraclian, which was used in his attempt to seize Roman Italy from Emperor Honorius.[6]

Coulston notes that the bucellarii provided the best cavalry in 5th and 6th century Roman armies, and were "recruited from Romans, Persians, Goths, and Huns, amongst others".[2] The recruitment of soldiers of barbarian origin is well-documented as evidenced in the description of the army inherited by Constantius' widow Galla Placidia.[6] The poet Claudian also described the bucellarii as an army of barbarians under the employ military figures, politicians, and warlords such as Stilicho, Aetius, and the praetorian prefect Rufinus.[5]

The bucellarii generally received the highest salaries and were armed with the best equipment from the empire's factories.[7] Some sources state that the bucellarii were mercenaries and describe their leaders as soldiers of fortune.[4] This was particularly the case for the military companies that operated in Italy from the sixth to seventh centuries.[4]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ They are also described as "militarily organized bodyguards" or "elite defence forces".[3]

Citations

  1. ^ Dixon & Southern 1996, p. 72.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Coulston 2018, p. 270.
  3. ^ a b Prinzing 2008, p. 662.
  4. ^ a b c France, John (2008). Mercenaries and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages : Proceedings of a Conference Held at University of Wales, Swansea, 7th-9th July 2005. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 189. ISBN 9789004164475.
  5. ^ a b Fields, Nic (2014). AD69: Emperors, Armies and Anarchy. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781781591888.
  6. ^ a b Rich, John; Shipley, Graham (2002). War and Society in the Roman World. London: Routledge. p. 269. ISBN 0203075544.
  7. ^ Heather 2018, p. 54.

General and cited sources

{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
Bucellarii
Listen to this article

This browser is not supported by Wikiwand :(
Wikiwand requires a browser with modern capabilities in order to provide you with the best reading experience.
Please download and use one of the following browsers:

This article was just edited, click to reload
This article has been deleted on Wikipedia (Why?)

Back to homepage

Please click Add in the dialog above
Please click Allow in the top-left corner,
then click Install Now in the dialog
Please click Open in the download dialog,
then click Install
Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list,
then click Install
{{::$root.activation.text}}

Install Wikiwand

Install on Chrome Install on Firefox
Don't forget to rate us

Tell your friends about Wikiwand!

Gmail Facebook Twitter Link

Enjoying Wikiwand?

Tell your friends and spread the love:
Share on Gmail Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Buffer

Our magic isn't perfect

You can help our automatic cover photo selection by reporting an unsuitable photo.

This photo is visually disturbing This photo is not a good choice

Thank you for helping!


Your input will affect cover photo selection, along with input from other users.

X

Get ready for Wikiwand 2.0 🎉! the new version arrives on September 1st! Don't want to wait?