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Batnoam sarcophagus

Batnoam inscription

The Batnoam inscription is a Phoenician inscription (KAI 11 and TSSI III 26) on a sarcophagus. It is dated to c. 450-425 BCE.

It was published in Maurice Dunand's Fouilles de Byblos (volume I, 1926-1932, numbers 1142, plate XXVIII).[1]

Text of the inscription

The inscription reads:[2][3]

B’RN ZN ’NK BTN‘M In this coffin I, Batno‘am,
’M MLK ‘ZB‘L MLK GBL   mother of King Azbaal, King of Byblos,
BN PLṬB‘L KHN B‘LT     son of Pilletbaal, Priest of Baalat
ŠKBT       lie,
BSWT WMR’Š ‘LY wearing a garment and a head-piece on me,
WMḤSM ḤRṢ LPY   and a muzzle[4] of gold on my mouth
KM ’Š LMLKYT ’Š KN LPNY     like those of the queens who were before me.



  1. ^ Dunand, Maurice (1939). Fouilles de Byblos: Tome 1er, 1926-1932 [The Byblos excavations, Tome 1, 1926–1932]. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (in French). Vol. 24. Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner.
    —— (1937). Fouilles de Byblos, Tome 1er, 1926–1932 (Atlas) [The Byblos excavations, Tome 1, 1926–1932 (Atlas)]. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (in French). Vol. 24. Paris: Librarie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner.
  2. ^ Donner, Herbert; Rölig, Wolfgang (2002). Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften (5 ed.). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. p. I, 2.
  3. ^ Krahmalkov, Charles R. (2000). Phoenician-Punic Dictionary. Leuven: Peeters / Departement Oosterse Studies. ISBN 90-429-0770-3.
  4. ^ maḥsom: a funerary object to seal the lips of the deceased.
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Batnoam sarcophagus
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