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Battle of Çamurlu

Battle of Çamurlu
Part of the Ottoman Interregnum
Date5 July 1413
Location
Çamurlu, near modern-day Samokov, Bulgaria[2]
Result

Mehmed's victory

  • End of the Ottoman Interregnum; reunification of the Ottoman state
  • Mehmed becomes the sole ruler
Belligerents
Mehmed's forces
Serbian Despotate
Dulkadirids[1]
Musa's forces
Commanders and leaders
Mehmed Çelebi
Stefan Lazarević
Musa Çelebi  Executed
Strength
10,000 Unknown

The Battle of Çamurlu was fought on July 5, 1413, between Musa Çelebi and Mehmed Çelebi, both sons of Bayezid I, as the last conflict of the Ottoman civil war known as the Ottoman Interregnum. The battle decided which son of Bayezid I would finally reunite the Ottoman Empire, with Mehmed Çelebi becoming Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire.

Mehmed's invasion and final battle

After suppressing Cüneyt Bey's revolt, Mehmed Çelebi gathered his troops at Ankara. With his Dulkadirid father-in-law, he began planning an invasion of Rumelia (the European part of the empire and Musa's stronghold) to defeat his brother, Musa. On his march to Bursa, Mehmed gained contingents of troops from western Anatolia. Upon reaching the straits, Mehmed's army was given passage by ships loaned from Manuel II Palaiologos, who also supplied Mehmed with some troops.

Mehmed marched his army from Constantinople to Edirne. He then marched onto Kosovo to join forces with his ally (and also half-uncle) Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević, along with receiving information from Ewrenos concerning possible defections during the battle.[3]

Both armies met at Çamurlu, near modern-day Samokov, south east of Sofia, Bulgaria. Initially, Musa appeared to be winning the battle despite the defection of Pasha Yigit and Sinan Bey of Trikkala.[3] However, the tide of the battle turned in favor of Mehmed, with the help of Serb and Byzantine troops, and Musa Çelebi fled.[4]

Aftermath

Following the battle, Musa Çelebi was captured and strangled.[5] This battle re-established the unity of the Ottoman state, under the control of Mehmed I.[6]

Notes

  1. ^ "FETRET DEVRİ Ankara Savaşı'ndan sonra Yıldırım Bayezid'in oğullarının birbirleriyle saltanat mücadelesi yaptıkları dönem (1402-1413)".
  2. ^ International encyclopaedia of Islamic dynasties, Ed. Nagendra Kr Singh, (Anmol Publications Pvt.Ltd., 2005), 77.
  3. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 7, Ed. C. E. Bosworth, E. Van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs and Ch. Pellat, (E.J.Brill, 1993), 699.
  4. ^ Bertold Spuler, Frank Ronald Charles Bagley, Hans Joachim Kissling, The Last Great Muslim Empires: History of the Muslim World, (Markus Weiner Publishers, 1996), 14.
  5. ^ Nicol, Donald MacGillivray, The last centuries of Byzantium, 1261–1453, (Cambridge University Press, 1972), 327.
  6. ^ First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936, Ed. M. Th Houtsma, (BRILL, 1993), 658.

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Battle of Çamurlu
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